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Heritability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097826/development-shapes-a-consistent-inbreeding-effect-in-mouse-crania-of-different-line-crosses
#1
Mihaela Pavličev, Philipp Mitteroecker, Paula M Gonzalez, Campbell Rolian, Heather Jamniczky, Fernando Pardo-Manuel Villena, Ralph Marcucio, Richard Spritz, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Development translates genetic variation into a multivariate pattern of phenotypic variation, distributing it among traits in a nonuniform manner. As developmental processes are largely shared within species, this suggests that heritable phenotypic variation will be patterned similarly, in spite of the different segregating alleles. To investigate developmental effect on the variational pattern in the shape of the mouse skull across genetically differentiated lines, we employed the full set of reciprocal crosses (a...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097204/genomics-implicates-adaptive-and-innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#2
Sarah A Gagliano, Jennie G Pouget, John Hardy, Jo Knight, Michael R Barnes, Mina Ryten, Michael E Weale
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the current genetic evidence for the involvement of various cell types and tissue types in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, especially in relation to the neuroinflammatory hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We obtained large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We used multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, as a positive control...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096347/human-transposon-insertion-profiling-analysis-visualization-and-identification-of-somatic-line-1-insertions-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
Zuojian Tang, Jared P Steranka, Sisi Ma, Mark Grivainis, Nemanja Rodić, Cheng Ran Lisa Huang, Ie-Ming Shih, Tian-Li Wang, Jef D Boeke, David Fenyö, Kathleen H Burns
Mammalian genomes are replete with interspersed repeats reflecting the activity of transposable elements. These mobile DNAs are self-propagating, and their continued transposition is a source of both heritable structural variation as well as somatic mutation in human genomes. Tailored approaches to map these sequences are useful to identify insertion alleles. Here, we describe in detail a strategy to amplify and sequence long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1, L1) retrotransposon insertions selectively in the human genome, transposon insertion profiling by next-generation sequencing (TIPseq)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095803/increased-glomerulonephritis-recurrence-after-living-related-donation
#4
A L Kennard, S H Jiang, G D Walters
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation confers superior outcomes for patients with end stage kidney disease, and live donor kidneys associate with superior outcomes compared to deceased donor kidneys. Modern immunosuppression has improved rejection rates and transplant survival and, as a result, recurrence of glomerulonephritis has emerged as a major cause of allograft loss. However, many glomerulonephritides have significant genetic risk which may manifest through kidney intrinsic or systemic mechanisms...
January 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095793/genetic-variation-underlying-renal-uric-acid-excretion-in-hispanic-children-the-viva-la-familia-study
#5
Geetha Chittoor, Karin Haack, Nitesh R Mehta, Sandra Laston, Shelley A Cole, Anthony G Comuzzie, Nancy F Butte, V Saroja Voruganti
BACKGROUND: Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095502/drosophila-genotype-influences-commensal-bacterial-levels
#6
Angela M Early, Niroshan Shanmugarajah, Nicolas Buchon, Andrew G Clark
Host genotype can influence the composition of the commensal bacterial community in some organisms. Composition, however, is only one parameter describing a microbial community. Here, we test whether a second parameter-abundance of bacteria-is a heritable trait by quantifying the presence of four commensal bacterial strains within 36 gnotobiotic inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that D. melanogaster genotype exerts a significant effect on microbial levels within the fly. When introduced as monocultures into axenic flies, three of the four bacterial strains were reliably detected within the fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095416/meta-gwas-accuracy-and-power-metagap-calculator-shows-that-hiding-heritability-is-partially-due-to-imperfect-genetic-correlations-across-studies
#7
Ronald de Vlaming, Aysu Okbay, Cornelius A Rietveld, Magnus Johannesson, Patrik K E Magnusson, André G Uitterlinden, Frank J A van Rooij, Albert Hofman, Patrick J F Groenen, A Roy Thurik, Philipp D Koellinger
Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) calculator (available at www...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094554/impact-of-phytochemicals-and-dietary-patterns-on-epigenome-and-cancer
#8
Wissam Zam, Aziz Khadour
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death around the world. Initially it is recognized as a genetic disease, but now it is known to involve epigenetic abnormalities along with genetic alterations. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes that are not encoded in the DNA sequence itself, but play an important role in the control of gene expression. It includes changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA interference. Although it is heritable, environmental factors such as diet could directly influence epigenetic mechanisms in humans...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094341/ecological-impact-of-a-secondary-bacterial-symbiont-on-the-clones-of-sitobion-avenae-fabricius-hemiptera-aphididae
#9
Chen Luo, Kun Luo, Linqin Meng, Bin Wan, Huiyan Zhao, Zuqing Hu
Many insects harbor heritable endosymbionts, whether obligatory or facultative, and the role of facultative endosymbionts in shaping the phenotype of these species has become increasingly important. However, little is known about whether micro-injected endosymbionts can have any effects on aphid clones, which was measured using various ecological parameters. We examined the effects between symbiotic treatments and the vital life history traits generated by Regiella insecticola on the life table parameters of Sitobion avenae...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093568/gwas-meta-analysis-reveals-novel-loci-and-genetic-correlates-for-general-cognitive-function-a-report-from-the-cogent-consortium
#10
J W Trampush, M L Z Yang, J Yu, E Knowles, G Davies, D C Liewald, J M Starr, S Djurovic, I Melle, K Sundet, A Christoforou, I Reinvang, P DeRosse, A J Lundervold, V M Steen, T Espeseth, K Räikkönen, E Widen, A Palotie, J G Eriksson, I Giegling, B Konte, P Roussos, S Giakoumaki, K E Burdick, A Payton, W Ollier, M Horan, O Chiba-Falek, D K Attix, A C Need, E T Cirulli, A N Voineskos, N C Stefanis, D Avramopoulos, A Hatzimanolis, D E Arking, N Smyrnis, R M Bilder, N A Freimer, T D Cannon, E London, R A Poldrack, F W Sabb, E Congdon, E D Conley, M A Scult, D Dickinson, R E Straub, G Donohoe, D Morris, A Corvin, M Gill, A R Hariri, D R Weinberger, N Pendleton, P Bitsios, D Rujescu, J Lahti, S Le Hellard, M C Keller, O A Andreassen, I J Deary, D C Glahn, A K Malhotra, T Lencz
The complex nature of human cognition has resulted in cognitive genomics lagging behind many other fields in terms of gene discovery using genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods. In an attempt to overcome these barriers, the current study utilized GWAS meta-analysis to examine the association of common genetic variation (~8M single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with minor allele frequency ⩾1%) to general cognitive function in a sample of 35 298 healthy individuals of European ancestry across 24 cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT)...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093083/genetic-analysis-of-teat-number-in-pigs-reveals-some-developmental-pathways-independent-of-vertebra-number-and-several-loci-which-only-affect-a-specific-side
#11
Gary A Rohrer, Dan J Nonneman
BACKGROUND: Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size increases, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. Therefore, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions that affect this trait in a commercial swine population. Genotypic data from the Illumina Porcine SNP60v1 BeadChip were available for 2951 animals with total teat number (TTN) records. A subset of these animals (n = 1828) had number of teats on each side recorded...
January 4, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092418/an-examination-of-the-etiologic-overlap-between-the-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-insomnia-and-common-psychopathology
#12
Mackenzie J Lind, Sage E Hawn, Christina M Sheerin, Steven H Aggen, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders. METHODS: We utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500)...
January 16, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091799/prenatal-risk-factors-and-the-etiology-of-adhd-review-of-existing-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Emma Sciberras, Melissa Mulraney, Desiree Silva, David Coghill
While it is well accepted that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder, not all of the risk is genetic. It is estimated that between 10 and 40% of the variance associated with ADHD is likely to be accounted for by environmental factors. There is considerable interest in the role that the prenatal environment might play in the development of ADHD with previous reviews concluding that despite demonstration of associations between prenatal risk factors (e.g. prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy) and ADHD, there remains insufficient evidence to support a definite causal relationship...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090334/an-experimental-validation-of-genomic-selection-in-octoploid-strawberry
#14
Salvador A Gezan, Luis F Osorio, Sujeet Verma, Vance M Whitaker
The primary goal of genomic selection is to increase genetic gains for complex traits by predicting performance of individuals for which phenotypic data are not available. The objective of this study was to experimentally evaluate the potential of genomic selection in strawberry breeding and to define a strategy for its implementation. Four clonally replicated field trials, two in each of 2 years comprised of a total of 1628 individuals, were established in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Five complex yield and fruit quality traits with moderate to low heritability were assessed in each trial...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090303/genotype-phenotype-effects-of-bmpr2-mutations-on-disease-severity-in-mouse-models-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Andrea L Frump, Arunima Datta, Sampa Ghose, James West, Mark P de Caestecker
More than 350 mutations in the type-2 BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) receptor, BMPR2, have been identified in patients with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH). However, only 30% of BMPR2 mutation carriers develop PAH, and we cannot predict which of these carriers will develop clinical disease. One possibility is that the nature of the BMPR2 mutation affects disease severity. This hypothesis has been difficult to test clinically, given the rarity of HPAH and the complexity of the confounding genetic and environmental risk factors...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087675/dna-repair-and-mutations-during-quiescence-in-yeast
#16
Serge Gangloff, Benoit Arcangioli
Life is maintained through alternating phases of cell division and quiescence. The causes and consequences of spontaneous mutations have been extensively explored in proliferating cells, and the major sources include errors of DNA replication and DNA repair. The foremost consequences are genetic variations within a cell population that can lead to heritable diseases and drive evolution. While most of our knowledge on DNA damage response and repair has been gained through cells actively dividing, it remains essential to also understand how DNA damage is metabolized in cells which are not dividing...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087362/clinical-phenotypes-and-outcomes-of-heritable-and-sporadic-pulmonary-veno-occlusive-disease-a-population-based-study
#17
David Montani, Barbara Girerd, Xavier Jaïs, Marilyne Levy, David Amar, Laurent Savale, Peter Dorfmüller, Andrei Seferian, Edmund M Lau, Mélanie Eyries, Jérôme Le Pavec, Florence Parent, Damien Bonnet, Florent Soubrier, Elie Fadel, Olivier Sitbon, Gérald Simonneau, Marc Humbert
BACKGROUND: Bi-allelic mutations of the EIF2AK4 gene cause heritable pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PVOD/PCH). We aimed to assess the effect of EIF2AK4 mutations on the clinical phenotypes and outcomes of PVOD/PCH. METHODS: We did a population-based study using clinical, functional, and haemodynamic data from the registry of the French Pulmonary Hypertension Network. We reviewed the clinical data and outcomes from all patients referred to the French Referral Centre (Pulmonary Department, Hospital Kremlin-Bicêtre, University Paris-Sud) with either confirmed or highly probable PVOD/PCH with DNA available for mutation screening (excluding patients with other risk factors of pulmonary hypertension, such as chronic respiratory diseases)...
January 10, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081562/male-facial-appearance-and-offspring-mortality-in-two-traditional-societies
#18
Lynda G Boothroyd, Alan W Gray, Thomas N Headland, Ray T Uehara, David Waynforth, D Michael Burt, Nicholas Pound
It has been hypothesised that facial traits such as masculinity and a healthy appearance may indicate heritable qualities in males (e.g. immunocompetence) and that, consequently, female preferences for such traits may function to increase offspring viability and health. However, the putative link between paternal facial features and offspring health has not previously been tested empirically in humans. Here we present data from two traditional societies with little or no access to modern medicine and family planning technologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081447/hepatic-transcriptional-responses-to-copper-in-the-three-spined-stickleback-are-affected-by-their-pollution-exposure-history
#19
Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Tim D Williams, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Ceri Lewis, Janice A Shears, Charles R Tyler, Eduarda M Santos
Some fish populations inhabiting contaminated environments show evidence of increased chemical tolerance, however the mechanisms contributing to this tolerance, and whether this is heritable, are poorly understood. We investigated the responses of two populations of wild three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with different histories of contaminant exposure to an oestrogen and copper, two widespread aquatic pollutants. Male stickleback originating from two sites, the River Aire, with a history of complex pollution discharges, and Siblyback Lake, with a history of metal contamination, were depurated and then exposed to copper (46μg/L) and the synthetic oestrogen ethinyloestradiol (22ng/L)...
December 31, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079935/regional-heritability-mapping-and-genome-wide-association-identify-loci-for-complex-growth-wood-and-disease-resistance-traits-in-eucalyptus
#20
Rafael Tassinari Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela Resende, Fabyano Fonseca Silva, Camila Ferreira Azevedo, Elizabete Keiko Takahashi, Orzenil Bonfim Silva-Junior, Dario Grattapaglia
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the decoding of the relationships between sequence variation and complex phenotypes, they have explained little heritability. Regional heritability mapping (RHM) provides heritability estimates for genomic segments containing both common and rare allelic effects that individually contribute too little variance to be detected by GWAS. We carried out GWAS and RHM for seven growth, wood and disease resistance traits in a breeding population of 768 Eucalyptus hybrid trees using EuCHIP60K...
February 2017: New Phytologist
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