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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214981/neural-mechanism-underling-comprehension-of-narrative-speech-and-its-heritability-study-in-a-large-population
#1
Abbas Babajani-Feremi
Comprehension of narratives constitutes a fundamental part of our everyday life experience. Although the neural mechanism of auditory narrative comprehension has been investigated in some studies, the neural correlates underlying this mechanism and its heritability remain poorly understood. We investigated comprehension of naturalistic speech in a large, healthy adult population (n = 429; 176/253 M/F; 22-36 years of age) consisting of 192 twin pairs (49 monozygotic and 47 dizygotic pairs) and 237 of their siblings...
February 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214526/recent-advances-in-human-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-adiposity-pathway-to-precision-medicine
#2
Tove Fall, Michael Mendelson, Elizabeth K Speliotes
Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the last decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions are now known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist to hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Expression of genes associated with general adiposity are enriched in the nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212751/stable-heritable-germline-silencing-directs-somatic-silencing-at-an-endogenous-locus
#3
Olga Minkina, Craig P Hunter
The importance of transgenerationally inherited epigenetic states to organismal fitness remains unknown as well-documented examples are often not amenable to mechanistic analysis or rely on artificial reporter loci. Here we describe an induced silenced state at an endogenous locus that persists, at 100% transmission without selection, for up to 13 generations. This unusually persistent silencing enables a detailed molecular genetic analysis of an inherited epigenetic state. We find that silencing is dependent on germline nuclear RNAi factors and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#4
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209808/galactosylation-of-iga1-is-associated-with-common-variation-in-c1galt1
#5
Daniel P Gale, Karen Molyneux, David Wimbury, Patricia Higgins, Adam P Levine, Ben Caplin, Anna Ferlin, Peiran Yin, Christopher P Nelson, Horia Stanescu, Nilesh J Samani, Robert Kleta, Xueqing Yu, Jonathan Barratt
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), an important cause of kidney failure, is characterized by glomerular IgA deposition and is associated with changes in O-glycosylation of the IgA1 molecule. Here, we sought to identify genetic factors contributing to levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in white and Chinese populations. Gd-IgA1 levels were elevated in IgAN patients compared with ethnically matched healthy subjects and correlated with evidence of disease progression. White patients with IgAN exhibited significantly higher Gd-IgA1 levels than did Chinese patients...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209135/marv-a-tool-for-genome-wide-multi-phenotype-analysis-of-rare-variants
#6
Marika Kaakinen, Reedik Mägi, Krista Fischer, Jani Heikkinen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Andrew P Morris, Inga Prokopenko
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have enabled identification of thousands of loci for hundreds of traits. Yet, for most human traits a substantial part of the estimated heritability is unexplained. This and recent advances in technology to produce high-dimensional data cost-effectively have led to method development beyond standard common variant analysis, including single-phenotype rare variant and multi-phenotype common variant analysis, with the latter increasing power for locus discovery and providing suggestions of pleiotropic effects...
February 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207320/cardiac-findings-in-quarter-horses-with-heritable-equine-regional-dermal-asthenia
#7
Erin L Brinkman, Benjamin C Weed, Sourav S Patnaik, Bryn L Brazile, Ryan M Centini, Robert W Wills, Bari Olivier, Dodd G Sledge, Jim Cooley, Jun Liao, Ann M Rashmir-Raven
OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA). DESIGN Prospective case-control study. ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses. PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205578/insect-herbivory-choristoneura-fumiferana-tortricidea-underlies-tree-population-structure-picea-glauca-pinaceae
#8
Geneviève J Parent, Isabelle Giguère, Gaby Germanos, Mebarek Lamara, Éric Bauce, John J MacKay
Variation in insect herbivory can lead to population structure in plant hosts as indicated by defence traits. In annual herbaceous, defence traits may vary between geographic areas but evidence of such patterns is lacking for long-lived species. This may result from the variety of selection pressures from herbivores, long distance gene flow, genome properties, and lack of research. We investigated the antagonistic interaction between white spruce (Picea glauca) and spruce budworm (SBW, Choristoneura fumiferana) the most devastating forest insect of eastern North America in common garden experiments...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205158/understanding-food-fussiness-and-its-implications-for-food-choice-health-weight-and-interventions-in-young-children-the-impact-of-professor-jane-wardle
#9
REVIEW
E Leigh Gibson, Lucy Cooke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the concepts of fussy eating and food neophobia in the context of key determinants of the development of children's food preferences. We discuss the evidence for genetic versus parental and other environmental influences on the ontogeny of these behavioural traits and the implications of current knowledge for interventions that attempt to lessen the impact of these traits on children's diets. Finally, we consider whether these traits increase the risk of a child becoming obese, or alternatively, underweight and malnourished...
February 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203325/inherited-thrombocytopenia-with-a-different-type-of-gene-mutation-a-brief-literature-review-and-two-case-studies
#10
Mohammad Taghi Arzanian
Hereditary thrombocytopenias are rare bleeding disorders, which cause a deficiency of platelets in early infancy. This group of disorders is sometimes associated with abnormal phenotypes, like absence of radius. Diagnosis of this type of thrombocytopenia is usually difficult; other causes of thrombocytopenia, such as immune disorders and infections, must be ruled out. The symptoms of hereditary thrombocytopenia also vary from seldom and mild to severe bleeding and occasionally may first occur in late childhood...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203307/epigenetic-strategies-to-reverse-drug-resistance-in-heterogeneous-multiple-myeloma
#11
REVIEW
Mark E Issa, Farnaz Sedigheh Takhsha, Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Perez-Novo, Wim Vanden Berghe, Muriel Cuendet
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy, which remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Due to heterogeneity within the cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cell populations employ a dynamic survival strategy to chemotherapeutic treatments, which frequently results in a rapid acquisition of therapy resistance. Besides resistance-conferring genetic alterations within a tumor cell population selected during drug treatment, recent findings also reveal non-mutational mechanisms of drug resistance, involving a small population of "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) which are intrinsically more refractory to the effects of a variety of anticancer drugs...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202626/cancer-cells-exhibit-clonal-diversity-in-phenotypic-plasticity
#12
Robert Austin Mathis, Ethan S Sokol, Piyush B Gupta
Phenotypic heterogeneity in cancers is associated with invasive progression and drug resistance. This heterogeneity arises in part from the ability of cancer cells to switch between phenotypic states, but the dynamics of this cellular plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we apply DNA barcodes to quantify and track phenotypic plasticity across hundreds of clones in a population of cancer cells exhibiting epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation phenotypes. We find that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell ratio is highly variable across the different clones in cancer cell populations, but remains stable for many generations within the progeny of any single clone-with a heritability of 0...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201990/a-vast-genomic-deletion-in-the-c56bl-6-genome-affects-different-genes-within-the-ifi200-cluster-on-chromosome-1-and-mediates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Heike Vogel, Markus Jähnert, Mandy Stadion, Daniela Matzke, Stephan Scherneck, Annette Schürmann
BACKGROUND: Obesity, the excessive accumulation of body fat, is a highly heritable and genetically heterogeneous disorder. The complex, polygenic basis for the disease consisting of a network of different gene variants is still not completely known. RESULTS: In the current study we generated a BAC library of the obese-prone NZO strain to clarify the genomic alteration within the gene cluster Ifi200 on chr.1 including Ifi202b, an obesity gene that is in contrast to NZO not expressed in the lean B6 mouse...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201496/other-side-of-the-coin-the-missing-heritability-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#14
Adam S Helms, Sharlene M Day
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199342/meta-qtl-for-resistance-to-white-mold-in-common-bean
#15
Renato C C Vasconcellos, O Blessing Oraguzie, Alvaro Soler, Haidar Arkwazee, James R Myers, Juan J Ferreira, Qijian Song, Phil McClean, Phillip N Miklas
White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major disease that limits common bean production and quality worldwide. The host-pathogen interaction is complex, with partial resistance in the host inherited as a quantitative trait with low to moderate heritability. Our objective was to identify meta-QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold from individual QTL identified across multiple populations and environments. The physical positions for 37 individual QTL were identified across 14 recombinant inbred bi-parental populations (six new, three re-genotyped, and five from the literature)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199135/extreme-trait-whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-ptpro-as-a-novel-candidate-gene-in-emphysema-with-severe-airflow-obstruction
#16
Josiah E Radder, Yingze Zhang, Alyssa D Gregory, Shibing Yu, Neil J Kelly, Joseph K Leader, Naftali Kaminski, Frank C Sciurba, Steven D Shapiro
RATIONALE: Genetic association studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have primarily tested for association with common variants, the results of which explain only a portion of disease heritability. As rare variation is also likely to contribute to susceptibility, we employed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of subjects with clinically extreme phenotypes to identify genomic regions enriched for rare variation contributing to COPD susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: Identify regions of rare genetic variation contributing to emphysema with severe airflow obstruction Methods: We identified heavy smokers that were resistant (n=65) or susceptible (n=64) to emphysema with severe airflow obstruction in the Pittsburgh SCCOR cohort...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197154/cowpea-and-groundnut-haulms-fodder-trading-and-its-lessons-for-multidimensional-cowpea-improvement-for-mixed-crop-livestock-systems-in-west-africa
#17
Anandan Samireddypalle, Ousmane Boukar, Elaine Grings, Christian A Fatokun, Prasad Kodukula, Ravi Devulapalli, Iheanacho Okike, Michael Blümmel
Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196550/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-last-year-major-depression-in-adulthood-a-highly-heritable-stable-liability-but-strong-environmental-effects-on-1-year-prevalence
#18
K S Kendler, C O Gardner
BACKGROUND: This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). METHOD: Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195573/whole-exome-sequencing-of-individuals-from-an-isolated-population-implicates-rare-risk-variants-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
F Lescai, T D Als, Q Li, M Nyegaard, G Andorsdottir, M Biskopstø, A Hedemand, A Fiorentino, N O'Brien, A Jarram, J Liang, J Grove, J Pallesen, E Eickhardt, M Mattheisen, L Bolund, D Demontis, A G Wang, A McQuillin, O Mors, J Wang, A D Børglum
Bipolar disorder affects about 1% of the world's population, and its estimated heritability is about 75%. Only few whole genome or whole-exome sequencing studies in bipolar disorder have been reported, and no rare coding variants have yet been robustly identified. The use of isolated populations might help finding variants with a recent origin, more likely to have drifted to higher frequency by chance. Following this approach, we investigated 28 bipolar cases and 214 controls from the Faroe Islands by whole exome sequencing, and the results were followed-up in a British sample of 2025 cases and 1358 controls...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194409/a-variant-in-cox-2-gene-is-associated-with-left-main-coronary-artery-disease-and-clinical-outcomes-of-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#20
Hanning Liu, Zhengxi Xu, Cheng Sun, Dachuan Gu, Xiao Teng, Yan Zhao, Zhe Zheng
As a particular severe phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD), left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is heritable. Genetic variants related to prostaglandin metabolism are associated with LMCAD. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key synthase in prostaglandin pathways, displays high density in atherosclerotic lesions and promotes early atherosclerosis in CAD progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants in COX-2 gene contribute to LMCAD phenotype susceptibility compared to more peripheral coronary artery disease (MPCAD)...
2017: BioMed Research International
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