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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916649/genomic-prediction-within-and-across-biparental-families-means-and-variances-of-prediction-accuracy-and-usefulness-of-deterministic-equations
#2
Pascal Schopp, Dominik Müller, Yvonne C J Wientjes, Albrecht E Melchinger
A major application of genomic prediction (GP) in plant breeding is the identification of superior inbred lines within families derived from biparental crosses. When models for various traits were trained within related or unrelated biparental families (BPFs), experimental studies found substantial variation in prediction accuracy (PA), but little is known about the underlying factors. We used SNP marker genotypes of inbred lines from either elite germplasm or landraces of maize (Zea mays L.) as parents to generate in silico 300 BPFs of doubled-haploid lines...
September 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916329/ecological-extension-of-the-theory-of-evolution-by-natural-selection-from-a-perspective-of-western-and-eastern-holistic-philosophy
#3
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nakajima
Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment, (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not unclearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist, with others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy in Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of local populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915899/association-between-polymorphisms-of-tas2r16-and-susceptibility-to-colorectal-cancer
#4
Jonathan Barontini, Marco Antinucci, Sergio Tofanelli, Maurizio Cammalleri, Massimo Dal Monte, Federica Gemignani, Pavel Vodicka, Roberto Marangoni, Ludmila Vodickova, Juozas Kupcinskas, Veronika Vymetalkova, Asta Forsti, Federico Canzian, Angelika Stein, Victor Moreno, Nicola Mastrodonato, Francesca Tavano, Anna Panza, Roberto Barale, Stefano Landi, Daniele Campa
BACKGROUND: Genetics plays an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the last 10 years genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 independent low penetrance polymorphic variants. However, these loci only explain around 1‑4% of CRC heritability, highlighting the dire need of identifying novel risk loci. In this study, we focused our attention on the genetic variability of the TAS2R16 gene, encoding for one of the bitter taste receptors that selectively binds to salicin, a natural antipyretic that resembles aspirin...
September 15, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#5
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915487/genetic-backgrounds-and-hidden-trait-complexity-in-natural-populations
#6
REVIEW
Téo Fournier, Joseph Schacherer
Dissecting the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation is a major goal in biology. We know that most traits are strongly heritable. However, their genetic architecture is a long-standing question, which is unfortunately confounded by the lack of complete knowledge of the genetic components as well as their phenotypic effect in a specific genetic background. Many genetic variants are known to affect phenotypes but the same functional variant can have a different effect on the phenotype in different individuals of the same species...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914717/the-relationship-between-mismatch-repair-deficiency-and-pd-l1-expression-in-breast-carcinoma
#7
Anne M Mills, Erik A Dill, Christopher A Moskaluk, Jaroslaw Dziegielewski, Tim N Bullock, Patrick M Dillon
Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in solid tumors has recently been linked to susceptibility to immunotherapies targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis. Loss of MMR proteins has been shown to correlate with tumoral PD-L1 expression in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas, but the association between expression of MMR proteins and PD-L1 has not previously been studied in breast carcinoma, where MMR deficiency is less common. We assessed the relationship between PD-L1 and MMR protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 245 primary and 40 metastatic breast carcinomas...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913347/haplotypes-for-type-degree-and-rate-of-marbling-in-cattle-are-syntenic-with-human-muscular-dystrophy
#8
Sally S Lloyd, Edward J Steele, Jose L Valenzuela, Roger L Dawkins
Traditional analyses of a QTL on Bota 19 implicate a surfeit of candidates, but each is of marginal significance in explaining the deposition of healthy, low melting temperature fat within marbled muscle of Wagyu cattle. As an alternative approach, we have used genomic, multigenerational segregation to identify 14 conserved, ancestral 20 Mb haplotypes. These determine the degree and rate of marbling in Wagyu and other breeds of cattle. The melting temperature of intramuscular fat is highly heritable and traceable by haplotyping...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911842/genetic-correlations-of-hip-dysplasia-scores-for-golden-retrievers-and-labrador-retrievers-in-france-sweden-and-the-uk
#9
S Wang, G Leroy, S Malm, T Lewis, Å Viklund, E Strandberg, W F Fikse
In order to reduce the prevalence of inherited diseases in pedigree dogs, the feasibility of implementation of an international breeding program was investigated. One prerequisite is a strong genetic correlation between countries and our objective was to estimate this correlation for canine hip dysplasia (HD) across three countries to evaluate the feasibility of an international genetic evaluation. Data were provided by the Société Centrale Canine (SCC, France), Svenska Kennelklubben (SKK, Sweden) and The Kennel Club (KC, UK) on Golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911800/evolution-of-the-sex-ratio-and-effective-number-under-gynodioecy-and-androdioecy
#10
Marcy K Uyenoyama, Naoki Takebayashi
We address the evolution of effective number of individuals under androdioecy and gynodioecy. We analyze dynamic models of autosomal modifiers of weak effect on sex expression. In our zygote control models, the sex expressed by a zygote depends on its own genotype, while in our maternal control models, it depends on the genotype of its maternal parent. Our analysis unifies full multi-dimensional local stability analysis with the Li-Price equation, which for all its heuristic appeal, describes evolutionary change over a single generation...
September 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911004/inherent-aerobic-capacity-dependent-differences-in-breast-carcinogenesis
#11
Henry J Thompson, Lee W Jones, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Elizabeth S Neil, John N McGinley
Although regular physical activity is associated with improvement in aerobic capacity and lower breast cancer risk, there are heritable sets of traits that affect improvement in aerobic capacity in response to physical activity. Although aerobic capacity segregates risk for a number of chronic diseases, the effect of the heritable component on cancer risk has not been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated breast carcinogenesis in rodent models of heritable fitness in the absence of induced physical activity...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910990/the-contribution-of-genetics-and-environment-to-obesity
#12
David Albuquerque, Clévio Nóbrega, Licínio Manco, Cristina Padez
Background: Obesity is a global health problem mainly attributed to lifestyle changes such as diet, low physical activity or socioeconomics factors. However, several evidences consistently showed that genetics contributes significantly to the weight-gain susceptibility. Sources of data: A systematic literature search of most relevant original, review and meta-analysis, restricted to English was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar up to May 2017 concerning the contribution of genetics and environmental factors to obesity...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910633/host-genetic-control-of-the-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#13
Andres Gomez, Josh L Espinoza, Derek M Harkins, Pamela Leong, Richard Saffery, Michelle Bockmann, Manolito Torralba, Claire Kuelbs, Rohith Kodukula, Jason Inman, Toby Hughes, Jeffrey M Craig, Sarah K Highlander, Marcus B Jones, Chris L Dupont, Karen E Nelson
Host-associated microbial communities are influenced by both host genetics and environmental factors. However, factors controlling the human oral microbiome and their impact on disease remain to be investigated. To determine the combined and relative effects of host genotype and environment on oral microbiome composition and caries phenotypes, we profiled the supragingival plaque microbiome of 485 dizygotic and monozygotic twins aged 5-11. Oral microbiome similarity always increased with shared host genotype, regardless of caries state...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910422/a-prolonged-chronological-lifespan-is-an-unexpected-benefit-of-the-psi-prion-in-yeast
#14
Kai Wang, Ronald Melki, Mehdi Kabani
Self-replicating 'proteinaceous infectious particles' or prions are responsible for complex heritable traits in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our current understanding of the biology of yeast prions stems from studies mostly done in the context of actively dividing cells in optimal laboratory growth conditions. Evidence suggest that fungal prions exist in the wild where most cells are in a non-dividing quiescent state, because of imperfect growth conditions, scarcity of nutrients and competition. We know little about the faithful transmission of yeast prions in such conditions and their physiological consequences throughout the lifespan of yeast cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910230/educational-attainment-and-personality-are-genetically-intertwined
#15
René Mõttus, Anu Realo, Uku Vainik, Jüri Allik, Tõnu Esko
Heritable variance in psychological traits may reflect genetic and biological processes that are not necessarily specific to these particular traits but pertain to a broader range of phenotypes. We tested the possibility that the personality domains of the five-factor model and their 30 facets, as rated by people themselves and their knowledgeable informants, reflect polygenic influences that have been previously associated with educational attainment. In a sample of more than 3,000 adult Estonians, education polygenic scores (EPSs), which are interpretable as estimates of molecular-genetic propensity for education, were correlated with various personality traits, particularly from the neuroticism and openness domains...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905661/genetic-parameters-for-the-prediction-of-abdominal-fat-traits-using-blood-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers
#16
H L Zhang, Z Q Xu, L L Yang, Y X Wang, Y M Li, J Q Dong, X Y Zhang, X Y Jiang, X F Jiang, H Li, D X Zhang, H Zhang
1. Excessive deposition of body fat, especially abdominal fat, is detrimental in chickens and the prevention of excessive fat accumulation is an important problem. The aim of this study was to identify blood biochemical indicators that could be used as criteria to select lean Yellow-feathered chicken lines. 2. Levels of blood biochemical indicators in the fed and fasted states and the abdominal fat traits were measured in 332 Guangxi Yellow chickens. In the fed state, the genetic correlations (rg) of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were positive for the abdominal fat traits (0...
September 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905442/fibrillin-microfibrils-structural-tensometers-of-elastic-tissues
#17
REVIEW
Cay M Kielty
Fibrillin microfibrils are indispensable structural elements of connective tissues in multicellular organisms from early metazoans to humans. They have an extensible periodic beaded organization, and support dynamic tissues such as ciliary zonules that suspend the lens. In tissues that express elastin, including blood vessels, skin and lungs, microfibrils support elastin deposition and shape the functional architecture of elastic fibres. The vital contribution of microfibrils to tissue form and function is underscored by the heritable fibrillinopathies, especially Marfan syndrome with severe elastic, ocular and skeletal tissue defects...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905228/genetic-susceptibility-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
REVIEW
Angela Gutierrez-Camino, Idoia Martin-Guerrero, Africa García-Orad
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy and a leading cause of death due to disease in children. The genetic basis of ALL susceptibility has been supported by its association with certain congenital disorders and, more recently, by several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These GWAS identified common variants in ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, CDKN2A, PIP4K2A, LHPP and ELK3 influencing ALL risk. However, the risk variants of these SNPs were not validated in all populations, suggesting that some of the loci could be population specific...
September 13, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904266/clinical-impact-of-main-pulmonary-artery-dilatation-on-outcome-in-pediatric-idiopathic-and-heritable-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Satoshi Ikehara, Shinichi Takatsuki, Tomotaka Nakayama, Kazuyuki Naoi, Hiroyuki Matsuura, Tsutomu Saji
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the clinical impact of pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation on outcomes in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).Methods and Results:This study investigated the clinical outcomes of idiopathic or heritable PAH in 66 children aged <18 years at diagnosis. Main PA/thorax (MPA/T) ratio was measured on chest radiography in PAH patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on MPA/T ratio, and compared with a control group of 166 age- and gender-matched healthy children...
September 13, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902886/metabolic-engineering-to-simultaneously-activate-anthocyanin-and-proanthocyanidin-biosynthetic-pathways-in-nicotiana-spp
#20
Sandra Fresquet-Corrales, Edelín Roque, Alejandro Sarrión-Perdigones, Maricruz Rochina, María P López-Gresa, Huertas M Díaz-Mula, José M Bellés, Francisco Tomás-Barberán, José P Beltrán, Luis A Cañas
Proanthocyanidins (PAs), or condensed tannins, are powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells. To engineer the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways to de novo produce PAs in two Nicotiana species, we incorporated four transgenes to the plant chassis. We opted to perform a simultaneous transformation of the genes linked in a multigenic construct rather than classical breeding or retransformation approaches. We generated a GoldenBraid 2.0 multigenic construct containing two Antirrhinum majus transcription factors (AmRosea1 and AmDelila) to upregulate the anthocyanin pathway in combination with two Medicago truncatula genes (MtLAR and MtANR) to produce the enzymes that will derivate the biosynthetic pathway to PAs production...
2017: PloS One
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