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Atherosclerosis in carotid arteries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930197/red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-inversely-relates-to-mri-assessed-carotid-plaque-lipid-core-burden-in-elders-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#1
Núria Bargalló, Rosa Gilabert, Edwin-Saúl Romero-Mamani, Montserrat Cofán, Philip C Calder, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914371/serum-cystatin-c-is-associated-with-kidney-function-but-not-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-or-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Patricia Garcia-Garcia, Raquel Castejon, Pablo Tutor-Ureta, R A Silvestre, Susana Mellor-Pita, Carlos Jimenez-Ortiz, Miguel Yebra-Bango
Cystatin C (CysC) is a protein considered as an excellent marker of renal function, and it has been suggested as an independent predictor of cardiovascular (CV) risk. We evaluated the association of serum CysC with renal function, CV risk factors, inflammation, and subclinical atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients. Sixty-one SLE female patients were selected according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 60 ml/min/1.73m(2). Renal function parameters, SLE specific factors, CV risk factors, and inflammatory markers were assessed...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904229/eosinophil-cationic-protein-carotid-plaque-and-incidence-of-stroke
#3
Johannes Sundström, Martin Söderholm, Yan Borné, Jan Nilsson, Margaretha Persson, Gerd Östling, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander, Gunnar Engström
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) is a marker of eosinophil activity and degranulation, which has been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between ECP, carotid plaque, and incidence of stroke in a prospective population-based cohort. METHODS: The subjects participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study between 1991 and 1994. A total of 4706 subjects with no history of stroke were included (40% men; mean age, 57...
September 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903431/detection-of-specific-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-cytomegalovirus-antigens-in-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-in-a-chinese-population
#4
Jiachao Cao, Yumin Mao, Bo Dong, Wei Guan, Jia Shi, Suinuan Wang
To explore the relationship between certain pathogens, such as chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), and carotid atherosclerosis (AS) in a Chinese population.Twenty-five carotid atherosclerotic stenosis patients from the Beijing Tiantan Hospital (affiliated with Capital Medical University) participated in the study. After undergoing digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or computed tomography angiography (CTA), the degree of carotid artery stenosis was over 70% in all cases, and the patients underwent carotid endarterectomy...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903402/impact-of-chronic-methamphetamine-treatment-on-the-atherosclerosis-formation-in-apoe-mice-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#5
Pengfei Zhu, Lun Li, Bo Gao, Mingjing Zhang, Yuting Wang, Ye Gu, Liqun Hu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that methamphetamine could promote atherosclerosis (AS) in ApoE-/- mice fed normal chow. We herein observed the impact of methamphetamine on AS in ApoE-/- mice fed a high cholesterol diet and explored the potential mechanisms. RESULTS AND MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ApoE-/- mice fed a high cholesterol diet were treated with saline (NS, n = 5) or methamphetamine [8 mg/kg/day (M8, n = 6) through intraperitoneal injection] for 24 weeks...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902813/-surgical-decision-making-during-treatment-of-a-patient-with-multifocal-atherosclerosis-based-on-intraoperative-epiaortic-scanning
#6
A V Marchenko, P A Mialiuk, A S Vronskiĭ
The article deals with a clinical case report regarding surgical management of a patient presenting with multifocal atherosclerosis. Taking into consideration critical stenoses of the anterior interventricular artery (80%) and circumflex artery (80%), as well as subocclusion of the left internal carotid artery and stenosis of the right internal carotid artery (60%), there were high risks for intraoperative cerebral circulation impairment. It was decided to perform a two-stage operation on the coronary and carotid beds...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890907/functional-ex-vivo-imaging-of-arterial-cellular-recruitment-and-lipid-extravasation
#7
Emiel P C van der Vorst, Sanne L Maas, Almudena Ortega-Gomez, Jeroen M M Hameleers, Mariaelvy Bianchini, Yaw Asare, Oliver Soehnlein, Yvonne Döring, Christian Weber, Remco T A Megens
The main purpose of this sophisticated and highly versatile method is to visualize and quantify structural vessel wall properties, cellular recruitment, and lipid/dextran extravasation under physiological conditions in living arteries. This will be of interest for a broad range of researchers within the field of inflammation, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and even the pharmaceutical industry. Currently, many researchers are using in vitro techniques to evaluate cellular recruitment, like transwell or flow chamber systems with cultured cells, with unclear physiological comparability...
June 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890061/cerebral-protection-with-a-temporary-ascending-aorta-external-carotid-artery-bypass-during-common-carotid-artery-revascularization
#8
Murat Ugurlucan, Yilmaz Onal, Didem Melis Oztas, Cagla Canbay, Ibrahim Demir, Omer Ali Sayin, Ozgur Kilickesmez, Mehmet Semih Cakir, Kubilay Aydin, Ufuk Alpagut
Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease and multi-arterial involvement is common. Involvement of all of the supra-aortic arteries may occur in the same patient making cerebral revascularization challenging. In this report, we present complete supra-aortic revascularization, i.e revascularization of the bilateral common carotid and subclavian arteries in a 51-year-old male patient with occluded brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery and proximally stenotic left common carotid artery. A temporary ascending aorta to left external carotid artery bypass provided meticulous cerebral protection with pulsatile cerebral flow in the presence of a proximal arterial clamp; hence, a neurologicly uneventful procedure during bilateral common carotid artery revascularization...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887805/quantitative-analysis-of-effects-of-hemodynamic-stress-on-temporal-variations-of-cardiac-phases-in-models-of-human-carotid-bulbs
#9
Tatsunori Saho, Hideo Onishi
In this study, we evaluated the hemodynamics of carotid artery models with carotid bulbs of various sizes using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the Fluent CFD software. The oscillatory shear index (OSI) and flow velocity distribution were evaluated in carotid models without a carotid bulb and with carotid bulbs of known geometry (major axis of 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 mm; carotid bifurcation angle of 50°). Furthermore, the diameters of the common carotid artery, the external carotid artery, and the internal carotid artery were defined as 7...
September 8, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884979/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-the-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-in-epileptic-patients
#10
Qilun Lai, Chunhong Shen, Yang Zheng, Yinxi Zhang, Yi Guo, Meiping Ding
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been reported that taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT) as a surrogate factor for atherosclerosis in epileptic patients. METHODS: We searched NCBI (PubMed), ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases for studies of the association between AEDs and CA-IMT in epileptic patients. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool results across studies...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882872/mechanical-activation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-drives-endothelial-dysfunction-at-atheroprone-sites
#11
Shuang Feng, Neil Bowden, Maria Fragiadaki, Celine Souilhol, Sarah Hsiao, Marwa Mahmoud, Scott Allen, Daniela Pirri, Blanca Tardajos Ayllon, Shamima Akhtar, A A Roger Thompson, Hanjoong Jo, Christian Weber, Victoria Ridger, Andreas Schober, Paul C Evans
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis develops near branches and bends of arteries that are exposed to low shear stress (mechanical drag). These sites are characterized by excessive endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and inflammation that promote lesion initiation. The transcription factor HIF1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) is canonically activated by hypoxia and has a role in plaque neovascularization. We studied the influence of shear stress on HIF1α activation and the contribution of this noncanonical pathway to lesion initiation...
September 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882820/high-levels-of-un-switched-memory-b-cells-are-associated-with-better-outcome-in-patients-with-advanced-atherosclerotic-disease
#12
John A L Meeuwsen, Amerik van Duijvenvoorde, Aisha Gohar, Maria O Kozma, Sander M van de Weg, Crystel M Gijsberts, Saskia Haitjema, Harry Björkbacka, Gunilla N Fredrikson, Gert J de Borst, Hester M den Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp, Christoph J Binder, Imo E Hoefer, Saskia C A de Jager
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory lipid disorder and the main underlying pathology of acute ischemic events. Despite a vast amount of data from murine atherosclerosis models, evidence of B-cell involvement in human atherosclerotic disease is limited. We therefore investigated the association of circulating B-cell subtypes with the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events in advanced atherosclerotic disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cohort study consists of 168 patients who were included in the Athero-Express biobank between 2009 and 2011...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881621/connexin40-controls-endothelial-activation-by-dampening-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#13
Jean-Francois Denis, K E Ludwig Scheckenbach, Anna Pfenniger, Merlijn J Meens, Rob Krams, Lucile Miquerol, Steven Taffet, Marc Chanson, Mario Delmar, Brenda R Kwak
Connexins are proteins forming gap junction channels for intercellular communication. Connexin40 (Cx40) is highly expressed by endothelial cells (ECs) of healthy arteries but this expression is lost in ECs overlying atherosclerotic plaques. Low/oscillatory shear stress observed in bends and bifurcations of arteries is atherogenic partly through activation of the pro-inflammatory NFκB pathway in ECs. In this study, we investigated the relation between shear stress, Cx40 and NFκB. Shear stress-modifying casts were placed around carotid arteries of mice expressing eGFP under the Cx40 promoter (Cx40(+/eGFP) )...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877387/recommendations-for-low-grade-carotid-stenosis-follow-up-based-on-a-single-institution-database
#14
Garrett M Bennett, Edward I Bluth, Michael L Larson, Qingyang Luo
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidences and rates of progression of varying degrees of carotid stenosis that do not require intervention according to the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study, the European Carotid Surgery Trial, and the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial, and from this information, to provide evidence-based recommendations for follow-up imaging. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all carotid ultrasound examinations performed at a single institution from January 1995 through April 2015...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866809/how-radiation-influences-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-a-biophysical-approach-in-apoe-formula-see-text-mice
#15
Astrid Kloosterman, Teun van Dillen, Harmen Bijwaard, Sylvia Heeneman, Saske Hoving, Fiona A Stewart, Fieke Dekkers
Atherosclerosis is the development of lipid-laden plaques in arteries and is nowadays considered as an inflammatory disease. It has been shown that high doses of ionizing radiation, as used in radiotherapy, can increase the risk of development or progression of atherosclerosis. To elucidate the effects of radiation on atherosclerosis, we propose a mathematical model to describe radiation-promoted plaque development. This model distinguishes itself from other models by combining plaque initiation and plaque growth, and by incorporating information from biological experiments...
September 2, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865891/serum-ferritin-levels-in-blacks-without-known-cardiovascular-disease-from-the-jackson-heart-study
#16
Obiora Egbuche, Heather R Millard, Benjamin Renelus, Axiyan Maihemuti, Solomon K Musani, Ervin R Fox, Jiankang Liu, Herman A Taylor, Aurelian Bidulescu
There has been conflicting results regarding the role of ferritin, a nonspecific marker of systemic inflammation, in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). We aimed to evaluate the association of serum ferritin with incident CHD, incident stroke, and subclinical measurements of atherosclerosis among blacks. For our prospective study, we utilized data from the Jackson Heart Study. Eligible participants (n = 4,659) who were free from CHD were enrolled in 2000 to 2004. The participants' baseline serum ferritin levels were obtained, and they were followed up for an average of 8 years to identify incident CHD events and incident stroke...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864997/rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics-of-the-utopia-trial-for-preventing-diabetic-atherosclerosis-using-an-sglt2-inhibitor-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-parallel-group-comparative-study
#17
Naoto Katakami, Tomoya Mita, Hidenori Yoshii, Toshihiko Shiraiwa, Tetsuyuki Yasuda, Yosuke Okada, Yutaka Umayahara, Hideaki Kaneto, Takeshi Osonoi, Tsunehiko Yamamoto, Nobuichi Kuribayashi, Kazuhisa Maeda, Hiroki Yokoyama, Keisuke Kosugi, Kentaro Ohtoshi, Isao Hayashi, Satoru Sumitani, Mamiko Tsugawa, Makoto Ohashi, Hideki Taki, Tadashi Nakamura, Satoshi Kawashima, Yasunori Sato, Hirotaka Watada, Iichiro Shimomura
INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia and ameliorate a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the ongoing study described herein is to investigate the preventive effects of tofogliflozin, a potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitor, on the progression of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an established marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as a marker...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862944/exposure-to-violence-and-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-in-mexican-women
#18
Mario H Flores-Torres, Rebekka Lynch, Ruy Lopez-Ridaura, Elsa Yunes, Adriana Monge, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Carlos Cantu-Brito, Arna Hauksdóttir, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Martín Lajous
BACKGROUND: Violence against women has become a global public health threat. Data on the potential impact of exposure to violence on cardiovascular disease are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the association between exposure to violence and subclinical cardiovascular disease in 634 disease-free women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort who responded to violence-related items from the Life Stressor Checklist and underwent measures of carotid artery intima-media thickness in 2012 and 2013...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862936/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-carotid-artery-high-risk-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-chinese-patients-with-cerebrovascular-symptoms-a-chinese-atherosclerosis-risk-evaluation-ii-study
#19
Xihai Zhao, Daniel S Hippe, Rui Li, Gador M Canton, Binbin Sui, Yan Song, Feiyu Li, Yunjing Xue, Jie Sun, Kiyofumi Yamada, Thomas S Hatsukami, Dongxiang Xu, Maoxue Wang, Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture is an important source of ischemic stroke. However, the prevalence of high-risk plaque (HRP) defined as plaques with luminal surface disruption, a lipid-rich necrotic core occupying >40% of the wall, or intraplaque hemorrhage in Chinese population remains unclear. This study uses carotid magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) to investigate HRP prevalence in carotid arteries of Chinese patients with cerebrovascular symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with cerebral ischemic symptoms in the anterior circulation within 2 weeks and carotid plaque determined by ultrasound were recruited and underwent CMRI...
August 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855638/detection-of-frequency-dependent-endothelial-response-to-oscillatory-shear-stress-using-a-microfluidic-transcellular-monitor
#20
Yoshitaka J Sei, Song Ih Ahn, Theodore Virtue, Taeyoung Kim, YongTae Kim
The endothelial microenvironment is critical in maintaining the health and function of the intimal layer in vasculature. In the context of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the vascular endothelium is the layer of initiation for the progression of atherosclerosis. While laminar blood flows are known to maintain endothelial homeostasis, disturbed flow conditions including those the endothelium experiences in the carotid artery are responsible for determining the fate of CVD progression. We present a microfluidic device designed to monitor the endothelium on two fronts: the real-time monitoring of the endothelial permeability using integrated electrodes and the end-point characterization of the endothelium through immunostaining...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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