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Carotid plaque

Zhilei Shan, Clary B Clish, Simin Hua, Justin M Scott, David B Hanna, Robert D Burk, Sabina A Haberlen, Sanjiv J Shah, Joseph B Margolick, Cynthia L Sears, Wendy S Post, Alan L Landay, Jason M Lazar, Howard N Hodis, Kathryn Anastos, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
We examined associations of 5 plasma choline metabolites with carotid plaque among 520 HIV-infected and 217 HIV-uninfected participants (112 incident plaque cases) over 7 years. After multivariable adjustment, higher gut microbiota-related metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was associated with an increased risk of carotid plaque in HIV-infected participants (risk ratio=1.25 [95% CI, 1.05-1.50] per standard deviation increment; P=0.01). TMAO was positively correlated with biomarkers of monocyte activation and inflammation (sCD14, sCD163)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Santosh D Bhosale, Robert Moulder, Mikko S Venäläinen, Juhani S Koskinen, Niina Pitkänen, Markus T Juonala, Mika A P Kähönen, Terho J Lehtimäki, Jorma S A Viikari, Laura L Elo, David R Goodlett, Riitta Lahesmaa, Olli T Raitakari
To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum samples collected as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Samples from subjects who had an asymptomatic carotid artery plaque detected by ultrasound examination (N = 43, Age = 30-45 years) were compared with plaque free controls (N = 43) (matched for age, sex, body weight and systolic blood pressure)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhangyong Xia, Mingliang Gu, Xiaodong Jia, Xiaoting Wang, Chunxia Wu, Jiangwen Guo, Liyong Zhang, Yifeng Du, Jiyue Wang
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a multifactorial disease. Exploration of DNA methylation in regulating gene transcription in a cell type- and stage-specific manner will shed light on understanding the biological processes associated with plaque stability. We identified 174 up-regulated genes with hypo-methylation in the promoter, and 86 down-regulated genes with hyper-methylation in the promoter, in AS vs. healthy controls. Among them, high expression of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule 7 (SLAM7) was examined in carotid plaque vs...
June 13, 2018: Aging
Jesse W Williams, Catherine Martel, Stephane Potteaux, Ekaterina Esaulova, Molly A Ingersoll, Andrew Elvington, Brian T Saunders, Li-Hao Huang, Andreas J Habenicht, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Gwendalyn J Randolph
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but their dynamics within plaques remain obscure. We aimed to quantify macrophage positional dynamics within progressing and regressing atherosclerotic plaques. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a stable intravital preparation, large asymmetrical foamy macrophages in the intima of carotid artery plaques were sessile, but smaller rounded cells nearer plaque margins, possibly newly recruited monocytes, mobilized laterally along plaque borders...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yang Lei, Lang Lei, Yunbing Wang, Sasha A Singh, Elena Aikawa
Vascular calcification contributes to clinical mortality and morbidity. One possible mechanism for vascular calcification is lack of functional osteoclast formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we seek to discover novel regulators of osteoclastogenesis with the aim to reduce vascular calcification. We used quantitative proteomics and functional network analysis to identify novel proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-derived osteoclast model. In the current studies we focus on novel proteins in osteoclast ruffled border, a plasma membrane contacting the bone surface during bone resorption...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Raiyan T Zaman, Siavash Yousefi, Steven R Long, Toshinobu Saito, Michael Mandella, Zhen Qiu, Ruimin Chen, Christopher H Contag, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Frederick T Chin, Butras T Khuri-Yakub, Michael V McConnell, K Kirk Shung, Lei Xing
Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition caused by an unstable lesion, called thin-cap fibro atheromata (TCFA) that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)-one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, early clinical diagnosis and effective risk stratification is important for CAD management as well as preventing progression to catastrophic events. However, early detection could be difficult due to their small size, motion, obscuring 18 F-FDG uptake by adjacent myocardium, and complex morphological/biological features...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhaojun Li, Yun Bai, Wanbin Li, Feng Gao, Yi Kuang, Lianfang Du, Xianghong Luo
Inflammatory activity plays a central role in the development of carotid rupture-vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which is one of the major contributors to acute ischemic stroke. Our objective was to characterize carotid intraplaque neovascularizations (INP) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and evaluate plaque burden through exploring the relationship between INP and cell count of peripheral leukocytes. Sixty-two patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) were enrolled in this study. CEUS was performed to characterize the carotid artery plaques...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Parodi, Mark C Bates, Takao Ohki, Claudio Schönholz
Innovation in medicine is often driven by the observations of imaginative physicians who are blessed with insatiable curiosity, coupled with the inability to accept technical boundaries, the status quo of patient care, or the acceptance of procedural morbidity. Few examples illustrate this truism better than the physician-originated clinical research that transformed the safety of carotid stent angioplasty over the last 2 decades. Initial clinical application of carotid stenting suggested that proximal protection may be a better approach to prevent embolic stroke during the angioplasty procedure...
March 2018: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
Gianmarco de Donato, Francesco Setacci, Edoardo Pasqui, Domenico Benevento, Giancarlo Palasciano, Antonio Sterpetti, Luca di Marzo, Carlo Setacci
Multicenter clinical trials level 1 evidence favors the application of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients, especially the in the elderly cohort. Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as a possible early alternative in selected patients after onset of ipsilateral neurologic symptoms. It is well known that treatment of acute stroke is time-dependent in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery, but intensive medical treatment in conjunction with intervention to improve stroke severity and clinical outcomes has not been established...
March 2018: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
Mustafa Umut Somuncu, Ali Riza Demir, Huseyin Karakurt, Nail Guven Serbest, Belma Kalayci, Umit Bulut, Seda Tukenmez Karakurt
The presence of carotid atherosclerosis accompanied by coronary artery disease is associated with poor prognosis. A subset of patients who take aspirin continue to have recurrent cardiovascular events, which may be due to aspirin resistance (AR). Also, carotid plaques may cause turbulent flow which in turn may lead to platelet activation and poor antiplatelet response. In our study, we aimed to show the prevalence of AR and its relationship between high-risk carotid images in young patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Ze-Dong Cheng, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of scavenger receptor A I (SR-A I) protein and mRNA in peritoneal macrophages of atherosclerosis (AS) rabbits. METHODS: A total of 26 New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study, among them, 7 were randomly selected to constitute a blank control group, and the rest 19 rabbits were fed with high-fat diet combined with carotid artery balloon injury for establishing AS model. Eight weeks after high-fat forage feeding, one high-fat fed rabbit and one normal rabbit were randomly selected for verifying the success of modeling...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Abhishek Vishnu, Jina Choo, Aya Kadota, Emma J M Barinas-Mitchell, Akira Fujiyoshi, Dorothy Leann Long, Takashi Hisamatsu, Vasudha Ahuja, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Rhobert W Evans, Katsuyuki Miura, Kamal H Masaki, Chol Shin, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Akira Sekikawa
BACKGROUND: Carotid plaque has emerged as a marker of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Comparison of carotid plaque burden between different race/ethnic groups may provide a relative estimate of their future CHD risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among apparently healthy middle-aged men aged 40-49 years (ERA JUMP study (n = 924)) and recruited 310 Whites in Pittsburgh, US, 313 Japanese in Otsu, Japan, and 301 Koreans in Ansan, South Korea...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Apostolos Safouris, Dong-Eog Kim, Andrei V Alexandrov
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke that can be effectively prevented with appropriate lifestyle modifications and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical advances in recent years along with aggressive cardiovascular risk factor modifications have resulted in decreased recurrence rates of atherosclerotic stroke. Non-statin lipid-lowering molecules have recently shown clinical benefit and are recommended for very high-risk patients to reduce their risk of stroke. Aggressive hypertension treatment is crucial to reduce atherosclerotic stroke risk...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
Abayomi Oyenuga, Aaron R Folsom, Oluwaseun Fashanu, David Aguilar, Christie M Ballantyne
Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding lectin that plays a role in the regulation of several conditions that are associated with atherosclerosis. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of plasma galectin-3 concentrations with sonographic measures of carotid atherosclerosis in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Linear regression was used to determine the difference and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by categorical and continuous representations of galectin-3...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
Alicia J Jenkins, Paul Welsh, John R Petrie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of recent publications that extend clinically relevant knowledge relating to metformin's effects on lipids and atherosclerotic vascular disease and/or provide insights into the drug's mechanisms of action on the heart and vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on original research in humans or in human tissues. Several recently completed randomized clinical trials have reported effects of metformin on surrogate measures of atherosclerotic vascular disease, including carotid-intima media thickness, vascular reactivity and calcification in people with Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 (T2D) diabetes as well as nondiabetic dysglycaemia...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
June 7, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jia Yang, Xiangjun Pan, Bai Zhang, Yanhong Yan, Yabo Huang, Adam K Woolf, Jonathan H Gillard, Zhongzhao Teng, Pinjing Hui
OBJECTIVE: Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and ulceration of carotid atherosclerotic plaques have been associated with vulnerability while calcification has been conventionally thought protective. However, studies suggested calcification size and location may increase plaque vulnerability. This study explored the association between calcium configurations and ulceration with IPH. METHODS: One hundred thirty-seven consecutive symptomatic patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were recruited...
June 6, 2018: European Radiology
Yan Yang, Qi-Hong Wu, Yan Li, Ping-Jin Gao
Recent research suggested that certain small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs) were involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis plaque and the circulating levels of some SLRPs, including decorin, lumican, and osteoglycin, in essential hypertension. In total, 176 essential hypertensive patients were recruited (mean age 62.1 ± 9.4, male 56.8%) in this study and were classified into two groups: patients with carotid artery plaque (n = 105, 60%) and patients without carotid artery plaque (n = 71, 40%)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Fei Du, Dan Li, Lian-Shan Piao, Kang-Juan Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor 11 (sLR11) genes with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) in Korean and Han nationalities in the Yanbian area. METHODS: 530 T2DM patients were divided into two groups according to the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery: CAS group (n= 256, T2DM patients with carotid artery IMT ⩾ 1.0 mm and plaque) and non-CAS group (NCAS group, n= 274, T2DM patients with carotid IMT < 1...
May 21, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Hanfei Tang, Mengjiao Zhu, Gefei Zhao, Weiguo Fu, Zhenyu Shi, Yong Ding, Xiao Tang, Daqiao Guo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid atherosclerotic plaque is one of the main sources of ischemic stroke, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a major feature of atherosclerosis. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) activation, stimulated by high glucose, plays an important role in EndMT, and circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (Clock) deficiency leads to hyperglycemia and enhanced atherosclerosis in ClockΔ19/Δ19 apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice...
May 24, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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