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Atherosclerotic plaque

Adam Hartley, Dorian Haskard, Ramzi Khamis
We provide an up-to-date overview of current topics surrounding oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its related antibodies in the quest to better identify the individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic plaques with unfavorable characteristics. We discuss the potential of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL antibodies as serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and emerging studies examining the targeting of arterial oxLDL for imaging and therapeutic delivery.
June 4, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Paola Perrotta, Besa Emini Veseli, Bieke Van der Veken, Lynn Roth, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease that affects large and medium-sized arteries. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications remain a leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world. There is a considerable difference in safety profile between a stable and a vulnerable, rupture-prone lesion. The need for plaque-stabilizing therapies is high, and for a long time the lack of a suitable animal model mimicking advanced human atherosclerotic plaques made it very difficult to make progress in this area...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
E Baria, G Nesi, R Santi, V Maio, D Massi, C Pratesi, R Cicchi, F S Pavone
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease, and it's caused by atherosclerosis. In fact, an arterial wall lesion centered on the accumulation of cholesterol-rich lipids and the accompanying inflammatory response generates a plaque, whose rupture may result in a thrombus with fatal consequences. Plaque characterization for assessing the severity of atherosclerosis is generally performed through standard histopathological examination based on haematoxylin/eosin (H&E) staining, which is operator-dependent and requires relatively long procedures...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Marsel Lino, Mark H Wan, Antonio S Rocca, David Ngai, Navid Shobeiri, Guangpei Hou, Chunxi Ge, Renny T Franceschi, Michelle P Bendeck
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a common and severe complication in patients with atherosclerosis which is exacerbated by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our laboratory recently reported that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) mediates vascular calcification in atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. During calcification, vascular smooth muscle cells transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells, in a process driven by the transcription factor RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2)...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
M M Tanashyan, O V Lagoda, A N Evdokimenko, A A Shabalina, A A Raskurazhev
AIM: To assess the changes in several biomarkers in patients with atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries and shape a biomarker profile of cerebral atherosclerosis as an integrative index. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 124 patients with atherosclerotic lesions of internal carotid arteries (82 men and 42 women) aged from 37 to 73 years. The patients were stratified by history of prior stroke into 'asymptomatic' and 'symptomatic'. Along with general clinical and neurological examinations, ultrasound analysis of brachiocephalic arteries, neuroimaging, identification of biomarkers reflecting different stages of atherogenesis and evaluation of pathomorphological parameters of atherosclerotic plaques removed during carotid endarterectomy surgery were performed...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Zekeriya Tasdemir, Funda Özsarı Tasdemir, Cem Gürgan, Eray Eroglu, Inayet Gunturk, Ismail Kocyigit
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is an obvious risk factor of atherosclerotic diseases, and the presence of periodontal disease is one of the important sources of chronic inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy of the patients undergoing CAPD due to diabetic nephropathy, diabetic patients without CKD, and healthy controls on inflammation exponents. METHODS: Thirty-two CAPD patients due to diabetic nephropathy (group III), 31 diabetic patients without nephropathy (group II), and 38 healthy subjects (group I) were enrolled to the study...
June 20, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Chia-Yuan Hsu, Themmila Khamrang, Chih-Hsuan Hsia, Chih-Wei Hsia, Manjunath Manubolu, Joen-Rong Sheu
In oncotherapy, ruthenium (Ru) complexes are reflected as potential alternatives for platinum compounds and have been proved as encouraging anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are mutually considered as the number one killer globally, and thrombosis is liable for the majority of CVD-related deaths. Platelets, an anuclear and small circulating blood cell, play key roles in hemostasis by inhibiting unnecessary blood loss of vascular damage by making blood clot...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Koichiro Fujisue, Suguru Nagamatsu, Hideki Shimomura, Takuro Yamashita, Koichi Nakao, Sunao Nakamura, Masaharu Ishihara, Kunihiko Matsui, Nobuyasu Yamamoto, Shunichi Koide, Toshiyuki Matsumura, Kazuteru Fujimoto, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Yasuhiro Morikami, Koshi Matsuyama, Shuichi Oshima, Kenji Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Seiji Hokimoto, Hisao Ogawa, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) deteriorates the prognosis of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Because coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of death in CKD patients, cardiovascular risk reduction has been clinically important in CKD. We hypothesized intensive lipid-lowering with statin/ezetimibe attenuated coronary atherosclerotic development even in patients with CKD. METHODS: In the prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter PRECISE-IVUS trial, 246 patients undergoing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI were randomly assigned to receive atorvastatin/ezetimibe combination or atorvastatin alone (the dosage of atorvastatin was up-titrated to achieve the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 70 mg/dL)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
D F Beloiartsev, O L Talybly
BACKGROUND: It is known that namely long-term presence of suture material as the only foreign body in autologous conditions may lead to restenosis in the remote period. Such hypothesis was put forward based on good results of reconstructive cardiovascular operations in case of using absorbable suture material. OBJECTIVE: Our study was aimed at comparative analysis of remote results of using absorbable suture material polydioxanone and non-absorbable suture material polypropylene in eversion carotid endarterectomy...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
S G Kozlov, L Sh Khamchieva, O A Pogorelova, M I Tripoten', T V Balakhonova
The study was aimed at assessing the dynamics of asymptomatic atherosclerosis of carotid arteries (CA) depending upon the achieved level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) in patients with moderate total risk by the SCORE scale. We followed up a total of eighty-two 40-to-65-year-old patients with the LDLC level above 2.6 mmol/l, being at moderate total risk by the SCORE scale and having symptom-free atherosclerosis of the extracranial portion of brachiocephalic arteries (up to 50% narrowing of their lumen) as diagnosed by duplex scanning...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
M S Santana, K P Nascimento, P A Lotufo, I M Benseãor, F C Meotti
Allantoin is the main product of uric acid oxidation and was found to be augmented in atherosclerotic plaque in human autopsy and in animal models of atherosclerosis. Uric acid is abundant in human plasma and is prone to oxidation in inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we found a significant increase in plasma uric acid (P=0.002) and allantoin (P=0.025) in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) that presented common carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) within the 75th percentile (c-IMT≥P75)...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Fabio Mangiacapra, Edoardo Bressi, Alessandro Sticchi, Carmine Morisco, Emanuele Barbato
The presence and extent of myocardial ischemia are the major determinants of prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Unlike coronary angiography alone, fractional flow reserve (FFR) has enabled interventional cardiologists to accurately determine whether coronary atherosclerotic plaques are responsible for myocardial ischemia, and therefore deserve to be revascularized. Areas covered: An overview on the role of FFR in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease, as well as the potential related controversies is provided...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Silvia Ferronato, Alberto Scuro, Macarena Gomez-Lira, Sara Mazzucco, Silvia Olivato, Alberto Turco, Orlandi Elisa, Giovanni Malerba, Maria Grazia Romanelli
Inflammation has a key role and translates the effects of many known risk factors for the disease in atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. Aiming to look into the elements that induce the development of either a vulnerable or stable atherosclerotic plaque, and considering that inflammation has a central role in the progression of lesions, we analyzed the expression of genes involved in the ACE/TLR4/PTGS2 signaling in carotid plaques of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Patients with internal carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy at Verona University Hospital were included in this study...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Binghu Jiang, Dongmei He, Liwen Zhang, Min Ye
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is not conclusive that magnetic resonance (MR)-based carotid atherosclerotic plaque assessment identifies high-risk features associated with cerebrovascular events. We aimed to systematically summarize the association of MR imaging (MRI)-determined intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and thinning/rupture of the fibrous cap (TRFC) with subsequent ischemic events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search evaluating the association of MRI-based carotid plaque composition with ischemic outcomes...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Anna-Kaisa Ruotsalainen, Jari P Lappalainen, Emmi Heiskanen, Mari Merentie, Virve Sihvola, Juha Näpänkangas, Line Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Emilia Kansanen, Simone Adinolfi, Kai Kaarniranta, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Matti Jauhiainen, Eija Pirinen, Anna-Liisa Levonen
Aims: Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the vessel wall, but paradoxically, global loss of Nrf2 in apoE deficient mice alleviates atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of global Nrf2 deficiency on early and advanced atherogenesis in alternative models of atherosclerosis, LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-) and LDLR-/- mice expressing apoB-100 only (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100) having a humanized lipoprotein profile...
June 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Yu-Li Chen, Feng-Qiu Liu, Yuan Guo, Juan Cheng, Lu Yang, Min Lu, Pan Li, Jie Xu, Tao Yu, Zhi-Gang Wang, Yang Cao, Hai-Tao Ran
Angiogenesis is a common pathological characteristic of many solid tumors and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a promising method to reduce neovascularization. To increase the targeting ability and efficiency of PTT, a novel polymeric nanosystem that encapsulates phthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc) and perfluorohexane (PFH) was developed to target the new blood vessels of breast tumors. After being conjugated to the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, the polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) targeted vascular endothelial cells efficiently...
June 19, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Shu-Huei Wang, Tse-Ya Yu, Chi-Sheng Hung, Chung-Yi Yang, Mao-Shin Lin, Chien-Yin Su, Yuh-Lien Chen, Hsien-Li Kao, Lee-Ming Chuang, Feng-Chiao Tsai, Hung-Yuan Li
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and the formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs) are important components of atherosclerosis. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) participates in inflammation. Its enzymatic activity, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), can catalyze oxidative deamination reactions to produce hydrogen peroxide and aldehydes, leading to the subsequent generation of AGEs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VAP-1/SSAO inhibition on atherosclerosis. In our study, immunohistochemical staining showed that atherosclerotic plaques displayed higher VAP-1 expression than normal arterial walls in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbits and humans...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Akihiro Hosaka, Manabu Motoki, Masaaki Kato, Hiroko Sugai, Nobukazu Okubo
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with supra-aortic debranching has recently been introduced as a treatment option for aortic arch disease. Although less invasive than open repair, TEVAR is associated with a risk of perioperative embolic stroke due to dislodgment of atherosclerotic plaque debris, especially in individuals with atheromatous degeneration of the aortic lumen. It is difficult to determine atheroma vulnerability, and there is no current method for predicting the risk of atheroembolism...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Umberto Ciri, Rita Bhui, Jorge Bailon-Cuba, Heather N Hayenga, Stefano Leonardi
Atherosclerosis, an artery disease, is currently the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. The first step in the development of atherosclerosis involves leukocyte adhesion to the arterial endothelium. It is broadly accepted that blood flow, more specifically wall shear stress (WSS), plays an important role in leukocyte capture and subsequent development of an atherosclerotic plaque. What is less known is how instantaneous WSS, which can vary by up to 5 Pa over one cardiac cycle, influences leukocyte capture...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Sang-Eun Lee, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Ji Min Sung, Hyung-Bok Park, Ran Heo, Asim Rizvi, Fay Y Lin, Amit Kumar, Martin Hadamitzky, Yong Jin Kim, Edoardo Conte, Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Matthew J Budoff, Ilan Gottlieb, Byoung Kwon Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Filippo Cademartiri, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Jonathon A Leipsic, Sanghoon Shin, Jung Hyun Choi, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Gilbert Raff, Renu Virmani, Habib Samady, Peter H Stone, Daniel S Berman, Jagat Narula, Leslee J Shaw, Jeroen J Bax, James K Min
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the impact of statins on individual coronary atherosclerotic plaques. BACKGROUND: Although statins reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, their long-term effects on coronary atherosclerosis remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multinational study consisting of a registry of consecutive patients without history of coronary artery disease who underwent serial coronary computed tomography angiography at an interscan interval of ≥2 years...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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