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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230638/mtor-inhibition-cardiovascular-diseases-dyslipidemia-and-atherosclerosis
#1
Ammar Kurdi, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
Inhibitors of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) have unique anti-atherosclerotic effects such as depletion of plaque macrophages, induction of autophagy and activation of cholesterol efflux. However, a common side effect of their use is dyslipidemia, a well-known risk factor for atherosclerosis. Indeed, mTOR inhibitors prevent lipid storage, increase LDL cholesterol levels and activate lipolysis. Although the net effect of mTOR inhibition seems favorable, the use of cholesterol lowering drugs to manage dyslipidemia remains the most recommended strategy...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227253/does-the-degree-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta-influence-wall-shear-stress-focal-heterogeneity
#2
John Gounley, Rafeed Chaudhury, Madhurima Vardhan, Michael Driscoll, Girish Pathangey, Kevin Winarta, Justin Ryan, David Frakes, Amanda Randles, John Gounley, Rafeed Chaudhury, Madhurima Vardhan, Michael Driscoll, Girish Pathangey, Kevin Winarta, Justin Ryan, David Frakes, Amanda Randles, Justin Ryan, Rafeed Chaudhury, Girish Pathangey, Amanda Randles, David Frakes, Kevin Winarta, Michael Driscoll, John Gounley, Madhurima Vardhan
The development of atherosclerosis in the aorta is associated with low and oscillatory wall shear stress for normal patients. Moreover, localized differences in wall shear stress heterogeneity have been correlated with the presence of complex plaques in the descending aorta. While it is known that coarctation of the aorta can influence indices of wall shear stress, it is unclear how the degree of narrowing influences resulting patterns. We hypothesized that the degree of coarctation would have a strong influence on focal heterogeneity of wall shear stress...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225988/estimation-of-cardiovascular-risk-and-detection-of-subclinical-carotid-atheromatosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-without-a-history-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Walter Masson, Salvador De Francesca, Micaela Molinero, Daniel Siniawski, Andrés Mulassi, Frank Espinoza Morales, Melina Huerin, Martín Lobo, Graciela Molinero
Objectives: Cardiovascular risk estimated by several scores in patients with diabetes mellitus without a cardiovascular disease history and the association with carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: Cardiovascular risk was calculate using United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine, Framingham risk score for cardiovascular (FSCV) and coronary disease (FSCD), and the new score (NS) proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224926/a-30-month-worksite-based-lifestyle-program-to-promote-cardiovascular-health-in-middle-aged-bank-employees-design-of-the-tansnip-pesa-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Jennifer K Coffeng, Hidde P van der Ploeg, José M Castellano, Juan M Fernández-Alvira, Borja Ibáñez, Inés García-Lunar, Allard J van der Beek, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Agustín Mocoroa, Laura García-Leal, Evelyn Cárdenas, Carolina Rojas, María I Martínez-Castro, Silvia Santiago-Sacristán, Miriam Fernández-Gallardo, José M Mendiguren, Sameer Bansilal, Willem van Mechelen, Valentín Fuster
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. With atherosclerosis as the underlying cause for many CVD events, prevention or reduction of subclinical atherosclerotic plaque burden (SAPB) through a healthier lifestyle may have substantial public health benefits. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program aimed to promote cardiovascular health in participants having a high or a low degree of SAPB compared with standard care...
February 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223221/the-atheroma-plaque-secretome-stimulates-the-mobilization-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-ex-vivo
#5
Francisco M Vega, Violette Gautier, Cecilia M Fernandez-Ponce, Mª Jesús Extremera, A F Maarten Altelaar, Jaime Millan, Juan C Tellez, Jose A Hernandez-Campos, Rosario Conejero, Jorge Bolivar, Ricardo Pardal, Francisco J Garcia-Cózar, Enrique Aguado, Albert J R Heck, Mª Carmen Duran-Ruiz
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a promising alternative in cardiovascular regenerative medicine due to their assigned role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. In response to injury, EPCs promote vascular remodeling by replacement of damaged endothelial cells and/or by secreting angiogenic factors over the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, such mechanisms need to be further characterized. In the current approach we have evaluated the initial response of early EPCs (eEPCs) from healthy individuals after direct contact with the factors released by carotid arteries complicated with atherosclerotic plaques (AP), in order to understand the mechanisms underlying the neovascularization and remodeling properties assigned to these cells...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219919/dickkopf-3-ablation-attenuates-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#6
Wen-Lin Cheng, Yang Yang, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Junhong Guo, Jun Gong, Fu-Han Gong, Zhi-Gang She, Zan Huang, Hao Xia, Hongliang Li
BACKGROUND: Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is involved in inflammation. However, little is known about the relationship between DKK3 expression and the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to define the role of DKK3 and its potential mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunofluorescence analysis showed that DKK3 was strongly expressed in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques from patients with coronary heart disease and in hyperlipidemic mice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219666/relation-of-iliac-artery-calcium-with-adiposity-measures-and-peripheral-artery-disease
#7
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Ido Weinberg, Kathryn A Britton, Joseph M Massaro, Udo Hoffmann, Emily Manders, Caroline S Fox, Joanne M Murabito
Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To improve the understanding of the pathogenesis involved with iliac artery calcium (IAC), we sought to examine the associations between the burden of IAC with adiposity measures and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants (n = 1,236, 52% women, mean age 60 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort who underwent multidetector computed tomography. The extent of IAC was quantified based on calcified atherosclerotic plaques detected in the iliac arteries...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214534/demographic-phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-okinawa-and-honshu-japan-part-2-honshu-japan
#8
REVIEW
Yasumichi Arai, Takashi Sasaki, Nobuyoshi Hirose
The scope and purpose of this review was to summarize the aims, methods, findings, and future of centenarian and (semi)-supercentenarian studies in Japan, particularly those from our own interdisciplinary laboratory. Medically, approximately 97% of centenarians contract chronic diseases including hypertension and gastrointestinal disease; however, they present with few cardiovascular risk factors. The low prevalence of diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerotic plaques are peculiarities of centenarians, which could be associated with high adiponectin levels...
February 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#9
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214424/association-between-plaque-characteristics-and-the-amount-of-debris-captured-by-a-filter-type-distal-protection-device-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#10
Katsuhide Kitagawa, Tetsuya Amano, Tadayuki Uetani, Hideki Ishii, Takahiro Okumura, Susumu Suzuki, Hiroaki Takashima, Akiyoshi Kurita, Hirohiko Ando, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disruption of atherosclerotic plaque and distal embolism often cause peri-procedural myocardial injury during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the present study, we evaluate the association between the characteristics of the target lesion and the amount of debris captured by the filter-type distal protection device. METHODS: We enrolled 120 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome, who underwent coronary stent implantation with a filter-type distal protection device after integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS) analysis...
February 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213743/development-of-cer-001-preclinical-dose-selection-through-to-phase-i-clinical-findings
#11
Constance H Keyserling, Ronald Barbaras, Renee Benghozi, Jean-Louis Dasseux
BACKGROUND: CER-001 comprises recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I complexed with phospholipids that mimics natural, nascent, pre-β high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We present animal model data showing dose-dependent increases in cholesterol efflux with CER-001 and its subsequent elimination by reverse lipid transport, together with inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque progression. We report the first phase I study results with CER-001 in humans, starting at 0.25 mg/kg, which is 1/80th of the safe dose (20 mg/kg) established in 4-week multiple-dose animal studies dosed every second day...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212521/angiogenesis-in-the-atherosclerotic-plaque
#12
REVIEW
Caroline Camaré, Mélanie Pucelle, Anne Nègre-Salvayre, Robert Salvayre
Atherosclerosis is a multifocal alteration of the vascular wall of medium and large arteries characterized by a local accumulation of cholesterol and non-resolving inflammation. Atherothrombotic complications are the leading cause of disability and mortality in western countries. Neovascularization in atherosclerotic lesions plays a major role in plaque growth and instability. The angiogenic process is mediated by classical angiogenic factors and by additional factors specific to atherosclerotic angiogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212189/wnt-signaling-in-the-vessel-wall
#13
Lina Badimon, Maria Borrell-Pages
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wnt signaling plays a crucial role during embryogenesis. In an adult, Wnt is mainly associated to cellular proliferation and differentiation mechanisms. Recent data suggest that Wnt signaling is involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. However, the roles of Wnt signaling pathways in the vessel wall are poorly understood. This review outlines recent discoveries in understanding the role of Wnt pathways in healthy and atherosclerotic vessels. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last years, the involvement of both canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways in the development of atherosclerotic lesions has been recognized...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209798/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-atherosclerosis-and-atherothrombosis
#14
REVIEW
Yvonne Döring, Oliver Soehnlein, Christian Weber
Neutrophil extracellular traps expelled from suicidal neutrophils comprise a complex structure of nuclear chromatin and proteins of nuclear, granular, and cytosolic origin. These net-like structures have also been detected in atherosclerotic lesions and arterial thrombi in humans and mice. Functionally, neutrophil extracellular traps have been shown to induce activation of endothelial cells, antigen-presenting cells, and platelets, resulting in a proinflammatory immune response. Overall, this suggests that they are not only present in plaques and thrombi but also they may play a causative role in triggering atherosclerotic plaque formation and arterial thrombosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209562/vinexin-%C3%AE-ablation-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-by-inactivating-the-akt-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-axis
#15
Hongjing Guan, Wen-Lin Cheng, Junhong Guo, Meng-Lin Chao, Yan Zhang, Jun Gong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Zhi-Gang She, Zan Huang, Hongliang Li
BACKGROUND: Vinexin β is a novel adaptor protein that regulates cellular adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization, signal transduction, and transcription; however, the exact role that vinexin β plays in atherosclerosis remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunoblot analysis showed that vinexin β expression is upregulated in the atherosclerotic lesions of both patients with coronary heart disease and hyperlipemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and is primarily localized in macrophages indicated by immunofluorescence staining...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208058/monitoring-of-macrophage-accumulation-in-statin-treated-atherosclerotic-mouse-model-using-sodium-iodide-symporter-imaging-system
#16
Ran Ji Yoo, Min Hwan Kim, Sang-Keun Woo, Kwang Il Kim, Tae Sup Lee, Yang-Kyu Choi, Joo Hyun Kang, Sang Moo Lim, Yong Jin Lee
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation in atherosclerosis, but its detailed understanding has poorly investigated until now. Thus, we sought to demonstrate a noninvasive technique for macrophage tracking to atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E(-/-)(ApoE(-/-)) mice with an imaging system based on sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene coupled with (99m)Tc-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Macrophage cells (RAW264...
January 25, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207427/progression-and-characterization-of-the-accelerated-atherosclerosis-in-iliac-artery-of-new-zealand-white-rabbits-effect-of-simvastatin
#17
Jitendra S Kanshana, Vivek Khanna, Vishal Singh, Manish Jain, Ankita Misra, Sachin Kumar, Mariya Farooqui, Manoj K Barthwal, Madhu Dikshit
OBJECTIVE: Although atherosclerosis is described in New Zealand White rabbit's iliac artery, yet details of time-dependent atherosclerosis progression are not well known. Further, a well characterized accelerated model of atherosclerosis is also required for the screening of candidate drugs to target specific steps of atherosclerosis development. The present study extensively characterizes the time-dependent plaque composition and functional responses of the atherosclerosis in rabbit iliac artery and its modification by simvastatin...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205517/corrigendum-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-is-common-in-atherosclerotic-lesions-and-is-associated-with-plaque-instability
#18
Solene M Evrard, Laura Lecce, Katherine C Michelis, Aya Nomura-Kitabayashi, Gaurav Pandey, K-Raman Purushothaman, Valentina d'Escamard, Jennifer R Li, Lahouaria Hadri, Kenji Fujitani, Pedro R Moreno, Ludovic Benard, Pauline Rimmele, Ariella Cohain, Brigham Mecham, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Elizabeth G Nabel, Roger Hajjar, Valentin Fuster, Manfred Boehm, Jason C Kovacic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202387/varenicline-enhances-oxidized-ldl-uptake-by-increasing-expression-of-lox-1-and-cd36-scavenger-receptors-through-%C3%AE-7-nachr-in-macrophages
#19
Yuki Kanaoka, Mitsuhisa Koga, Keita Sugiyama, Kaoru Ohishi, Yasufumi Kataoka, Atsushi Yamauchi
Varenicline is a widely used and effective drug for smoking cessation. It is a partial agonist of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and full agonist of α7 nAChR. We have reported that varenicline aggravates formation of atherosclerotic plaques through α7 nAChR in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. However, little is known about its effects on macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we ascertained whether varenicline promotes oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and clarified its mechanism...
February 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197327/association-between-resting-heart-rate-and-inflammatory-markers-white-blood-cell-count-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-healthy-korean-people
#20
Woo-Chul Park, Inho Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Yong-Jae Lee, Song Vogue Ahn
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and an elevated resting heart rate underlies the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We hypothesized an association between resting heart rate and subclinical inflammation. METHODS: Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the KoGES-ARIRANG (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population) cohort study, and was then divided into quartiles...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
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