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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092507/real-time-intravascular-ultrasound-and-photoacoustic-imaging
#1
Donald VanderLaan, Andrei B Karpiouk, Doug Yeager, Stanislav Emelianov
Combined intravascular ultrasound and intravascular photoacoustic (IVUS/IVPA) imaging is an emerging hybrid modality being explored as a means of improving the characterization of atherosclerotic plaque anatomical and compositional features. While initial demonstrations of the technique have been encouraging, they have been limited by catheter rotation and data acquisition, displaying, and processing rates on the order of several seconds per frame as well as the use of off-line image processing. Herein, we present a complete IVUS/IVPA imaging system and method capable of real-time IVUS/IVPA imaging, with online data acquisition, image processing, and display of both IVUS and IVPA images...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091604/polyglucose-nanoparticles-with-renal-elimination-and-macrophage-avidity-facilitate-pet-imaging-in-ischaemic-heart-disease
#2
Edmund J Keliher, Yu-Xiang Ye, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Aaron D Aguirre, Benoit Tricot, Max L Senders, Hannah Groenen, Francois Fay, Carlos Perez-Medina, Claudia Calcagno, Giuseppe Carlucci, Thomas Reiner, Yuan Sun, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Hye-Yeong Kim, Cuihua Wang, John W Chen, Filip K Swirski, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Jacob Hooker, Zahi A Fayad, Willem J M Mulder, Ralph Weissleder, Matthias Nahrendorf
Tissue macrophage numbers vary during health versus disease. Abundant inflammatory macrophages destruct tissues, leading to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Emerging therapeutic options create interest in monitoring macrophages in patients. Here we describe positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-Macroflor, a modified polyglucose nanoparticle with high avidity for macrophages. Due to its small size, Macroflor is excreted renally, a prerequisite for imaging with the isotope flourine-18...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089144/essential-role-of-icam-1-in-aldosterone-induced-atherosclerosis
#3
Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Mary E Moss, Vittoria Pagliarini, Laura Pontecorvo, Antonella Antelmi, Andrea Fabbri, Giuseppe Rosano, Iris Z Jaffe, Massimiliano Caprio
OBJECTIVE: Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis complications, whereas treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists decreases the rate of cardiovascular events. Here we test the hypothesis that aldosterone promotes early atherosclerosis by modulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and investigate the molecular mechanisms by which aldosterone regulates ICAM-1 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein-E (ApoE)(-/-) mice fed an atherogenic diet and treated with aldosterone for 4weeks showed increased vascular expression of ICAM-1, paralleled by enhanced atherosclerotic plaque size in the aortic root...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088080/a-computer-based-simulator-for-intravascular-photoacoustic-images
#4
Sun Zheng, Yuan Yuan, Han Duoduo
Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) is a newly developed catheter-based imaging technique for the diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis. A framework of simulating IVPA transversal images from a cross-sectional vessel model with given optical and acoustic parameters was presented. The light illumination and transportation in multi-layered wall and atherosclerotic plaque tissues were modeled through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The generation and transmission of photoacoustic (PA) waves in the acoustically homogeneous medium were modeled through the PA wave equation, which is solved explicitly with a finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm in polar coordinates...
January 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087520/atheroprotective-vaccination-with-mhc-ii-restricted-apob-peptides-induces-peritoneal-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells
#5
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087279/alpha-2-macroglobulin-and-heparin-cofactor-ii-and-the-vulnerability-of-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-an-itraq-based-analysis
#6
Jinmao Li, Xi Liu, Ying Xiang, Xueying Ding, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Maojia Yin, Changhong Tan, Fen Deng, Lifen Chen
Rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaque may cause stroke, while few biomarker in clinic can evaluate carotid plaque vulnerability. In this study, we divided the recruited participants into no plaque, stable plaque, and vulnerable plaque group according to carotid ultrasonography, and screened the differentially expressed proteins in plasma of these participants using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 28 proteins were identified differentially expressed, among which alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) and heparin cofactor II (HCII) were found to be at hub position in the interactions of these proteins by STRING analysis and were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement to assess their relevance with carotid plaques vulnerability and diagnostic efficiency...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087177/lymphocytic-myocarditis-occurs-with-myocardial-infarction-and-coincides-with-increased-inflammation-hemorrhage-and-instability-in-coronary-artery-atherosclerotic-plaques
#7
Linde Woudstra, P Stefan Biesbroek, Reindert W Emmens, Stephane Heymans, Lynda J Juffermans, Albert C van Rossum, Hans W M Niessen, Paul A J Krijnen
OBJECTIVE: Although lymphocytic myocarditis (LM) clinically can mimic myocardial infarction (MI), they are regarded as distinct clinical entities. However, we observed a high prevalence (32%) of recent MI in patients diagnosed post-mortem with LM. To investigate if LM changes coronary atherosclerotic plaque, we analyzed in autopsied hearts the inflammatory infiltrate and stability in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in patients with LM and/or MI. METHODS: The three main coronary arteries were isolated at autopsy of patients with LM, with MI of 3-6h old, with LM and MI of 3-6h old (LM+MI) and controls...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079701/ex-vivo-assessment-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-by-grating-based-phase-contrast-computed-tomography-correlation-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#8
Christopher Habbel, Holger Hetterich, Marian Willner, Julia Herzen, Kristin Steigerwald, Sigrid Auweter, Ulrich Schüller, Jörg Hausleiter, Steffen Massberg, Maximilian Reiser, Franz Pfeiffer, Tobias Saam, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gb-PCCT) to classify and quantify coronary vessel characteristics in comparison with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology in an ex vivo setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After excision from 5 heart specimens, 15 human coronary arteries underwent gb-PCCT examination using an experimental imaging setup consisting of a rotating molybdenum anode x-ray tube, a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer, and a single photon counting detector...
January 10, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078575/molecular-imaging-of-atherosclerosis-with-integrated-pet-imaging
#9
Basma Hammad, Nicholas R Evans, James H F Rudd, Ahmed Tawakol
Atherosclerotic diseases account for nearly half of all deaths and are leading causes of adult disability. Our understanding of how atherosclerosis leads to cardiovascular disease events has evolved: from a concept of progressive luminal narrowing, to that of sudden rupture and thrombosis of biologically active atheroma. In concert with this conceptual shift, contemporary imaging techniques now allow imaging of biological processes that associate with plaque instability: active calcification and plaque inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077881/a-pilot-study-of-penile-hemodynamics-in-men-with-penile-curvatures
#10
A A Zaazaa, I Fathy, O Ayman, A Hassanin, H Ghanem
Penile curvature (PC) is bothersome to the patient. PC is either congenital or acquired. In most of the circulatory system, blood flows in a laminar profile with minimal energy expenditure. When a fluid passes in a curved tube, the laminar profile is disturbed and changed into a turbulent flow. It increases the energy expenditure and reduces the flow. Turbulent flow may have a role in the development of an atherosclerotic plaque and in localizing its site. The aim of this research was to study penile hemodynamics before and after correction of PC...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077337/stress-hormone-epinephrine-adrenaline-and-norepinephrine-noradrenaline-effects-on-the-anaerobic-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
Lyudmila Boyanova
Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes...
January 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075455/tnf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-regulates-apoptosis-of-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-gap-junctions
#12
Mei Tang, Jun Fang
Inflammatory cytokines are released by immune cells and are able to induce vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to undergo apoptosis, causing atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Changes in the expression levels of connexins (Cxs) have been demonstrated in VSMCs to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic progression. The present study examined the effect of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) on Cx43 expression levels and apoptosis in human VSMCs. Overexpression of Cx43 plasmids notably stimulated VSMC proliferation...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074932/the-helicobacter-cinaedi-antigen-caip-participates-in-atherosclerotic-inflammation-by-promoting-the-differentiation-of-macrophages-in-foam-cells
#13
Mario Milco D'Elios, Francesca Vallese, Nagaja Capitani, Marisa Benagiano, Maria Lina Bernardini, Mirko Rossi, Gian Paolo Rossi, Mauro Ferrari, Cosima Tatiana Baldari, Giuseppe Zanotti, Marina de Bernard, Gaia Codolo
Recent studies have shown that certain specific microbial infections participate in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation and immune reactions, but how the pathogens implicated in this pathology trigger the host responses remains unknown. In this study we show that Helicobacter cinaedi (Hc) is a human pathogen linked to atherosclerosis development since at least 27% of sera from atherosclerotic patients specifically recognize a protein of the Hc proteome, that we named Cinaedi Atherosclerosis Inflammatory Protein (CAIP) (n = 71)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074425/high-wall-shear-stress-and-high-risk-plaque-an-emerging-concept
#14
Parham Eshtehardi, Adam J Brown, Ankit Bhargava, Charis Costopoulos, Olivia Y Hung, Michel T Corban, Hossein Hosseini, Bill D Gogas, Don P Giddens, Habib Samady
In recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaques in vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070735/assessment-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-calcification-using-f18-naf-pet-ct
#15
Maria João Vidigal Ferreira, Manuel Oliveira-Santos, Rodolfo Silva, Andreia Gomes, Nuno Ferreira, Antero Abrunhosa, João Lima, Mariano Pego, Lino Gonçalves, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the uptake of F18-NaF by the arterial wall in patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk profile. The tracer uptake was assessed in relation to gender and the number of CV risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: 25 patients without known CV disease were included and evaluated by PET-CT with F18-NaF: 14 (56%) men and 11 (44%) women. The mean target-to-background ratio (TBR: max SUV/mean blood-pool SUV) but not the corrected uptake per lesion (CUL: max SUV - mean blood-pool SUV) was higher in men than women (TBR: 1...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069704/angiopoietin-1-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-increasing-the-proportion-of-circulating-gr1-monocytes
#16
Takeshi Fujisawa, Keqing Wang, Xi-Lin Niu, Stuart Egginton, Shakil Ahmad, Peter Hewett, Christopher D Kontos, Asif Ahmed
AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease occurring within the artery wall. A crucial step in atherogenesis is the infiltration and retention of monocytes into the subendothelial space of large arteries induced by chemokines and growth factors. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) regulates angiogenesis and reduces vascular permeability and has also been reported to promote monocyte migration in vitro. We investigated the role of Ang-1 in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E (Apo-E) knockout mouse...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069522/myeloperoxidase-mediated-protein-lysine-oxidation-generates-2-aminoadipic-acid-and-lysine-nitrile-in-vivo
#17
Hongqiao Lin, Bruce S Levison, Jennifer A Buffa, Ying Huang, Xiaoming Fu, Zeneng Wang, Valentin Gogonea, Joseph A DiDonato, Stanley L Hazen
Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown...
January 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069011/myeloperoxidase-oxidized-high-density-lipoprotein-impairs-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-inhibiting-smooth-muscle-cell-migration
#18
Boda Zhou, Lingyun Zu, Yong Chen, Xilong Zheng, Yuhui Wang, Bing Pan, Min Dong, Enchen Zhou, Mingming Zhao, Youyi Zhang, Lemin Zheng, Wei Gao
BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proved to be a protective factor for coronary heart disease. Notably, HDL in atherosclerotic plaques can be nitrated (NO2-oxHDL) and chlorinated (Cl-oxHDL) by myeloperoxidase (MPO), likely compromising its cardiovascular protective effects. METHOD: Here we determined the effects of NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL on SMC migration using wound healing and transwell assays, proliferation using MTT and BrdU assays, and apoptosis using Annexin-V assay in vitro, as well as on atherosclerotic plaque stability in vivo using a coratid artery collar implantation mice model...
January 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068949/plaque-distribution-of-low-grade-basilar-artery-atherosclerosis-and-its-clinical-relevance
#19
Jin Yu, Ming-Li Li, Yu-Yuan Xu, Shi-Wen Wu, Min Lou, Xue-Tao Mu, Feng Feng, Shan Gao, Wei-Hai Xu
BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology of BA distribution is unclear and intriguing. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI), we sought to explore the plaque distribution of low-grade basilar artery (BA) atherosclerosis and its clinical relevance. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the imaging and clinical data of 61 patients with low-grade atherosclerotic BA stenosis (<50%). On HR-MRI, the plaques were categorized based on the involvement of the ventral, dorsal, or lateral sides of BA wall...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067670/mertk-receptor-cleavage-promotes-plaque-necrosis-and-defective-resolution-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Bishuang Cai, Edward B Thorp, Amanda C Doran, Brian E Sansbury, Mat J A P Daemen, Bernhard Dorweiler, Matthew Spite, Gabrielle Fredman, Ira Tabas
Atherothrombotic vascular disease is often triggered by a distinct type of atherosclerotic lesion that displays features of impaired inflammation resolution, notably a necrotic core and thinning of a protective fibrous cap that overlies the core. A key cause of plaque necrosis is defective clearance of apoptotic cells, or efferocytosis, by lesional macrophages, but the mechanisms underlying defective efferocytosis and its possible links to impaired resolution in atherosclerosis are incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that proteolytic cleavage of the macrophage efferocytosis receptor c-Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) reduces efferocytosis and promotes plaque necrosis and defective resolution...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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