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Heritability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786864/testing-the-roles-of-vertical-transmission-and-drought-stress-in-the-prevalence-of-heritable-fungal-endophytes-in-annual-grass-populations
#1
Brittany R Cavazos, Teresa F Bohner, Marion L Donald, Michelle E Sneck, Alan Shadow, Marina Omacini, Jennifer A Rudgers, Tom E X Miller
Beneficial inherited symbionts are expected to reach high prevalence in host populations, yet many are observed at intermediate prevalence. Theory predicts that a balance of fitness benefits and efficiency of vertical transmission may interact to stabilize intermediate prevalence. We established populations of grass hosts (Lolium multiflorum) that varied in prevalence of a heritable fungal endophyte (Epichloё occultans), allowing us to infer long-term equilibria by tracking change in prevalence over one generation...
May 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785919/genomic-selection-in-dairy-cattle-simulated-populations
#2
Leonardo de Oliveira Seno, Diego Gomes Freire Guidolin, Rusbel Raul Aspilcueta-Borquis, Guilherme Batista do Nascimento, Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Danísio Prado Munari
Genomic selection is arguably the most promising tool for improving genetic gain in domestic animals to emerge in the last few decades, but is an expensive process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact related to the implementation of genomic selection in a simulated dairy cattle population. The software QMSim was used to simulate genomic and phenotypic data. The simulated genome contained 30 chromosomes with 100 cm each, 1666 SNPs markers equally spread and 266 QTLs randomly designated for each chromosome...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783944/estimates-of-genomic-heritability-and-genome-wide-association-study-for-fatty-acids-profile-in-santa-in%C3%A3%C2%AAs-sheep
#3
G A Rovadoscki, S F N Pertile, A B Alvarenga, A S M Cesar, F Pértille, J Petrini, V Franzo, W V B Soares, G Morota, M L Spangler, L F B Pinto, G G P Carvalho, D P D Lanna, L L Coutinho, G B Mourão
BACKGROUND: Despite the health concerns and nutritional importance of fatty acids, there is a relative paucity of studies in the literature that report genetic or genomic parameters, especially in the case of sheep populations. To investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition of sheep, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and estimated genomic heritabilities for fatty acid profile in Longissimus dorsi muscle of 216 male sheep. RESULTS: Genomic heritability estimates for fatty acid content ranged from 0...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783939/a-genome-wide-association-study-reveals-novel-genomic-regions-and-positional-candidate-genes-for-fat-deposition-in-broiler-chickens
#4
Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Priscila Anchieta Trevisoli, Maurício E Cantão, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Jane de Oliveira Peixoto, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Excess fat content in chickens has a negative impact on poultry production. The discovery of QTL associated with fat deposition in the carcass allows the identification of positional candidate genes (PCGs) that might regulate fat deposition and be useful for selection against excess fat content in chicken's carcass. This study aimed to estimate genomic heritability coefficients and to identify QTLs and PCGs for abdominal fat (ABF) and skin (SKIN) traits in a broiler chicken population, originated from the White Plymouth Rock and White Cornish breeds...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782925/the-developmental-genetics-of-canalization
#5
REVIEW
Benedikt Hallgrimsson, Rebecca M Green, David Katz, Jennifer L Fish, Francois P J Bernier, Charles C Roseman, Nathan M Young, James M Cheverud, Ralph S Marcucio
Canalization, or robustness to genetic or environmental perturbations, is fundamental to complex organisms. While there is strong evidence for canalization as an evolved property that varies among genotypes, the developmental and genetic mechanisms that produce this phenomenon are very poorly understood. For evolutionary biology, understanding how canalization arises is important because, by modulating the phenotypic variation that arises in response to genetic differences, canalization is a determinant of evolvability...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782485/evaluation-and-application-of-summary-statistic-imputation-to-discover-new-height-associated-loci
#6
Sina Rüeger, Aaron McDaid, Zoltán Kutalik
As most of the heritability of complex traits is attributed to common and low frequency genetic variants, imputing them by combining genotyping chips and large sequenced reference panels is the most cost-effective approach to discover the genetic basis of these traits. Association summary statistics from genome-wide meta-analyses are available for hundreds of traits. Updating these to ever-increasing reference panels is very cumbersome as it requires reimputation of the genetic data, rerunning the association scan, and meta-analysing the results...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782008/de-novo-generation-of-somatic-stem-cells-by-yap-taz
#7
Tito Panciera, Luca Azzolin, Daniele Di Biagio, Antonio Totaro, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
Here we present protocols to isolate primary differentiated cells and turn them into stem/progenitor cells (SCs) of the same lineage by transient expression of the transcription factor YAP. With this method, luminal differentiated (LD) cells of the mouse mammary gland are converted into cells that exhibit molecular and functional properties of mammary SCs. YAP also turns fully differentiated pancreatic exocrine cells into pancreatic duct-like progenitors. Similarly, to endogenous, natural SCs, YAP-induced stem-like cells ("ySCs") can be eventually expanded as organoid cultures long term in vitro, without further need of ectopic YAP/TAZ, as ySCs are endowed with a heritable self-renewing SC-like state...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781739/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-as-a-strategy-to-prevent-having-a-child-born-with-an-heritable-eye-disease
#8
Claudia Yahalom, Michal Macarov, Galit Lazer-Derbeko, Gheona Altarescu, Tal Imbar, Jordana H Hyman, Talia Eldar-Geva, Anat Blumenfeld
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, genetically inherited eye diseases are responsible for a high percentage of childhood visual impairment. We aim to report our experience using preimplantation genetic diagnostics (PGD) in order to avoid transmitting a genetic form of eye disease associated with childhood visual impairment and ocular cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective case series of women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and PGD due to a familial history of inherited eye disease and/or ocular cancer, in order to avoid having a child affected with the known familial disease...
May 21, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780714/how-can-genetic-diagnosis-inform-the-decision-of-when-to-operate
#9
REVIEW
Maral Ouzounian, Scott A LeMaire
Genetic discovery for heritable thoracic aortic disease (HTAD) has been progressing at a brisk pace. Surgical management of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections has become more personalized, with genetic factors increasingly informing the decision of when to operate on patients. An improved understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with HTAD will ultimately lead to gene- and mutation-specific recommendations for surgical repair. Until more robust data from larger cohorts can inform our decisions, patients with HTAD should be seen by an aortic specialist for a tailored approach to elective surgical repair...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779949/disease-heritability-inferred-from-familial-relationships-reported-in-medical-records
#10
Fernanda C G Polubriaginof, Rami Vanguri, Kayla Quinnies, Gillian M Belbin, Alexandre Yahi, Hojjat Salmasian, Tal Lorberbaum, Victor Nwankwo, Li Li, Mark M Shervey, Patricia Glowe, Iuliana Ionita-Laza, Mary Simmerling, George Hripcsak, Suzanne Bakken, David Goldstein, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Eimear E Kenny, Joel Dudley, David K Vawdrey, Nicholas P Tatonetti
Heritability is essential for understanding the biological causes of disease but requires laborious patient recruitment and phenotype ascertainment. Electronic health records (EHRs) passively capture a wide range of clinically relevant data and provide a resource for studying the heritability of traits that are not typically accessible. EHRs contain next-of-kin information collected via patient emergency contact forms, but until now, these data have gone unused in research. We mined emergency contact data at three academic medical centers and identified 7...
May 15, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779496/invited-review-improving-feed-efficiency-of-beef-cattle-the-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-challenges
#11
D A Kenny, C Fitzsimons, S M Waters, M McGee
Improvements in feed efficiency of beef cattle have the potential to increase producer profitability and simultaneously lower the environmental footprint of beef production. Although there are many different approaches to measuring feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice. Defined as the difference between an animal's actual and predicted feed intake (based on weight and growth), RFI is conceptually independent of growth and body size. In addition, other measurable traits related to energy expenditure such as estimates of body composition can be included in the calculation of RFI to also force independence from these traits...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779058/genetics-of-resistant-hypertension-the-missing-heritability-and-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Samantha K Teixeira, Alexandre C Pereira, Jose E Krieger
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Blood pressure regulation in humans has long been known to be a genetically determined trait. The identification of causal genetic modulators for this trait has been unfulfilling at the least. Despite the recent advances of genome-wide genetic studies, loci associated with hypertension or blood pressure still explain a very low percentage of the overall variation of blood pressure in the general population. This has precluded the translation of discoveries in the genetics of human hypertension to clinical use...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778910/a-case-of-vascular-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-with-a-cardiomyopathy-and-multi-system-involvement
#13
Nick Si Rui Lan, Michael Fietz, Nicholas Pachter, Vincent Paul, David Playford
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders resulting from various gene mutations. We present an unusual case of vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with distinctive physical characteristics and a cardiomyopathy with features suggesting isolated left ventricular non-compaction. The cardiac features represent the first report of a cardiomyopathy associated with a mutation in the COL3A1 gene. This case also illustrates the multi-system nature of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and the complexity of managing patients with the vascular subtype...
April 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778423/genetic-variants-of-treml2-are-associated-with-hla-b27-positive-ankylosing-spondylitis
#14
Yuan Feng, Yaqiang Hong, Xin Zhang, Chunwei Cao, Xichao Yang, Shujuan Lai, Chunmei Fan, Feng Cheng, Mei Yan, Chaohua Li, Wan Huang, Wei Chen, Ping Zhu, Changqing Zeng
Although ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common, highly heritable arthropathy, the precise genetic mechanism underlying the disease remains elusive. Here, we investigate the disease-causing mutations in a large AS family with distinguished complexity, consisting of 23 patients covering four generations and exhibiting a mixed HLA-B27 (+) and (-) status. Linkage analysis with 32 members using three methods and whole-exome sequencing analysis with three HLA-B27 (+) patients, one HLA-B27 (-) patient, and one healthy individual did not identify a mutation common to all of the patients, strongly suggesting the existence of genetic heterogeneity in this large pedigree...
May 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775752/the-genetics-and-molecular-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-in-populations-of-different-ancestry
#15
REVIEW
George N Goulielmos, Maria I Zervou, Vassilis M Vazgiourakis, Yogita Ghodke-Puranik, Alexandros Garyfallos, Timothy B Niewold
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, characterized by differences in autoantibody profile, serum cytokines, and a multi-system involvement commonly affecting the skin, renal, musculoskeletal, and hematopoetic systems clinical manifestations involving. Disease features range from mild manifestations, such as rash or arthritis, to life-threatening end-organ manifestations, such as glomerulonephritis or thrombosis, and it is difficult to predict which manifestations will affect a given patient...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775580/znfx-1-functions-within-perinuclear-nuage-to-balance-epigenetic-signals
#17
Takao Ishidate, Ahmet R Ozturk, Daniel J Durning, Rita Sharma, En-Zhi Shen, Hao Chen, Meetu Seth, Masaki Shirayama, Craig C Mello
Animal cells have a remarkable capacity to adopt durable and heritable gene expression programs or epigenetic states that define the physical properties and diversity of somatic cell types. The maintenance of epigenetic programs depends on poorly understood pathways that prevent gain or loss of inherited signals. In the germline, epigenetic factors are enriched in liquid-like perinuclear condensates called nuage. Here, we identify the deeply conserved helicase-domain protein, ZNFX-1, as an epigenetic regulator and component of nuage that interacts with Argonaute systems to balance epigenetic inheritance...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774522/genome-wide-compound-heterozygosity-analysis-highlighted-four-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-congenital-heart-disease-in-chinese-population
#18
T Jiang, M Huang, T Jiang, Y Gu, Y Wang, Y Wu, H Ma, G Jin, J Dai, Z Hu
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have achieved great success in deciphering the genetic cause of congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the heritability of CHD remains to be clarified, and numerous genetic factors responsible for occurrence of CHD are yet unclear. In this study, we performed a genome-wide search for relaxed forms of compound heterozygosity (CH) in association with CHD using our existing GWAS data including 2,265 individuals (957 CHD cases and 1,308 controls). CollapsABEL was used to iteratively test the association between the CH genotype and CHD phenotype in a sliding window manner...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773962/discovery-and-validation-of-genomic-regions-associated-with-resistance-to-maize-lethal-necrosis-in-four-biparental-populations
#19
Manje Gowda, Yoseph Beyene, Dan Makumbi, Kassa Semagn, Michael S Olsen, Jumbo M Bright, Biswanath Das, Stephen Mugo, L M Suresh, Boddupalli M Prasanna
In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is the key determinant of food security for smallholder farmers. The sudden outbreak of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is seriously threatening the maize production in the region. Understanding the genetic basis of MLN resistance is crucial. In this study, we used four biparental populations applied linkage mapping and joint linkage mapping approaches to identify and validate the MLN resistance-associated genomic regions. All populations were genotyped with low to high density markers and phenotyped in multiple environments against MLN under artificial inoculation...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773896/evolutionary-genetics-of-personality-in-the-trinidadian-guppy-i-maternal-and-additive-genetic-effects-across-ontogeny
#20
Stephen John White, Alastair James Wilson
Among-individual variation in behaviour is a widespread phenomenon, with several frameworks developed to explain its existence. Maternal effects, which can have significant influence over evolutionary processes, are an understudied source of behavioural variation. Maternal effects are not necessarily static, however, since their importance can change over offspring ontogeny, typically declining with age relative to additive genetic effects. Here, using a quantitative genetics approach, we test the prediction that maternal effects will influence age-specific risk-taking behaviour in Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata...
May 17, 2018: Heredity
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