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Carotid plaque

Chuan Qin, Li Zhang, Xinfang Wang, Yilian Duan, Zhou Ye, Mingxing Xie
OBJECTIVES: To examine the repeatability of quantitative time-intensity curve analysis of neovascularization within carotid plaques with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and to investigate carotid plaque neovascularization in patients with coronary heart disease using contrast-enhanced US and the correlation between risk factors and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Sixty patients with ACS and 60 with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent conventional carotid and contrast-enhanced US, and plaque enhancement was observed and analyzed quantitatively...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Marian Wesseling, Ian D van Koeverden, Guus W van Lammeren, Sander W van der Laan, Saskia Haitjema, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Hester M den Ruijter, Saskia C A de Jager, Imo Hoefer, Peter Blankestijn, Marianne Verhaar, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previously, we showed that patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy have an increased risk for major atherosclerotic events in the presence of moderate or poor kidney function. Acceleration of vascular inflammatory responses is considered to be causally involved in progression of atherogenesis and poor outcome in chronic kidney disease patients. The association between kidney function and plaque composition has not been thoroughly investigated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between kidney function and atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
September 22, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Pierleone Lucatelli, Corrado Fagnani, Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Beatrice Sacconi, Bence Fejer, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Miriam Salemi, Carlo Cirelli, Alessandro d'Adamo, Fabrizio Fanelli, Carlo Catalano, Pal Maurovich-Horvat, Adam L Jermendy, Gyorgy Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Andrea A Molnar, Giacomo Pucci, Giuseppe Schillaci, Filippo Farina, Giorgio Meneghetti, Claudio Baracchini, Emanuela Medda
To disentangle genetic and environmental influences on the development of femoral plaques using a population of adult twins. To evaluate the potential role of shared genetic and environmental factors in the co-occurrence of femoral and carotid plaques. The sample included 566 twins belonging to 164 monozygotic (MZ) and 119 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, who underwent peripheral arterial assessment by B-mode ultrasound in different centers. The variance in femoral plaques onset was due to genetic factors and the remaining 50% was explained by common (15%) and unique (35%) environmental factors...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Christos P Loizou, Constantinos S Pattichis, Marios Pantziaris, Efthyvoulos Kyriacou, Andrew Nicolaides
The objective of this paper was to investigate texture feature variability in ultrasound video of the carotid artery during the cardiac cycle in an attempt to define new discriminatory biomarkers of the vulnerable plaque. More specifically, in this paper, 120 longitudinal ultrasound videos, acquired from 40 normal (N) subjects from the common carotid artery and 40 asymptomatic (A) and 40 symptomatic (S) subjects from the proximal internal carotid artery were investigated. The videos were intensity normalized and despeckled, and the intima-media complex (IMC) (from the N subjects) and the atherosclerotic carotid plaques (from the A and S subjects) were segmented from each video, in order to extract the M-mode image, and the texture features associated with cardiac states of systole and diastole...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Sumbal A Janjua, Pedro V Staziaki, Balint Szilveszter, Richard A P Takx, Thomas Mayrhofer, Orla Hennessy, Hamed A Emami, Jakob Park, Alexander Ivanov, Travis R Hallett, Michael T Lu, Javier M Romero, Steven K Grinspoon, Udo Hoffmann, Markella V Zanni, Tomas G Neilan
BACKGROUND: Data from broad populations have established associations between incidental carotid plaque and vascular events. Among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), the risk of vascular events is increased; however, whether incidental carotid plaque is increased and there is an association between incidental carotid plaque, plaque characteristics, and vascular events among PLWHIV is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the multi-institutional Research Patient Data Registry were used...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Eva M Andersson, Björn Fagerberg, Gerd Sallsten, Yan Borné, Bo Hedblad, Gunnar Engström, Lars Barregard
Exposure to cadmium confers increased cardiovascular risk. Tobacco smoke contains cadmium, which, hypothetically, may mediate parts of the tobacco-associated risk of developing atherosclerotic plaques. Baseline data from the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were used to test this hypothesis. Mediation analysis was used to examine associations between smoking and blood cadmium levels, and prevalence of ultrasound-assessed carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The total association with smoking status (never-smokers, two categories of ex-smokers, and current smokers) was split into direct and indirect association and the proportion mediated was estimated...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Steven T W van Haelst, Saskia Haitjema, Wouter Derksen, Ian van Koeverden, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Frans L Moll, Hester M den Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp, Gert J de Borst
BACKGROUND: Plaque characteristics such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) have been associated with secondary cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. In addition, carotid plaques containing macrophage infiltration or a large lipid core size were associated with less restenosis. It is currently unknown whether iliofemoral plaque histopathologic characteristics are predictive for secondary CVE in patients with peripheral arterial disease undergoing iliofemoral endarterectomy...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Giulio Ceolotto, Alessandra Giannella, Mattia Albiero, Maniselvan Kuppusamy, Claudia Radu, Paolo Simioni, Katia Garlaschelli, Andrea Baragetti, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Elisabetta Iori, Gian Paolo Fadini, Angelo Avogaro, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg
Aims: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease wherein cholesterol-loaded macrophages play a major role. MicroRNAs and microparticles propagate inflammatory pathways and are involved in cardiovascular disease. We aimed to screen and validate circulating microRNAs correlated with atherosclerosis development in humans, and to dissect the molecular mechanisms associated with atherogenesis using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methods and results: A panel of 179 secreted microRNAs was screened in plasma samples of patients with and without atherosclerosis, and validated cross-sectionally and prospectively in patients followed for up to 11 years...
August 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Jie-Hong Wu, Yanan Li, Yi-Fan Zhou, James Haslam, Opoku Nana Elvis, Ling Mao, Yuan-Peng Xia, Bo Hu
Aims: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are crucial events in the neointimal formation, a hallmark of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Semaphorin3E (Sema3E) has been found to be a critical regulator of cell migration and proliferation in many scenarios. However, its role on VSMCs migration and proliferation is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Sema3E on VSMCs migration, proliferation and neointimal formation, and explore possible mechanisms...
September 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Susanna Brauner, Xintong Jiang, Gudny Ella Thorlacius, Anna M Lundberg, Therese Östberg, Zhong-Qun Yan, Vijay K Kuchroo, Göran K Hansson, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
Aims: Patients with hyperlipidemia are at risk of atherosclerosis, but not all develop cardiovascular disease, highlighting the importance of other risk factors such as inflammation. Both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system have been suggested in the initiation and propagation of plaque formation. Tri-partite motif (TRIM) 21 is a regulator of tissue inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and has been implicated in chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we investigate a potential role for TRIM21 in coronary artery disease...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Aleš Pleskovič, Marija Šantl Letonja, Andreja Cokan Vujkovac, Jana Makuc, Jovana Nikolajević Starčević, Danijel Petrovič
BACKGROUND: Our study was designed to test a possible association between polymorphisms of the SPP1 gene (rs4754, rs28357094) and markers of carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT, number of affected segments of carotid arteries, sum of plaque thickness, presence of carotid plaques, and presence of unstable carotid plaques) in subjects with T2DM. The second aim was to test the possible association between polymorphisms of the SPP1 gene (rs4754, rs28357094) and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT progression, change in total plaque thickness, change in the number of sites with plaques) in subjects with T2DM...
October 9, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Tiantian Liu, Hengfang Liu, Li Feng, Bo Xiao
Stroke caused by atherosclerosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, associated with carotid plaque rupture and inflammation progression. However, the inflammatory biomarkers which aid in predicting the future course of plaques are less detailed. The present study investigated the association between plaque vulnerable and inflammatory biomarkers using blood and plaque specimens. Carotid plaque specimens were obtained from 80 patients following stroke, 14 patients suffering from transient ischaemic attack and 17 asymptomatic patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Susanne Homann, Maria Grandoch, Lena S Kiene, Yanina Podsvyadek, Kathrin Feldmann, Berit Rabausch, Nadine Nagy, Stefan Lehr, Inga Kretschmer, Alexander Oberhuber, Paul Bollyky, Jens W Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Hyaluronan (HA) is a prominent component of the provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) present in the neointima of atherosclerotic plaques. Here the role of HA synthase 3 (HAS3) in atheroprogression was studied. APPROACH AND RESULTS: It is demonstrated here that HAS isoenzymes 1, -2 and -3 are expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery. In Apolipoprotein E (Apoe)-deficient mice Has3 expression is increased early during lesion formation when macrophages enter atherosclerotic plaques...
October 5, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Hernan A Bazan, Yan Lu, Bokkyoo Jun, Zhide Fang, T Cooper Woods, Song Hong
BACKGROUND: Efficient biomarkers for early prediction and diagnosis of an acutely symptomatic carotid plaque rupture event are currently lacking, impairing the ability to diagnose and treat patients with an acute plaque rupture events in a timely fashion. Resolvins are endogenous inflammation-resolving lipid mediators that are induced by inflammatory insults. We hypothesized that resolvin and other lipid profiles in sera likely mark the process towards plaque rupture. METHODS: Circulating lipids associated with plaque rupture events were quantitatively profiled via targeted mediator-lipidomics using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in patients with acutely symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid disease...
October 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Birgit Småbrekke, Ludvig Balteskard Rinde, Erin Mathiesen Hald, Inger Njølstad, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Stein Harald Johnsen, John-Bjarne Hansen, Sigrid K Braekkan, Willem M Lijfering
BACKGROUND: Whether a relationship between atherosclerosis and subsequent venous thromboembolism (VTE) exists is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between carotid atherosclerosis and VTE using repeated measurements of intima media thickness (IMT) and total plaque area (TPA) in participants recruited from the general population. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the fourth (1994-1995), fifth (2001-2002) and sixth (2007-2008) surveys of the Tromsø study...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Xiaowei Huang, Yanling Zhang, Long Meng, Derek Abbott, Ming Qian, Kelvin K L Wong, Rongqing Zheng, Hairong Zheng, Lili Niu
OBJECTIVE: Carotid plaque echogenicity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Gray-scale median (GSM) of the ultrasound image of carotid plaques has been widely used as an objective method for evaluation of plaque echogenicity in patients with atherosclerosis. We proposed a computer-aided method to evaluate plaque echogenicity and compared its efficiency with GSM. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five carotid plaques (43 echo-rich, 35 intermediate, 47 echolucent) were collected from 72 patients in this study...
2017: PloS One
G Jin
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between the serum macrophage chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) levels and the vulnerable carotid plaque in patients with ischemic stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We successively selected 118 cases of patients with an initial diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (time of onset < 72 h), recorded risk factors, including gender, age, family history, smoking, body mass index, blood glucose levels, blood lipid levels, average systolic pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and homocysteine levels...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mihyun Kim, Chi Young Shim, Seong-Chan You, In-Jeong Cho, Geu-Ru Hong, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) often have proximal aortic dilatation and systemic vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that BAV patients would have different carotid artery structural and functional characteristics compared to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients. In 28 patients with surgically confirmed BAV and 27 patients with TAV, intima media thickness (IMT), number of plaques, fractional area change (FAC), global circumferential strain (GCS), and standard deviation of CS (SD-CS) in both common carotid arteries were assessed using duplex ultrasound and velocity vector imaging (VVI)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Yan Song, Jun Feng, Ying Dang, Chao Zhao, Jie Zheng, Litao Ruan
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plaque echo, thickness and neovascularization in different stenosis groups using quantitative and semi-quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with carotid atherosclerosis plaque. A total of 224 plaques were divided into mild stenosis (<50%; 135 plaques, 60.27%), moderate stenosis (50%-69%; 39 plaques, 17.41%) and severe stenosis (70%-99%; 50 plaques, 22.32%) groups. Quantitative and semi-quantitative methods were used to assess plaque neovascularization and determine the relationship between plaque echo, thickness and neovascularization...
September 28, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Marta Skowronska, Anna Piorkowska, Anna Czlonkowska
OBJECTIVES: There is little data about sex differences in carotid atherosclerosis in the early phase after an ischemic event. The aim of this study was to examine the carotid artery atherosclerosis differences between men and women in early phase after TIA or stroke. METHODS: Consecutive patients with recent ischemic event, admitted during the first week after symptom onset were examined with ultrasound. Sex differences in degree of stenosis, number of plaques and plaque morphology were compared...
September 20, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
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