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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906529/genes-behavior-and-behavior-genetics
#1
REVIEW
Evan Charney
According to the 'first law' of behavior genetics, 'All human behavioral traits are heritable.' Accepting the validity of this first law and employing statistical methods, researchers within psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and business claim to have demonstrated that all the behaviors studied by their disciplines are heritable-no matter how culturally specific these behaviors appear to be. Further, in many cases they claim to have identified specific genes that play a role in those behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906501/the-heritability-fallacy
#2
REVIEW
David S Moore, David Shenk
The term 'heritability,' as it is used today in human behavioral genetics, is one of the most misleading in the history of science. Contrary to popular belief, the measurable heritability of a trait does not tell us how 'genetically inheritable' that trait is. Further, it does not inform us about what causes a trait, the relative influence of genes in the development of a trait, or the relative influence of the environment in the development of a trait. Because we already know that genetic factors have significant influence on the development of all human traits, measures of heritability are of little value, except in very rare cases...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905878/genomic-prediction-using-preselected-dna-variants-from-a-gwas-with-whole-genome-sequence-data-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#3
Roel F Veerkamp, Aniek C Bouwman, Chris Schrooten, Mario P L Calus
BACKGROUND: Whole-genome sequence data is expected to capture genetic variation more completely than common genotyping panels. Our objective was to compare the proportion of variance explained and the accuracy of genomic prediction by using imputed sequence data or preselected SNPs from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with imputed whole-genome sequence data. METHODS: Phenotypes were available for 5503 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Genotypes were imputed up to whole-genome sequence (13,789,029 segregating DNA variants) by using run 4 of the 1000 bull genomes project...
December 1, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905150/genetic-parameter-estimates-for-prenatal-and-postnatal-mortality-in-nellore-cattle
#4
L C Magalhães Silva, F Baldi, C Aboujaoude, G C Venturini, L G Albuquerque, M J R Paranhos da Costa
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for prenatal (PRE) and postnatal (POS) mortality in Nellore cattle. A total of 13 141 (PRE) and 17 818 (POS) records from Nellore females were used. PRE and POS were recorded using binary scale scores: a score of '1' was given to calves that were born alive (PRE) and those that were alive at weaning (POS), and a score of '0' was given to calves that were not alive at or around birth (PRE), as well as to those weighed at birth but not at weaning (POS)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903611/the-genomic-architecture-of-interactions-between-natural-genetic-polymorphisms-and-environments-in-yeast-growth
#5
Xinzhu Wei, Jianzhi Zhang
Gene-environment interaction (G×E) refers to the phenomenon that the same mutation has different phenotypic effects in different environments. Although quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibiting G×E have been reported, little is known about the general properties of G×E and those of its underlying QTLs. Here we use the genotypes of 1005 segregants from a cross between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the growth rates of these segregants in 47 environments to identify growth rate QTLs (gQTLs) in each environment and QTLs that have different growth effects in each pair of environments (g×eQTLs)...
November 30, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902807/improving-genetic-gain-with-genomic-selection-in-autotetraploid-potato
#6
Anthony T Slater, Noel O I Cogan, John W Forster, Benjamin J Hayes, Hans D Daetwyler
Potato ( L.) breeders consider a large number of traits during cultivar development and progress in conventional breeding can be slow. There is accumulating evidence that some of these traits, such as yield, are affected by a large number of genes with small individual effects. Recently, significant efforts have been applied to the development of genomic resources to improve potato breeding, culminating in a draft genome sequence and the identification of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902800/aghmatrix-r-package-to-construct-relationship-matrices-for-autotetraploid-and-diploid-species-a-blueberry-example
#7
Rodrigo R Amadeu, Catherine Cellon, James W Olmstead, Antonio A F Garcia, Marcio F R Resende, Patricio R Muñoz
Progress in the rate of improvement in autopolyploid species has been limited compared with diploids, mainly because software and methods to apply advanced prediction and selection methodologies in autopolyploids are lacking. The objectives of this research were to (i) develop an R package for autopolyploids to construct the relationship matrix derived from pedigree information that accounts for autopolyploidy and double reduction and (ii) use the package to estimate the level and effect of double reduction in an autotetraploid blueberry breeding population with extensive pedigree information...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#8
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899403/meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-identifies-four-new-disease-specific-risk-loci
#9
Gregory T Jones, Gerard Tromp, Helena Kuivaniemi, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Annette F Baas, Betti Giusti, Ewa Strauss, Femke N van 't Hof, Thomas Webb, Robert Erdman, Marylyn D Ritchie, James R Elmore, Anurag Verma, Sarah Pendergrass, Iftikhar J Kullo, Zi Ye, Peggy L Peissig, Omri Gottesman, Shefali S Verma, Jennifer Malinowski, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Kenneth Borthwick, Diane T Smelser, David R Crosslin, Mariza de Andrade, Evan J Ryer, Catherine A McCarty, Erwin P Bottinger, Jennifer A Pacheco, Dana C Crawford, David S Carrell, Glenn S Gerhard, David P Franklin, David J Carey, Victoria L Phillips, Michael J Williams, Wenhua Wei, Ross Blair, Andrew A Hill, Thodur M Vasudevan, David R Lewis, Ian A Thomson, Jo Krysa, Geraldine B Hill, Justin Roake, Tony R Merriman, Grzegorz Oszkinis, Silvia Galora, Claudia Saracini, Rosanna Abbate, Raffaele Pulli, Carlo Pratesi, Athanasios Saratzis, Anna Verissimo, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Stephen A Badger, Rachel E Clough, Gillian W Cockerill, Hany Hafez, D J Scott, T S Futers, Simon P Romaine, Katherine Bridge, Kathryn J Griffin, Marc A Bailey, Alberto Smith, Matt M Thompson, Frank van Bockxmeer, Stefan E Matthiasson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jan D Blankensteijn, Joep A Teijink, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline de Graaf, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jes S Lindholt, Anne E Hughes, Declan T Bradley, Kathleen Stirrups, Jonathan Golledge, Paul E Norman, Janet T Powell, Steve E Humphries, Stephen E Hamby, Alison H Goodall, Christopher P Nelson, Natzi Sakalihasan, Audrey Courtois, Robert E Ferrell, Per Eriksson, Lasse Folkersen, Anders Franco-Cereceda, John D Eicher, Andrew D Johnson, Christer Betsholtz, Arno Ruusalepp, Oscar Franzén, Eric Schadt, Johan L Björkegren, Leonard Lipovich, Anne M Drolet, Eric Verhoeven, Clark J Zeebregts, Robert H Geelkerken, Marc R van Sambeek, Steven M van Sterkenburg, Jean-Paul P de Vries, Kari Stefansson, John R Thompson, Paul I de Bakker, Panos Deloukas, Robert D Sayers, Seamus Harrison, Andre M van Rij, Nilesh J Samani, Matthew J Bown
RATIONALE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Together, 6 previously identified risk loci only explain a small proportion of the heritability of AAA. OBJECTIVE: To identify additional AAA risk loci using data from all available genome-wide association studies (GWAS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a meta-analysis of 6 GWAS datasets and a validation study totalling 10,204 cases and 107,766 controls we identified 4 new AAA risk loci: 1q32...
November 29, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899325/dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa-col7a1-mutation-landscape-in-a-multi-ethnic-cohort-of-152-extended-families-with-high-degree-of-customary-consanguineous-marriages
#10
Hassan Vahidnezhad, Leila Youssefian, Sirous Zeinali, Amir Hossein Saeidian, Soheila Sotudeh, Nikoo Mozafari, Maryam Abiri, Abdolmohammad Kajbafzadeh, Mohammadreza Barzegar, Adam Ertel, Paolo Fortina, Jouni Uitto
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a heritable skin disease manifesting with sub-lamina densa blistering, erosions and chronic ulcers. COL7A1, encoding type VII collagen, has been identified as the candidate gene for DEB. In this study, we have identified COL7A1 mutations in a large multi-ethnic cohort of 152 extended Iranian families with high degree of consanguinity. The patients were diagnosed by clinical manifestations, histopathology and immunoepitope mapping. Mutation detection consisted of a combination of a single nucleotide polymorphism-based whole genome homozygosity mapping, Sanger sequencing and gene targeted next generation sequencing...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899192/genetic-predisposition-to-melanoma
#11
REVIEW
Jason E Hawkes, Amanda Truong, Laurence J Meyer
Malignant melanoma is a rare, often fatal form of skin cancer with a complex multigenic etiology. The incidence of melanoma is increasing at an alarming rate. A number of heritable factors contribute to a patient's overall melanoma risk, including response to ultraviolet light, nevus number, and pigmentation characteristics, such as eye and hair color. Approximately 5%-10% of melanoma cases are familial, yet the majority of familial cases lack identifiable germ-line mutations in known susceptibility genes. Additionally, most familial melanomas lack germ-line mutations in genes that are commonly mutated in sporadic melanoma...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899190/genetic-changes-associated-with-testicular-cancer-susceptibility
#12
REVIEW
Louise C Pyle, Katherine L Nathanson
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a highly heritable cancer primarily affecting young white men. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly effective in identifying multiple common variants with strong contribution to TGCT risk. These loci identified through association studies have implicated multiple genes as associated with TGCT predisposition, many of which are unique among cancer types, and regulate processes such as pluripotency, sex specification, and microtubule assembly. Together these biologically plausible genes converge on pathways involved in male germ cell development and maturation, and suggest that perturbation of them confers susceptibility to TGCT, as a developmental defect of germ cell differentiation...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899075/thermal-sensitivity-of-growth-indicates-heritable-variation-in-1-year-old-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Matti Janhunen, Juha Koskela, Nguyễn Hữu Ninh, Harri Vehviläinen, Heikki Koskinen, Antti Nousiainen, Ngô Phú Thỏa
BACKGROUND: Rainbow trout is an important aquaculture species, which has a worldwide distribution across various production environments. The diverse locations of trout farms involve remarkable variation in environmental factors such as water temperature, which is of major importance for the performance of fish. Thus, robust fish that could thrive under different and suboptimal thermal conditions is a desirable goal for trout breeding. Using a split-family experimental design (40 full-/half-sib groups) for a rainbow trout population derived from the Finnish national breeding program, we studied how two different rearing temperatures (14 and 20 °C) affect feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio in 1-year-old fish...
November 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898959/heritabilities-and-genetic-correlations-of-pulmonary-arterial-pressure-and-performance-traits-in-angus-cattle-at-high-altitude
#14
N F Crawford, M G Thomas, T N Holt, S E Speidel, R M Enns
Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is an indicator trait for pulmonary hypertension and for the risk of developing high-altitude disease (HAD) in cattle. Pulmonary arterial pressures provide a tool for selection of breeding cattle for tolerance to high altitude in mountainous regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between growth performance traits and yearling PAP (42.4 ± 9.9 mmHg; = 5,776; elevation 2,150 m) using data from 1993 to 2014 in the John E. Rouse Colorado State University Beef Improvement Center (CSU-BIC) Angus herd...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898935/estimation-of-genetic-parameters-for-traits-associated-with-reproduction-lactation-and-efficiency-in-sows
#15
D M Thekkoot, R A Kemp, M F Rothschild, G S Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Increased milk production due to high litter size, coupled with low feed intake, results in excessive mobilization of sow body reserves during lactation, which can have detrimental effects on future reproductive performance. A possibility to prevent this is to improve sow lactation performance genetically, along with other traits of interest. The aim of this study was to estimate breed-specific genetic parameters (by parity, between parities, and across parities) for traits associated with lactation and reproduction in Yorkshire and Landrace sows...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898925/heritability-of-udder-morphology-and-colostrum-quality-traits-in-swine
#16
A Balzani, H J Cordell, E Sutcliffe, S A Edwards
The heritability of udder quality traits, defined as morphology and colostrum IgG concentration at farrowing, was estimated together with the genetic and phenotypic correlations of these traits with other production and reproduction criteria. Udder morphology traits were recorded in 988 Meidam sows and colostrum samples were collected from 528 sows. Teat length, teat diameter (DIA), interteat distance within the same row (SAMER), and teat distance from the abdominal midline (AML) were recorded to the nearest millimeter...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898906/sexual-dimorphism-in-livestock-species-selected-for-economically-important-traits
#17
E M M van der Heide, D A L Lourenco, C Y Chen, W O Herring, R L Sapp, D W Moser, S Tsuruta, Y Masuda, B J Ducro, I Misztal
Most breeding companies evaluate economically important traits in males and females as a single trait, assuming genetic correlation of 1 between phenotypes measured in both sexes. This assumption may not be true because genes may be differently expressed in males and females. We estimated genetic correlations between males and females for growth and efficiency traits in broiler chickens, growth traits in American Angus beef cattle, and birth weight and preweaning mortality in purebred pigs; therefore, each trait was treated differently in males and females...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898879/genetic-parameters-for-both-a-liver-damage-phenotype-caused-by-and-antibody-response-to-phenotype-in-dairy-and-beef-cattle
#18
A J Twomey, R G Sayers, R I Carroll, N Byrne, E O' Brien, M L Doherty, J C McClure, D A Graham, D P Berry
is a helminth parasite of economic importance to the global cattle industry, with documented high international herd prevalence. The objective of the present study was to generate the first published genetic parameter estimates for liver damage caused by as well as antibody response to in cattle. Abattoir data on the presence of live , or -damaged livers, were available between the years 2012 and 2015, inclusive. A second data set was available on cows from 68 selected dairy herds with a blood ELISA test for antibody response to in autumn 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898858/effect-of-selection-for-residual-feed-intake-during-the-grow-finish-phase-of-production-on-sow-reproductive-performance-and-lactation-efficiency
#19
J M Young, R Bergsma, E F Knol, J F Patience, J C M Dekkers
As feed costs continue to rise and efficiency during finishing is emphasized, the impact of selecting for more efficient grow/finish pigs on reproductive performance and feed efficiency of sows must be evaluated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate correlated responses for sow reproductive performance and lactation feed efficiency to selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during the grow/finish phase of production (RFI) in 2 selection lines of pigs developed at Iowa State University (Ames, IA) and to estimate heritabilities of these traits...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898855/genomewide-association-study-of-methane-emissions-in-angus-beef-cattle-with-validation-in-dairy-cattle
#20
C I V Manzanilla-Pech, Y De Haas, B J Hayes, R F Veerkamp, M Khansefid, K A Donoghue, P F Arthur, J E Pryce
Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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