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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920021/venous-and-arterial-air-embolism-a-rare-phenomenon-with-fatal-consequences
#1
Jatan Shah, Nasheena Jiwa, Natasha Mamdani, David Hill
Air embolism is often an iatrogenic complication which may occur in venous or arterial circulation depending on the port of entry. We present two cases in which air embolism occurred in venous and arterial circulation after contrast medium injection (CMI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, respectively. In one case, accumulation of air bubbles was observed in the pulmonary artery after CMI. This was attributed to inadvertent injection of air owing to improper connection of the injector and the catheter...
December 5, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914592/hyperuricemia-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-is-it-associated-with-the-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-the-disease
#2
Mahdi Sheikh, Shafieh Movassaghi, Mohammad Khaledi, Maryam Moghaddassi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between hyperuricemia and different neuropsychiatric manifestations and stroke risk factors in systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: This study was conducted on 204 SLE patients who were admitted to a tertiary referral center. A standardized questionnaire was completed for all the participants and the medical records were reviewed regarding the occurrence of arterial or venous thrombotic events, stroke, seizure, depression, headache, psychosis, and peripheral neuropathy...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#3
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
November 25, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907953/management-of-the-pediatric-neurocritical-care-patient
#4
Christopher M Horvat, Haifa Mtaweh, Michael J Bell
Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899309/repeated-misdiagnosis-of-a-relapsed-atypical-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-without-an-associated-ovarian-teratoma
#5
Weihe Zhang, Li Yan, Jinsong Jiao
We present an atypical case of relapsed anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a young female patient without an associated ovarian teratoma. She presented with recurrent seizure attacks with muscle weakness, psychosis, dyskinesia, autonomic failure and insomnia. She was first misdiagnosed as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) then Hashimoto's encephalopathy due to diffuse cerebral lesions, elevated serum lactic acid concentration, increased amount of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in serum and diffuse lesions of the thyroid gland...
November 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896904/contrast-induced-encephalopathy-following-cardiac-catheterization
#6
Roberto Spina, Neil Simon, Romesh Markus, David Wm Muller, Krishna Kathir
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) following cardiac catheterization. BACKGROUND: CIE is an acute, reversible neurological disturbance directly attributable to the intra-arterial administration of iodinated contrast medium. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched and all cases in the literature were retrieved and reviewed. RESULTS: 52 reports of CIE following cardiac catheterization were found...
November 29, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896131/case-report-5%C3%A2-year-follow-up-of-adult-late-onset-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-with-lactic-acid-and-stroke-like-episodes-melas
#7
Kiri Sunde, Patrick R Blackburn, Anvir Cheema, Jennifer Gass, Jessica Jackson, Sarah Macklin, Paldeep S Atwal
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acid and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder that typically presents in childhood. We describe the follow-up of a patient who was diagnosed with late-onset MELAS at the age of 49. Her clinical course includes sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, and multiple episodes of stroke-like metabolic crises. Molecular genetic testing on whole blood revealed 31% heteroplasmy of a m.3243A > G variant in the mtDNA, the causative variant in approximately 80% of MELAS cases...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878560/clinical-and-etiological-profile-of-epilepsy-in-elderly-a-hospital-based-study-from-rural-india
#8
Archana Verma, Alok Kumar
To determine the clinical profile and etiology of epilepsy in elderly patients in rural population of India which is in a phase of demographic transition with steadily growing geriatric population. A cross-sectional, prospective, hospital-based clinicoepidemiological study was performed from October 2014 to November 2015. Patients having onset of epilepsy after 60 years were incorporated in the study. We excluded the acute symptomatic seizures. One hundred and ten patients were enrolled and were divided into three standard subgroups: subgroup A (aged 60-70), subgroup B (aged 71-80), and subgroup C (aged 81-90)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870400/sex-differences-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-neurosteroids
#9
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions, such as brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizure types; however, some sex-specific seizure disorders are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, substantial data indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs between the sexes. Men generally exhibit greater seizure susceptibility than women, whereas many women with epilepsy experience a cyclical occurrence of seizures that tends to center around the menstrual period, which has been termed catamenial epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869334/prediction-of-long-term-prognosis-by-heteroplasmy-levels-of-the-m-3243a-g-mutation-in-patients-with-the-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes-syndrome
#10
A Fayssoil, P Laforêt, W Bougouin, C Jardel, A Lombès, H M Bécane, N Berber, T Stojkovic, A Béhin, B Eymard, D Duboc, K Wahbi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of urine and blood heteroplasmy in patients with the m.3243A>G mutation. METHODS: Adults with the m.3243A>G mutation referred to our institution between January 2000 and May 2014 were retrospectively included. The relationship between their baseline clinical characteristics, their mutation load in urine and blood, and major adverse events (MAEs) during follow-up, defined as medical complications requiring a hospitalization or complicated by death, was studied...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865204/possible-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#11
J Kalita, U K Misra, S K Bhoi, P S Chauhan, Betai Sagar
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and its role in hydrocephalus and stoke has been suggested. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is associated with exudates, stroke, hydrocephalus and tuberculoma, but the role of TGF-β has not been evaluated in relation to these changes. AIM: To evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TGF-β level in the patients with TBM, and correlate these with clinical findings, MRI changes, paradoxical response and outcome at 6months...
November 16, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857839/fatal-outcome-in-a-hispanic-woman-with-moyamoya-syndrome-and-graves-disease
#12
Julian Choi, Perin Suthakar, Farbod Farmand
: We describe the case of a young Hispanic female who presented with thyrotoxicosis with seizures and ischemic stroke. She was diagnosed with a rare vasculopathy - moyamoya syndrome. After starting antithyroid therapy, her neurologic symptoms did not improve. Acute neurosurgical intervention had relieved her symptoms in the immediate post-operative period after re-anastomosis surgery. However, 2 post-operative days later, she was found to be in status epilepticus and in hyperthyroid state...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829722/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-intracranial-stenting-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery
#13
Boby Varkey Maramattom
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare complication following cerebral revascularization. It presents with ipsilateral headache, seizures, and intracerebral hemorrhage. It has mostly been described following extracranial carotid endarterectomy and stenting and it is very unusual after intracranial stenting. A 71-year-old man with a stuttering stroke was taken up for a cerebral angiogram (digital subtraction angiography), which showed a dissection of the distal left middle cerebral artery. This was recanalized with a solitaire AB stent...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816347/cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#14
José Manuel Ferro, Patrícia Canhão, Diana Aguiar de Sousa
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has an incidence of 1.32/100,000/years in high-income countries, and higher in middle- and low-income countries. CVT is more frequent in infants and children young adults and females, especially during pregnancy/puerperium. CVT are now being diagnosed with increasing frequency because of the increased awareness and higher use of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) for investigating patients with acute and subacute headaches and new onset seizures. CVT rarely present as a stroke syndrome...
December 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815401/proportion-of-single-chain-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-and-outcome-after-stroke
#15
Didier Leys, Yannick Hommet, Clémence Jacquet, Solène Moulin, Igor Sibon, Jean-Louis Mas, Thierry Moulin, Maurice Giroud, Sharmila Sagnier, Charlotte Cordonnier, Elisabeth Medeiros de Bustos, Guillaume Turc, Thomas Ronzière, Yannick Bejot, Olivier Detante, Thavarak Ouk, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Pascal Favrole, Mathieu Zuber, Aude Triquenot-Bagan, Ozlem Ozkul-Wermester, Francisco Macian Montoro, Chantal Lamy, Anthony Faivre, Laurent Lebouvier, Camille Potey, Mathilde Poli, Hilde Hénon, Pauline Renou, Nelly Dequatre-Ponchelle, Marie Bodenant, Sabrina Debruxelles, Costanza Rossi, Régis Bordet, Denis Vivien
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the ratio single chain (sc)/(sc + 2 chain [tc]) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) influences outcomes in patients with cerebral ischemia. METHODS: We prospectively included consecutive patients treated with IV rtPA for cerebral ischemia in 13 stroke centers and determined the sc/(sc + tc) ratio in the treatment administered to each patient. We evaluated the outcome with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months (prespecified analysis) and occurrence of epileptic seizures (post hoc analysis)...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814760/clinical-predictors-of-seizure-recurrence-after-the-first-post-ischemic-stroke-seizure
#16
Hyeon Jin Kim, Kee Duk Park, Kyoung-Gyu Choi, Hyang Woon Lee
BACKGROUND: The number of patients suffering post-stroke seizure after ischemic stroke (PSSi) is quite considerable, especially because ischemic stroke is more prevalent than hemorrhage in the general population. This study aimed to determine the predicting factors for seizure recurrence in ischemic stroke survivors and develop a clinical scoring system for the prediction of risks for seizure recurrence after the first PSSi. METHODS: We reviewed 3792 ischemic stroke patients from the Ewha Stroke Registry...
November 5, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809371/abnormal-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-are-very-likely-in-cases-of-bilateral-neonatal-arterial-ischaemic-stroke
#17
Ju Hyun Jin, Jeong Eun Shin, Soonmin Lee, Ho Sun Eun, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park, Ran Namgung
AIM: Neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) is an important cause of severe neurological disability. This study aimed to analyse the clinical manifestations and outcomes of AIS patients. METHODS: We enrolled neonates with AIS admitted to Severance Children's Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital between 2008 and 2015. AIS was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, MRI findings, electroencephalography (EEG) findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes...
November 3, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805341/cocaine-abuse-an-unusual-association
#18
S C Chaudhary, K K Sawlani, H S Malhotra, Apurva, S Nanda, P K Rao
Cocaine addiction is a common problem in the adolescent and the young adults, pharmacologic interventions to reverse the effects of which do not exist. Neurological complications of cocaine abuse, such as seizures, headache, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, can be disastrous as a result of uncontrolled vasoconstriction and vasculitic damage. The lone occurrence of subdural hematoma in the absence of any other intracranial hemorrhagic complication is rarely seen in patients of cocaine abuse...
November 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792856/review-of-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-and-report-of-seven-additional-families
#19
REVIEW
Ivo J H M de Vos, Maaike Vreeburg, Ger H Koek, Maurice A M van Steensel
Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular anomalies of the central nervous system characterized by clusters of enlarged, leaky capillaries. They are caused by loss-of-function mutations in KRIT1, CCM2, or PDCD10. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in four partially interconnected signaling pathways that control angiogenesis and endothelial permeability. Cerebral cavernous malformations can occur sporadically, or as a familial autosomal dominant disorder (FCCM) with incomplete clinical and neuroradiological penetrance and great inter-individual variability...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790384/prominent-bilateral-hand-tremor-in-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-a-video-demonstration
#20
Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Nadeem Hosein, Joel David Teelucksingh, Fidel Rampersad, Surujpal Teelucksingh
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's encephalopathy often presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures and movement disorders. CASE REPORT: We describe a patient who presented with bilateral hand tremor and mild cognitive defects that fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. There was a rapid response to glucocorticoid therapy with relapse following treatment withdrawal. DISCUSSION: Recently published clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy include seizures, myoclonus, hallucinations, or stroke-like episodes but do not include tremor...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
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