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Samuel Ginot, Lionel Hautier, Laurent Marivaux, Monique Vianey-Liaud
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and described to bridge the myology of the leg with the morphology of the bones of interest...
2016: PeerJ
Mehrnaz Anvari, M Reza Rahimi Tabar, Joachim Peinke, Klaus Lehnertz
Complex systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom, generally exhibit non-stationary dynamics, which can result in either continuous or discontinuous sample paths of the corresponding time series. The latter sample paths may be caused by discontinuous events - or jumps - with some distributed amplitudes, and disentangling effects caused by such jumps from effects caused by normal diffusion processes is a main problem for a detailed understanding of stochastic dynamics of complex systems. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to address this general problem...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
A D Wibawa, N Verdonschot, J P K Halbertsma, J G M Burgerhof, R L Diercks, G J Verkerke
This study focused on comparing muscle activities predicted by the Musculoskeletal Modeling System with EMG from ten healthy subjects who performed normal walking, one-legged forward hopping and side jumping. Eight EMG electrodes measured the activity of eight right leg muscles. Specific thresholds per muscle were applied on the EMG prior comparison. These thresholds were determined by equalizing the duration of EMG to AMS muscle activity. Three graph variables, number of onsets, offsets and hills were used to quantify the level of agreement by using Cohen׳s kappa analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Rebecca M Stanley, Rachel A Jones, Dylan P Cliff, Stewart G Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J Reilly, Ngiare Brown, Karen J Mickle, Steven J Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul Chandler, Penny Cross, Fay Gowers, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Susana Vale, Jorge Mota
The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Maolin Sha, Yusheng Liu, Huaze Dong, Fabao Luo, Fangling Jiang, Zhongfeng Tang, Guanglai Zhu, Guozhong Wu
Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are generally considered as structurally heterogeneous with inherent polar/apolar phase separation. However, even after a decade of research, local dynamics in the heterogeneous structures of ILs remain neglected. Such local dynamics may influence the ion transport of electrolytes, as well as the reaction rate of solvents. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulation to analyze the local dynamics for the structural heterogeneity of ILs. Calculations of the diffusion, reorientation, and association dynamics showed a distinct heterogeneous dynamics between the polar and apolar regions of ILs...
October 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Paul S Shamble, Gil Menda, James R Golden, Eyal I Nitzany, Katherine Walden, Tsevi Beatus, Damian O Elias, Itai Cohen, Ronald N Miles, Ronald R Hoy
Jumping spiders (Salticidae) are famous for their visually driven behaviors [1]. Here, however, we present behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that these animals also perceive and respond to airborne acoustic stimuli, even when the distance between the animal and the sound source is relatively large (∼3 m) and with stimulus amplitudes at the position of the spider of ∼65 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Behavioral experiments with the jumping spider Phidippus audax reveal that these animals respond to low-frequency sounds (80 Hz; 65 dB SPL) by freezing-a common anti-predatory behavior characteristic of an acoustic startle response...
October 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
W M J Franssen, Y L A Rezus, A P M Kentgens
Owing to the introduction of microcoils, high RF field strength nutation NMR is a viable candidate for the study of quadrupolar nuclei with strong quadrupolar couplings, not accessible using contemporary NMR techniques. We show powder (23)Na nutation spectra on sodium nitrite for RF field strengths of up to 1170kHz, that conform to theoretical predictions. For lanthanum fluoride powder, (139)La nutation spectra taken at elevated RF field amplitudes show clear discrepancies when compared to the theory. These errors are shown to be mainly caused by pulse transients at the end of the pulse, which proved to be detrimental to the shape of the nutation spectra...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Laura László, Balázs Sarkadi, Tamás Hegedűs
ABCG2/BCRP is a membrane protein, involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic transport in key pharmacological barriers and drug metabolizing organs, in the protection of stem cells, and in multidrug resistance of cancer. Pharmacogenetic studies implicated the role of ABCG2 in response to widely used medicines and anticancer agents, as well as in gout. Its Q141K variant exhibits decreased functional expression thus increased drug accumulation and decreased urate secretion. Still, there has been no reliable molecular model available for this protein, as the published structures of other ABC transporters could not be properly fitted to the ABCG2 topology and experimental data...
2016: PloS One
Gnaneswaran Nagamani, Thirunavukkarasu Radhika, Quanxin Zhu
In this paper, we investigate the dissipativity and passivity of Markovian jump stochastic neural networks involving two additive time-varying delays. Using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with triple and quadruple integral terms, we obtain delay-dependent passivity and dissipativity criteria for the system. Using a generalized Finsler lemma (GFL), a set of slack variables with special structure are introduced to reduce design conservatism. The dissipativity and passivity criteria depend on the upper bounds of the discrete time-varying delay and its derivative are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be efficiently solved through the standard numerical software...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
S Suomela, R Sampaio, T Ala-Nissila
We study the equivalence between the recently proposed finite environment quantum jump model and a master equation approach. We derive microscopically the master equation for a qubit coupled to a finite bosonic environment and show that the master equation is equivalent to the finite environment quantum jump model. We analytically show that both the methods produce the same moments of work when the work is defined through the two-measurement protocol excluding the interaction energy. However, when compared to the work moments computed using the power operator approach, we find a difference in the form of the work moments...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Sascha Topolinski, Lea Boecker
The minimal conditions to elicit affective responses via approach-avoidance movements were explored by using oral movements (total N = 1,363). To induce oral movements, words were construed whose consonants (and vowels) wandered either from front to back of the mouth (e.g., PEKA, inward, like swallowing, approach) or from back to front (e.g., KEPA, outward, like spitting, avoidance). Participants preferred inward over outward consonant wanderings when reading only 2 phonemes (e.g., PEKA vs. KEPA), single letters (e...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Fabrício E Rossi, Brad J Schoenfeld, Skyler Ocetnik, Jonathan Young, Andrew Vigotsky, Bret Contreras, James W Krieger, Michael G Miller, Jason Cholewa
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. METHODS: Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: A squat-only group (SQ) that solely performed squats for the lower body; a leg press-only group (LP) that solely performed leg presses for the lower body, or; a combined squat and leg press group (SQ-LP) that performed both squats and leg presses for the lower body...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Carien S Lansink, Guido T Meijer, Jan V Lankelma, Martin A Vinck, Jadin C Jackson, Cyriel M A Pennartz
: The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
André Klostermann, Philip Küng
PURPOSE: This study aimed to further the knowledge on gaze behavior in locomotion by studying gaze strategies in skateboard jumps of different difficulty that had to be performed either with or without an obstacle. METHOD: Nine experienced skateboarders performed "Ollie" and "Kickflip" jumps either over an obstacle or over a plane surface. The stable gaze at 5 different areas of interest was calculated regarding its relative duration as well as its temporal order...
October 12, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Jesús Fernández-Lucas
Parachute jump is an extreme activity that elicits an intense stress response that affects jumpers' body systems being able to put them at risk. The present research analysed modifications in blood oxygen saturation (BOS), heart rate (HR), cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase (CK), muscles strength, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, pistol magazine reload time (PMRT) and state anxiety before and after an automatic open parachute jump in 38 male Spanish soldiers (25.6 ± 5.9 years). A MANOVA with samples as a fixed factor and Effect Size (ES) were conducted...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Heleen Meuzelaar, Matthijs Ruben Panman, Chris Neil van Dijk, Sander Woutersen
Small proteins provide good model systems for studying the fundamental forces that control protein folding. Here, we investigate the folding dynamics of the 28-residue zinc-finger mutant FSD-1, which is designed to form a metal-independent folded ββα-motif, and which provides a testing ground for proteins containing a mixed α/β fold. Although the folding pathway of FSD-1 has been actively studied, the folding mechanism remains largely unclear. In particular, it is unclear in what stage of folding the α-helix is formed...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Dorian Cazau, Olivier Adam, Thierry Aubin, Jeffrey T Laitman, Joy S Reidenberg
Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hideyuki Nukaga, Tomotaka Takeda, Kazunori Nakajima, Keishiro Narimatsu, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keiichi Ishigami, Kazuo Funato
Teeth clenching has been shown to improve remote muscle activity (by augmentation of the Hoffmann reflex), and joint fixation (by decreased reciprocal inhibition) in the entire body. Clenching could help maintain balance, improve systemic function, and enhance safety. Teeth clenching from a sports dentistry viewpoint was thought to be important and challenging. Therefore, it is quite important to investigate mastication muscles' activity and function during sports events for clarifying a physiological role of the mastication muscle itself and involvement of mastication muscle function in whole body movement...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
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