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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652948/streptococcus-mutans-a-potential-risk-factor-in-recurrent-hemorrhagic-stroke
#1
Tarek R Mansour, Yasaman Alam, Layth Dahbour, Ahmed Alnemari, Mouhammad Jumaa, Jason L Schroeder
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and is responsible for approximately nine percent of all deaths worldwide. Cases of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)-induced intracerebral hemorrhage as a result of bloodstream infections have seldom been reported. New reports show that bacteria with specific collagen binding proteins (CBPs), such as the Cnm type produced by S. mutans, may inhibit platelet aggregation and cause bleeding. In this article, we report on a 62-year-old man with a recent history of left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who presented to the emergency department after a fall due to suspected seizure while in rehabilitation...
May 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646450/microrna-changes-in-preconditioning-induced-neuroprotection
#2
REVIEW
Josh D Bell, Jang-Eun Cho, Rona G Giffard
Preconditioning is a paradigm in which sublethal stress-prior to a more injurious insult-induces protection against injury. In the central nervous system (CNS), preconditioning against ischemic stroke is induced by short durations of ischemia, brief seizures, exposure to anesthetics, and other stresses. Increasing evidence supports the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and ischemic tolerance induced by preconditioning. Studies investigating miRNA changes induced by preconditioning have to date identified 562 miRNAs that change expression levels after preconditioning, and 15% of these changes were reproduced in at least one additional study...
June 23, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645800/high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-entire-genomic-regions-of-ccm1-krit1-ccm2-and-ccm3-pdcd10-to-search-for-pathogenic-deep-intronic-splice-mutations-in-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#3
Matthias Rath, Sönke E Jenssen, Konrad Schwefel, Stefanie Spiegler, Dana Kleimeier, Christian Sperling, Lars Kaderali, Ute Felbor
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions of the central nervous system that can cause headaches, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Disease-associated mutations have been identified in three genes: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2 and CCM3/PDCD10. The precise proportion of deep-intronic variants in these genes and their clinical relevance is yet unknown. Here, a long-range PCR (LR-PCR) approach for target enrichment of the entire genomic regions of the three genes was combined with next generation sequencing (NGS) to screen for coding and non-coding variants...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644259/antiphospholipid-syndrome-with-a-distinctive-constellation-of-neurological-manifestations-blue-toes-red-valves-white-retinal-spots
#4
Brandon T Nokes, Oana M Dumitrascu, Fadi E Shamoun, Cumara B OʼCarroll
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) encompasses a hypercoagulable state with a markedly increased risk for cerebrovascular complications. In addition to the classic stroke features of APS, however, there are numerous recently described "non-criteria" neurological conditions such as headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment. We present a case of APS with uncommon neurological manifestations.
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643997/brain-monitoring-in-adult-and-pediatric-ecmo-patients-the-importance-of-early-and-late-assessments
#5
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio S Taccone, Mirko Belliato, Thijs Delnoij, Paolo Zanatta, Mirjana Cvetkovic, Mark Davidson, Jan Belohlavek, Nashwa Matta, Carl Davis, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Thomas Mueller, Ralf Muellenbach, Dirk Donker, Piero David, Matteo DI Nardo, Dirk Vlasselaers, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Aparna Hoskote
Monitoring brain integrity and neuro-cognitive function is a new and important target for the management of a patient treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in particular because of the increasing awareness of cerebral abnormalities that may potentially occur in this setting. Continuous regular monitoring, as well as repeated assessment for cerebral complications has become an essential element of the ECMO patient management. Besides well-known complications, like bleeding, ischemic stroke, seizures, and brain hypoperfusion, other less defined yet relevant injury and clinical manifestations are increasingly reported and impacting on ECMO patient prognosis at short term...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643603/stroke-like-migraine-attacks-after-radiation-therapy-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Achint K Singh, Bundhit Tantiwongkosi, Anna-Marieta Moise, Wilson B Altmeyer
A 26-year-old female presented with vision loss accompanied by migraine-like headaches. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed which revealed findings suggestive of stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome. SMART syndrome is a delayed complication of brain radiation characterized by neurologic symptoms including migraine-like headaches, seizures, and hemispheric impairment. The purpose of this article is to make the readers aware of this rare complication of brain irradiation...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631057/diabetes-mellitus-a-risk-factor-for-seizures-in-the-elderly-a-population-based-study
#8
Marta Baviera, Maria Carla Roncaglioni, Mauro Tettamanti, Tommaso Vannini, Ida Fortino, Angela Bortolotti, Luca Merlino, Ettore Beghi
AIMS: To evaluate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and risk of seizures in a well-defined elderly population. METHODS: The administrative databases of the Lombardy region (a 10 million population area in Northern Italy) were used to identify persons aged 65 years or older with DM (defined by prescription of antidiabetic drugs and/or through ICD-9 CM code and/or exemption code for diabetes) during the year 2002. Seizure-free DM subjects were followed until 2012 in search of individuals with incident seizures (identified through ICD-9 CM codes for epilepsy/seizures or ATC codes for antiepileptic drugs associated with the prescription of an electroencephalogram)...
June 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622073/neighborhood-poverty-and-9-1-1-ambulance-contacts
#9
Josh Seim, Joshua English, Karl Sporer
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood poverty is positively associated with frequency of 9-1-1 ambulance utilization, but it is unclear whether this association remains significant when accounting for variations in the severities and types of ambulance contacts. METHODS: We merged EMS ambulance contact records in a single California county (n = 88,027) with data from the American Community Survey at the census tract level (n = 300). Using tract as a proxy for neighborhood and negative binomial regression as an analytical tool, we predicted 16 outcomes: any ambulance contacts, ambulance contacts stratified by three intervention severities, and ambulance contacts varied by 12 primary impression categories...
June 16, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622071/survival-in-out-of-hospital-rapid-sequence-intubation-of-non-traumatic-brain-pathologies
#10
Pieter Francsois Fouche, Paul Andrew Jennings, Karen Smith, Malcolm Boyle, Gabriel Blecher, Jonathan Knott, Mani Raji, Pamela Rosengarten, Michael Roberto Augello, Stephen Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is not only used in traumatic brain injuries in the out-of-hospital setting, but also for non-traumatic brain pathologies (NTBP) such as brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, hypoxic/anoxic brain injury, stroke, arteriovenous malformations, tumors, aneurysms, brain hemorrhage, as well as brain injury due to diabetes, seizures and toxicity, metabolic conditions, and alcohol and drug overdose. Previous research suggests that RSI is common in non-traumatic coma, but with an unknown prevalence of NTBP in those that receive RSI...
June 16, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621151/case-report-and-literature-review-on-contrast-induced-encephalopathy
#11
Mardi Hamra, Yasir Bakhit, Mahboob Khan, Roger Moore
Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is a rare neurological complication following the administration of injectable intravascular contrast media. Patients with CIE present a wide spectrum of symptoms such as headache, transient cortical blindness, seizure and focal neurological deficits. The diagnosis of CIE requires a high index of suspicion. Its early recognition is of paramount importance in instituting the appropriate supportive treatment in the form of intravenous fluids and also in avoiding unnecessary potentially harmful treatment such as intravenous thrombolysis for suspected ischemic stroke...
June 16, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620567/a-retrospective-cohort-study-to-assess-patient-and-physician-reported-outcome-measures-after-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#12
Sanjay Budhdeo, Angelos G Kolias, David J Clark, Aswin Chari, Peter J Hutchinson, Elizabeth A Warburton
INTRODUCTION: Decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is known to reduce mortality. However, there are on-going concerns in terms of the quality of life in survivors. We aimed to examine the correlation between patient and physician reported outcome measures in decompressive hemicraniectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed outcomes in 21 patients who underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant MCA infarction between September 2003 and August 2013 within a regional health system...
May 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620564/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-child-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-a-tool-for-clinical-decision-making
#13
Jonathan Mayl, Hanisha Patel, Tushar Chandra
Moyamoya syndrome is a rare cerebrovasculopathy of unknown etiology which is associated with multiple risk factors. Moyamoya was first discovered in Japan and is reported to have an increased prevalence in the Japanese population. The term "Moyamoya" translates into "puff of smoke" and is named after the finding of the collateral cerebral vasculature that develops secondary to occlusion of an internal carotid artery at the entrance into the circle of Willis. This collateral vasculature characterizes the disease...
May 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618390/thirty-day-non-seizure-outcomes-following-temporal-lobectomy-for-adult-epilepsy
#14
Brandon A Sherrod, Matthew C Davis, Kristen O Riley
OBJECTIVE: Multi-institutional rates of acute adverse outcomes other than seizures after temporal lobectomy (TL) are not well understood. Here we analyzed short-term morbidity and mortality following TL using a validated national database. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The multi-institutional American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was queried by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code for TL procedures performed for adult patients with diagnoses related to epilepsy from 2008 to 2014...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616696/-epileptic-seizures-and-epilepsy-after-a-stroke-incidence-prevention-and-treatment
#15
F Benninger, M Holtkamp
Following stroke, 3-6% of patients develop acute symptomatic seizures within the first 7 days. The rate is higher after cerebral haemorrhage compared to ischaemia. In 10-12% of patients, after more than 7 days unprovoked seizures occur. Due to these low incidence rates, primary prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is generally not necessary. Following one acute symptomatic seizure, recurrence risk within the first 7 days post-stroke is 10-20%, generally arguing against secondary prophylaxis with an antiepileptic drug...
June 14, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615894/unknown-patients-and-neurology-casualty-services-in-an-indian-metropolitan-city-a-decades-experience
#16
Achary Umesh, Guru S Gowda, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Bharath Rose Dawn, Ragasudha Botta, Ravi Yadav, Suresh Bada Math
OBJECTIVES: A large number of unknown patients without any personal, family, or other identification details represent a unique problem in the neurological emergency services of developing countries like India in a context of legal, humanitarian, and treatment issues. These patients pose a diagnostic and management challenge to treating physicians and staff. There are sparse data on these patients. The objective of this study was to know the clinical, socio-demographic, and investigational profile of "unknown" patients...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614161/multiple-cerebral-infarcts-in-a-young-patient-associated-with-marijuana-use
#17
Leila Costa Volpon, Camila Lacerda Muniz de Melo Sousa, Silvia Keiko Kavaguti Moreira, Sara Reis Teixeira, Ana Paula de Carvalho Panzeri Carlotti
: Cerebrovascular events associated with marijuana use have been reported previously. This association is plausible, but not well-established yet. A 14-year-old girl, long-term heavy cannabis user, presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and decreased level of consciousness a few hours after smoking cannabis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple areas of acute, subacute and chronic ischemic lesions in the left frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. History of other illicit drug use and other known causes of stroke were ruled out...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608354/-presumed-perinatal-ischemic-stroke-risk-factors-and-clinical-and-radiological-findings
#18
N Villora-Morcillo, C Cordero-Castro, M Berenguer-Potenciano, J I Rodriguez-Martin, L Lucendo-Jimenez, A Camacho-Salas
INTRODUCTION: Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is a frequent cause of neurological sequelae. We aimed to describe the different clinical findings and risk factors and to analyse the differences according the vascular origin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study of patients diagnosed with presumed perinatal ischemic stroke attended at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 1990 to 2015. RESULTS: 44 patients were included. A total of 24 patients (55%) had arterial ischemic stroke and 20 (45%) had periventricular venous infarction...
June 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605741/electroencephalography-patterns-and-prognosis-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Fabricio O Lima, João A G Ricardo, Ana C Coan, Diogo C Soriano, Wagner M Avelar, Li L Min
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prognostic significance of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) and periodic patterns (PP) after ischemic stroke has not been assessed. We sought to test whether IED and PP, detected on standard Electroencephalography (EEG) performed during the acute phase of ischemic stroke are associated with a worse functional outcome. METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-seven patients 18 years or older with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke presenting within 72 h from stroke onset were prospectively enrolled and followed...
June 13, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589229/-stroke-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
REVIEW
S Meyer, M Poryo, M Flotats-Bastardas, D Ebrahimi-Fakhari, U Yilmaz
The occurrence of a stroke in children and adolescents constitutes a rare, critical event that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition to the individual suffering for the young patient and the medical burden for the affected family, a stroke is also associated with high follow-up costs for the health system because of the necessary long-term rehabilitative treatment. Establishing an early and prompt diagnosis is of great therapeutic importance. Because of the rarity of the illness and the plethora of clinical manifestations, diagnosis is often delayed...
June 6, 2017: Der Radiologe
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