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Atherosclerosis in carotid arteries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932352/local-vascular-gene-therapy-with-apolipoprotein-a-i-to-promote-regression-of-atherosclerosis
#1
Bradley K Wacker, Nagadhara Dronadula, Jingwan Zhang, David A Dichek
OBJECTIVE: Gene therapy, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall, could potentially prevent atherosclerotic lesion growth and promote atherosclerosis regression. Previously, we reported that a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in carotid endothelium of fat-fed rabbits reduced early (4 weeks) atherosclerotic lesion growth. Here, we tested whether the same HDAd-delivered to the existing carotid atherosclerotic lesions-could promote regression...
December 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932239/the-therapeutic-effect-of-rosuvastatin-and-propylthiouracil-on-ameliorating-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-rabbit-aortic-atherosclerosis-and-stiffness
#2
Pao-Yuan Lin, Fan-Yen Lee, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Kuan-Hung Chen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Pei-Hsun Sung, Sarah Chua, Sheung-Fat Ko, Yung-Lung Chen, Shun-Cheng Wu, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Hon-Kan Yip, Pei-Lin Shao
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that arteriosclerosis-augmented aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and -impaired vasorelaxation were attenuated by rosuvastatin (Rosu) and propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 [high-cholesterol-diet (HCD) for 8weeks], group 3 [HCD-Rosu (20mg/kg/day administration after 4-week HFD for 4weeks)], and group 4 [HCD-PTU (0.1% PTU in drinking water), the treatment course as group 3]...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931554/a-study-to-derive-distribution-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-to-determine-its-correlation-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-asymptomatic-nationwide-indian-population-score-india
#3
Ravi R Kasliwal, Manish Bansal, Nagaraj Desai, Bhavesh Kotak, Ammar Raza, Hardik Vasnawala, Amit Kumar
BACKGROUND: There is presently no data to describe normal distribution of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), an established measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in Indian subjects. METHODS: In this multi-centric study, 1229 subjects with age ≥30 years and no previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) underwent CVD risk factor assessment and CIMT measurement. Mean far wall common carotid artery IMT was measured on both sides and averaged. RESULTS: Mean age of the subjects was 48...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927880/serum-osteoprotegrin-opg-in-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
A N Kiani, P Aukrust, T Ueland, I Hollan, E Barr, L S Magder, M Petri
INTRODUCTION: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. It has recently been demonstrated that OPG is produced by a variety of tissues, including the cardiovascular system (heart, arteries, veins), lung, kidney, immune tissues, and bone. The OPG-RANKL signaling pathway is strongly related to vascular calcification. We determined the association of this biomarker with subclinical atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). METHODS: We measured OPG and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) carotid plaque) in 166 SLE patients (91% female, 64% Caucasian, 31% African American, 5% others, mean age 45 years)...
December 6, 2016: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927724/myeloid-bmal1-deletion-increases-monocyte-recruitment-and-worsens-atherosclerosis
#5
Mingyu Huo, Yuhong Huang, Dan Qu, Hongsong Zhang, Wing Tak Wong, Ajay Chawla, Yu Huang, Xiao Yu Tian
BMAL1, the nonredundant transcription factor in the core molecular clock, has been implicated in cardiometabolic diseases in mice and humans. BMAL1 controls the cyclic trafficking of Ly6c(hi) monocytes to sites of acute inflammation. Myeloid deficiency of Bmal1 also worsens chronic inflammation in diet-induced obesity. We studied whether myeloid Bmal1 deletion promotes atherosclerosis by enhancing monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic lesion. By generating Bmal1(FloxP/FloxP);LysM(Cre) mice on the Apoe(-/-) background, we showed that Bmal1 deletion in myeloid cells increased the size of atherosclerotic lesion...
December 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923782/comparing-arterial-function-parameters-for-the-prediction-of-coronary-heart-disease-events-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#6
Elizabeth K Hom, Daniel A Duprez, David R Jacobs, David A Bluemke, Lyndia C Brumback, Joseph F Polak, Carmen A Peralta, Philip Greenland, Sheryl L Magzamen, João A C Lima, Alban Redheuil, David M Herrington, James H Stein, Dhananjay Vaidya, Pamela Ouyang, Joel D Kaufman
Arterial dysfunction has been linked to decline in cardiac function and increased risk of cardiovascular disease events. We calculated the value of arterial function, measured at baseline (2000-2002), in predicting time to first coronary heart disease (CHD) event (median follow-up, 10.2 years) among participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Measures included the following: C1 and C2, derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis from the radial artery blood pressure waveform obtained by tonometry (n = 6,336); carotid distensibility and Young's elastic modulus at the carotid artery, derived from carotid artery ultrasonography (n = 6,531 and 6,528); and aortic distensibility, measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (n = 3,677)...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920495/card9-as-a-potential-target-in-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Matthew R Peterson, Samantha E Haller, Jun Ren, Sreejayan Nair, Guanglong He
Systemic inflammation and localized macrophage infiltration have been implicated in cardiovascular pathologies, including coronary artery disease, carotid atherosclerosis, heart failure, obesity-associated heart dysfunction, and cardiac fibrosis. Inflammation induces macrophage infiltration and activation and release of cytokines and chemokines, causing tissue dysfunction by instigating a positive feedback loop that further propagates inflammation. Cytosolic adaptor caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) is a protein expressed primarily by dendritic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, in which it mediates cytokine secretion...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915034/atheroprotective-role-of-caveolin-1-and-enos-in-an-innovative-transplantation-model-is-mainly-mediated-by-local-effects
#8
Johannes Mierke, Marian Christoph, Christian Pfluecke, Stefanie Jellinghaus, Carsten Wunderlich, Ruth H Strasser, Karim Ibrahim, David M Poitz
Endothelial dysfunction is crucial in the initiation of atherosclerosis, which is associated with a lack of nitric oxide. The endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is responsible for constitutive synthesis of NO and inhibited by caveolin-1 (Cav1). In the current study, we examined the influence on intima formation through single and combined deletion of eNOS and Cav1 with a focus on differentiation of local and systemic effects. A sex-mismatch transplantation of denudated aortae from female C57BL/6n (WT), Cav1(-/-), eNOS(-/-) and Cav1(-/-)/eNOS(-/-) (C/e(--/--)) mice in common carotid artery of male WT mice was performed...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914134/association-between-lumbar-bone-mineral-density-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-korean-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-of-healthy-twin-study
#9
Jinyoung Shin, Joo Hyun Park, Yun Mi Song, Kayoung Lee, Joohon Sung
Bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be associated with atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the association between lumbar BMD and the segments of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in Korean adults, with consideration of sex and menopause status. Among 1,679 Korean adults who enrolled in a Healthy Twin Study, 723 men, 690 premenopausal women, and 266 postmenopausal women measured the CIMT at the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness (BIF-IMT), internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) using B-mode ultrasound and lumbar BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913444/correlation-of-retinal-arterial-wall-thickness-with-atherosclerosis-predictors-in-type-2-diabetes-without-clinical-retinopathy
#10
Shigeta Arichika, Akihito Uji, Tomoaki Murakami, Kiyoshi Suzuma, Norimoto Gotoh, Nagahisa Yoshimura
AIMS: To evaluate retinal arterial wall thickness (WT) using high-resolution retinal imaging in patients with type 2 diabetes and assess its correlation with risk factors for arteriosclerosis. METHODS: Outer diameter, inner diameter and WT of the retinal artery were measured using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in 28 patients with type 2 diabetes without clinically apparent diabetic retinopathy and normal volunteers. Laboratory values and intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid artery were measured...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908279/co-existing-intracranial-and-extracranial-carotid-artery-atherosclerotic-plaques-and-recurrent-stroke-risk-a-three-dimensional-multicontrast-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-study
#12
Yilan Xu, Chun Yuan, Zechen Zhou, Le He, Donghua Mi, Rui Li, Yuanyuan Cui, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, Gaifen Liu, Zhuozhao Zheng, Xihai Zhao
BACKGROUND: As a systemic disease, atherosclerosis commonly affects intracranial and extracranial carotid arteries simultaneously which is defined as co-existing plaques. Previous studies demonstrated that co-existing atherosclerotic diseases are significantly associated with ischemic cerebrovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of co-existing intracranial and extracranial carotid atherosclerotic plaques and their relationships with recurrent stroke by using 3D multi-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) vessel wall imaging...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907041/carotid-atherosclerosis-cerebrospinal-fluid-pressure-and-retinal-vessel-diameters-the-asymptomatic-polyvascular-abnormalities-in-community-study
#13
Jing Yan Yang, Xuan Yang, Yang Li, Jie Xu, Yong Zhou, An Xin Wang, Xiang Gao, Liang Xu, Shou Ling Wu, Wen Bin Wei, Xing Quan Zhao, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To assess relationships between carotid artery atherosclerosis and retinal arteriolar and venular diameters. METHODS: The community-based longitudinal Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community Study (APAC) included a sub-population of the Kailuan study which consisted of 101,510 employees and retirees of a coal mining industry. Based on the Chinese National Census 2010 and excluding individuals with history of cerebrovascular ischemic events, 4004 individuals were included into the APAC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905995/cdkn2b-methylation-is-associated-with-carotid-artery-calcification-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#14
Shuyu Zhou, Yumeng Zhang, Li Wang, Zhizhong Zhang, Biyang Cai, Keting Liu, Hao Zhang, Minhui Dai, Lingli Sun, Xiaomeng Xu, Huan Cai, Xinfeng Liu, Guangming Lu, Gelin Xu
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B (CDKN2A/2B) near chromosome 9p21 have been associated with both atherosclerosis and artery calcification, but the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. Considering that CDKN2A/2B is a frequently reported site for DNA methylation, this study aimed to evaluate whether carotid artery calcification (CarAC) is related to methylation levels of CDKN2A/2B in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: DNA methylation levels of CDKN2A/2B were measured in 322 ischemic stroke patients using peripheral blood leukocytes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905124/assessment-of-early-atherosclerosis-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-children-with-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#15
Rahmi Özdemir, Hüseyin Anil Korkmaz, Mehmet Küçük, Cem Karadeniz, Timur Meşe, Behzat Özkan
AIM: We analysed 25 children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency who received glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid treatment for at least 12 months to determine the effects of the disease and its treatment on vascular structures and ventricular function. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with 21-hydroxylase-deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and 25 control subjects were enrolled into this observational, cross-sectional study. The patients were investigated in terms of fasting blood glucose and insulin; fasting serum lipid profile; serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone; dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate; androstenedione; and adrenocorticotropic hormone...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904029/coronary-artery-calcium-and-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-and-plaque-clinical-use-in-need-of-clarification
#16
Maryam Zaid, Akira Fujiyoshi, Aya Kadota, Robert D Abbott, Katsuyuki Miura
Atherosclerosis begins in early life and has a long latent period prior to onset of clinical disease. Measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, therefore, may have important implications for research and clinical practice of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In this review, we focus on coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque as many population-based studies have investigated these measures due to their non-invasive features and ease of administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901176/different-methods-of-calculating-ankle-brachial-index-in-mid-elderly-men-and-women-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#17
M Miname, I M Bensenor, P A Lotufo
The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)...
2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891422/panvascular-disease-in-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-treated-with-endovascular-simultaneous-bilateral-carotid-stenting
#18
Anand Alurkar, Lakshmi Sudha Prasanna Karanam, Shripal Shah, Pandurang Mare
Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 500 individuals. We report a case of 32-year-old female with FH, previously not on any treatment, who presented with recurrent bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) territory strokes and dyspnoea on exertion due to severe panvascualar disease involving descending aorta, innominate, subclavian, common carotid, internal carotid and coronary vessels. Her complete clinical work up was done and was started on lipid lowering drug treatment and low calorie diet...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891375/flow-mediated-dilatation-carotid-intima-media-thickness-ankle-brachial-pressure-index-and-pulse-pressure-in-young-male-post-myocardial-infarction-patients-in-india
#19
Nikhil Gupta, Subhash Giri, Vinita Rathi, Gajender Singh Ranga
INTRODUCTION: Due to increase in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) at a younger age, we should try to diagnose atherosclerotic process and population at risk, at the earliest. Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD), Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABI) are probable markers for early atherosclerosis and may be useful in coronary risk stratification. AIM: To compare and correlate the FMD, CIMT, ABI and Pulse Pressure (PP) in young male patients of Myocardial Infarction (MI) with age and sex matched healthy controls...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887791/cryptogenic-stroke-and-nonstenosing-intracranial-calcified-atherosclerosis
#20
Hooman Kamel, Gino Gialdini, Hediyeh Baradaran, Ashley E Giambrone, Babak B Navi, Michael P Lerario, James K Min, Costantino Iadecola, Ajay Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Because some cryptogenic strokes may result from large-artery atherosclerosis that goes unrecognized as it causes <50% luminal stenosis, we compared the prevalence of nonstenosing intracranial atherosclerotic plaques ipsilateral to cryptogenic cerebral infarcts versus the unaffected side using imaging biomarkers of calcium burden. METHODS: In a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients with cerebral infarction limited to the territory of one internal carotid artery (ICA)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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