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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904029/coronary-artery-calcium-and-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-and-plaque-clinical-use-in-need-of-clarification
#1
Maryam Zaid, Akira Fujiyoshi, Aya Kadota, Robert D Abbott, Katsuyuki Miura
Atherosclerosis begins in early life and has a long latent period prior to onset of clinical disease. Measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, therefore, may have important implications for research and clinical practice of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In this review, we focus on coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque as many population-based studies have investigated these measures due to their non-invasive features and ease of administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903864/oral-thrombin-inhibitor-aggravates-platelet-adhesion-and-aggregation-during-arterial-thrombosis
#2
Tobias Petzold, Manuela Thienel, Ildiko Konrad, Irene Schubert, Ron Regenauer, Boj Hoppe, Michael Lorenz, Annekathrin Eckart, Sue Chandraratne, Carsten Lennerz, Christof Kolb, Daniel Braun, Janina Jamasbi, Richard Brandl, Siegmund Braun, Wolfgang Siess, Christian Schulz, Steffen Massberg
In patients with atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation with oral thrombin inhibitors (OTIs), in contrast to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), associates with a modest increase in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). Whether this observation is causatively linked to OTI treatment and, if so, whether OTI action is the result of a lower antithrombotic efficacy of OTI compared to VKA or reflects a yet undefined prothrombotic activity of OTI remain unclear. We analyzed platelet function in patients receiving OTI or dose-adapted VKA under static and flow conditions...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899750/circulating-micrornas-as-novel-biomarkers-of-stenosis-progression-in-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis
#3
Sandra Dolz, David Górriz, José Ignacio Tembl, Dolors Sánchez, Gerardo Fortea, Vera Parkhutik, Aida Lago
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progression of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) in patients with >50% luminal narrowing is considered a potential risk factor for ischemic stroke; however, subclinical molecular biomarkers of ACAS progression are lacking. Recent studies suggest a regulatory function for several microRNAs (miRNAs) on the evolution of carotid plaque, but its role in ACAS progression is mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate a wide miRNA panel in peripheral blood exosomes from patients with ACAS to associate circulating miRNA expression profiles with stenosis progression...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895035/microrna-210-enhances-fibrous-cap-stability-in-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions
#4
Suzanne M Eken, Hong Jin, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Yuhuang Li, Nancy Simon, Changyan Sun, Greg Korzunowicz, Albert Busch, Alexandra Bäcklund, Cecilia Österholm, Anton Razuvaev, Thomas Renné, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Jaroslav Pelisek, Per Eriksson, Maria Gonzalez Diez, Ljubica P Matic Perisic, Isabel N Schellinger, Uwe Raaz, Nicholas J Leeper, Göran K Hansson, Gabrielle Paulsson-Berne, Ulf Hedin, Lars Maegdefessel
RATIONALE: In the search for markers and modulators of vascular disease, miRNAs have emerged as potent therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVE: To investigate miRNAs of clinical interest in patients with unstable carotid stenosis at risk of stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Utilizing patient material from the Biobank of Karolinska Endarterectomies (BiKE), we profiled miRNA expression in patients with stable vs unstable carotid plaque. A PCR-based miRNA array of plasma, sampled at the carotid lesion site, identified eight deregulated miRNAs (miR-15b, -29c, -30c/d, -150, -191, -210 and -500)...
November 28, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893402/a-convolutional-neural-network-for-automatic-characterization-of-plaque-composition-in-carotid-ultrasound
#5
Karim Lekadir, Alfiia Galimzianova, Angels Betriu, Maria Del Mar Vila, Laura Igual, Daniel Rubin, Elvira Fernandez, Petia Radeva, Sandy Napel
Characterization of carotid plaque composition, more specifically the amount of lipid core, fibrous tissue, and calcified tissue, is an important task for the identification of plaques that are prone to rupture, and thus for early risk estima-tion of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Due to its low costs and wide availability, carotid ultrasound has the potential to become the modality of choice for plaque characterization in clinical practice. However, its significant image noise, coupled with the small size of the plaques and their complex appearance, makes it difficult for automated techniques to discriminate be-tween the different plaque constituents...
November 22, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888153/three-dimensional-black-blood-t2-mapping-with-compressed-sensing-and-data-driven-parallel-imaging-in-the-carotid-artery
#6
Jianmin Yuan, Ammara Usman, Scott A Reid, Kevin F King, Andrew J Patterson, Jonathan H Gillard, Martin J Graves
PURPOSE: To develop a 3D black-blood T2 mapping sequence with a combination of compressed sensing (CS) and parallel imaging (PI) for carotid wall imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3D black-blood fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence for T2 mapping with CS and PI was developed and validated. Phantom experiments were performed to assess T2 accuracy using a Eurospin Test Object, with different combination of CS and PI acceleration factors. A 2D multi-echo FSE sequence was used as a reference to evaluate the accuracy...
November 22, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887791/cryptogenic-stroke-and-nonstenosing-intracranial-calcified-atherosclerosis
#7
Hooman Kamel, Gino Gialdini, Hediyeh Baradaran, Ashley E Giambrone, Babak B Navi, Michael P Lerario, James K Min, Costantino Iadecola, Ajay Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Because some cryptogenic strokes may result from large-artery atherosclerosis that goes unrecognized as it causes <50% luminal stenosis, we compared the prevalence of nonstenosing intracranial atherosclerotic plaques ipsilateral to cryptogenic cerebral infarcts versus the unaffected side using imaging biomarkers of calcium burden. METHODS: In a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients with cerebral infarction limited to the territory of one internal carotid artery (ICA)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886564/c-reactive-protein-is-related-to-future-cognitive-impairment-and-decline-in-elderly-individuals-with-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Galit Weinstein, Miriam Lutski, Uri Goldbourt, David Tanne
AIMS: To explore the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels with subsequent cognitive performance and decline among elderly individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to assess the role of cerebrovascular indices in this relationship. METHODS: CRP levels were measured in a subgroup of individuals with chronic CVD, who previously participated in a secondary prevention trial. Cognitive performance was evaluated 14.7±1.9 and 19...
November 9, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885376/high-prevalence-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-psoriatic-arthritis-patients-a-study-based-on-carotid-ultrasound
#9
Rosario Ibáñez-Bosch, Juliana Restrepo-Velez, Miguel Medina-Malone, Laura Garrido-Courel, Inmaculada Paniagua-Zudaire, Eduardo Loza-Cortina
Analyse the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic arthritis patients (PsA). A cross-sectional study of 53 patients with PsA and 53 controls matched for age and sex was designed. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the presence of carotid plaques (CP) were assessed with carotid ultrasound. Data on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors were collected. Patients with PsA had a higher prevalence rate of obesity and tobacco smoking. CP were detected more frequently in patients with PsA than in controls with an OR of 4...
November 24, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884845/prevalence-and-determinants-of-carotid-plaque-in-the-cross-sectional-refine-reykjavik-study
#10
Ran Sturlaugsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Gudlaug Bjornsdottir, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Bolli Thorsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason
OBJECTIVE: Carotid plaque and intima-media thickness are non-invasive arterial markers that are used as surrogate end points for cardiovascular disease. The aim was to assess the prevalence and severity of carotid plaque, and examine its determinant risk factors and their association to the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) in a general population. METHODS: We examined 6524 participants aged 25-69 years in the population-based REFINE (Risk Evaluation For INfarct Estimates)-Reykjavik study...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881291/assessment-of-carotid-plaque-inflammation-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-patients-an-exploratory-ultrasmall-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#11
Ammara Usman, Andrew J Patterson, Umar Sadat, Tjun Y Tang, Martin J Graves, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enables the identification of inflammation within the atheroma, predominantly by USPIO uptake by macrophages present in atherosclerotic tissue. Diabetic patients, however, may have dysfunctional macrophage activity, which may affect utilization of USPIO in identifying plaque inflammation in this patient cohort. METHODS: Fifteen diabetic and fifteen nondiabetic patients underwent USPIO-enhanced carotid MR imaging using 1...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878405/a-comparison-study-between-3d-t2-weighted-space-and-conventional-2d-t2-weighted-turbo-spin-echo-in-assessment-of-carotid-plaque
#12
Peng Lv, Yuanyuan Dai, Jiang Lin, Weisheng Zhang, Hao Liu, Hui Liu, Xiao Tang
The aim of this study was to compare 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (T2w SPACE) with conventional 2D T2w turbo-spin echo (TSE) in plaque imaging of carotid artery. 45 patients underwent 3.0-T MRI for carotid arteries imaging. MR sequences included T2w SPACE, T2w TSE, Time of flight (TOF) and T1-weighted (T1w) TSE. The signal intensity of intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and loose matrix (LM) were measured and their contrast ratios (CRs) against adjacent muscle were calculated...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876431/cystatin-c-vascular-biomarkers-and-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-patients-with-unresponsive-hypertensive-phenotype-a-pilot-study
#13
Velibor Čabarkapa, Branislava Ilinčić, Mirjana Đerić, Viktorija Vučaj Ćirilović, Milena Kresoja, Radmila Žeravica, Vladimir Sakač
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are commonly used to estimate the presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with essential arterial hypertension (HT). In addition to known association between cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elucidating the association between cystatin C and vascular biomarkers (intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (CCIMT), carotid plaque and renal artery resistance index (RRI)) in patients with unresponsive hypertensive phenotype could be of significant clinical interest...
November 23, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870948/hba1c-increase-is-associated-with-higher-coronary-and-peripheral-atherosclerotic-burden-in-non-diabetic-patients
#14
Roberto Scicali, Philippe Giral, Antonio Gallo, Antonino Di Pino, Agata Maria Rabuazzo, Francesco Purrello, Philippe Cluzel, Alban Redheuil, Eric Bruckert, David Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile of non-diabetic patients with and without prediabetes according to HbA1c, using macroangiopathic imaging biomarkers. METHODS: Our population consisted of 272 non diabetic patients aged between 40 and 70 years, with a normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG <5.6 mmol/L) and at least 1 CV risk factor...
November 4, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866279/high-risk-carotid-plaques-identified-by-ct-angiogram-can-predict-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
Wassim Mosleh, Keenan Adib, Punnanithinont Natdanai, Andres Carmona-Rubio, Roshan Karki, Jacienta Paily, Mohamed Abdel-Aal Ahmed, Sujit Vakkalanka, Narasa Madam, Gregory D Gudleski, Charles Chung, Umesh C Sharma
Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865698/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-debris-captured-by-filter-type-distal-embolic-protection-devices-for-carotid-artery-stenting
#16
Yukinao Kambayashi, Ichiro Yuki, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Ayako Ikemura, Takashi Umezawa, Masafumi Suzuki, Issei Kan, Hiroyuki Takao, Yuichi Murayama
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the micro-debris captured in filter-type distal embolic protection devices (EPD) used for carotid stenting (CAS). This study aimed to determine the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of such debris by using a new liquid-based cytology (LBC) technique. METHODS: Fifteen patients who underwent CAS using a filter-type distal EPD (FilterWire EZ; Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA) were included in the study. After gross inspection of each recovered filter device, micro-debris were collected using a new LBC technique (SurePath; TriPath Imaging, Inc...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864898/anti-inflammatory-drugs-decrease-infection-of-endothelial-cells-with-ehv-1-in-vitro
#17
L S Goehring, K Brandes, L V Ashton, L A Wittenburg, F J Olea-Popelka, D P Lunn, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equid Herpesvirus-associated Myeloencephalopathy is the result of endothelial cell infection of the spinal cord vasculature with EHV-1 during cell-associated viraemia. Endothelial cell infection requires contact between infected peripheral blood mononuclear and endothelial cells. Inflammation generated during viraemia likely up-regulates adhesion molecule expression on both cell types increasing contact and facilitating endothelial cell infection. OBJECTIVES: Evaluating the role of anti-inflammatory drugs in decreasing endothelial cell infection with EHV-1...
November 19, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864523/carotid-artery-web-and-ischemic-stroke-a-case-control-study
#18
Jonathan M Coutinho, Sheldon Derkatch, Alphonse R J Potvin, George Tomlinson, Leanne K Casaubon, Frank L Silver, Daniel M Mandell
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between carotid artery web and ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was a single-center, age- and sex-matched, case-control study. Cases were consecutive patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment [TOAST] classification). Controls were consecutive patients with cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or primary intracerebral hemorrhages...
November 18, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864310/low-tlr7-gene-expression-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-is-associated-with-major-adverse-cardio-and-cerebrovascular-events
#19
Glykeria Karadimou, Lasse Folkersen, Martin Berg, Ljubica Perisic, Andrea Discacciati, Joy Roy, Göran K Hansson, Jonas Persson, Gabrielle Paulsson-Berne
AIMS: Processes in the development of atherosclerotic lesions can lead to plaque rupture or erosion, which can in turn elicit myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene expression levels influence patient outcome and to explore the mechanisms linked to TLR7 expression in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques were removed by carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and subjected to gene array expression analysis (n=123)...
November 15, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857821/carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-predictors-of-plaque-occurrence-and-progression-over-24-weeks
#20
Janet E Pope, Tatiana Nevskaya, Lillian Barra, Grace Parraga
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the prevalence and progression of subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Carotid arteries of RA patients were scanned using 3D ultrasound at baseline and 24 weeks for total plaque area, vessel wall volume, and intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as arterial stiffness measured using pulse wave velocity. Variables related to inflammation, lipids and cardiovascular (CV) risk were assessed for associations with plaque progression...
2016: Open Rheumatology Journal
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