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Kamal Z Zamli, Fakhrud Din, Bestoun S Ahmed, Miroslav Bures
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1)...
2018: PloS One
Mohamed Abdelsattar, Andreas Konrad, Markus Tilp
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon stiffness and ground contact time (GCT) during drop jumps. The property of "springiness" and a short GCT during the movement is required in several types of sports. Therefore, a stiff tendon might be advantageous due to the quick force transmission from the muscle to the bone. Hence, a secondary aim was to relate Achilles tendon stiffness with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) performance, respectively...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Susanna K P Lau, Emily Y M Wong, Chi-Ching Tsang, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Ulrich Wernery, Patrick C Y Woo
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome showed once again that coronaviruses (CoVs) in animals are potential source for epidemics in humans. To explore the diversity of deltacoronaviruses in animals in the Middle East, we tested fecal samples from 1,356 mammals and birds in Dubai. Four novel deltacoronaviruses were detected from eight birds of four species by RT-PCR: FalCoV UAE-HKU27 from a falcon, HouCoV UAE-HKU28 from a houbara bustard, PiCoV UAE-HKU29 from a pigeon and QuaCoV UAE-HKU30 from five quails...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Chao Liu, Yangyang Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jun Wang, Wenfei Li, Wei Wang
Understanding the microscopic mechanism of water molecular translational diffusion is a challenging topic in both physics and chemistry. Here, we report an investigation on the interplay between the translational diffusion and the large-amplitude angular jumps of water molecules in bulk water using molecular dynamics simulations. We found that large-amplitude angular jumps are tightly coupled to the translational diffusions. Particularly, we revealed that concurrent rotational jumps of spatially neighboring water molecules induce inter-basin translational jumps, which contributes to the fast component of the water translational diffusion...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ioannis Skarmoutsos, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Guillaume Maurin
Force field based-Molecular dynamics simulations were deployed to systematically explore the dynamics of confined molecules of different shapes and sizes, i.e. linear (CO2 and N2) and spherical (CH4) fluids, in a model small pore system, i.e. the Metal-Organic Framework SIFSIX-2-Cu-i. These computations unveil an unprecedented molecular symmetry dependence of the translational and rotational dynamics of fluids confined in channel-like nanoporous materials. In particular this peculiar behaviour is reflected by the extremely slow decay of the Legendre reorientational correlation functions of even-parity order for the linear fluids which is associated to jump-like orientation flips, while the spherical fluid shows a very fast decay taking place in a sub-picosecond time scale...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Fu-Hao Lu, Neil McKenzie, George Kettleborough, Darren Heavens, Matthew D Clark, Michael W Bevan
Background: The accurate sequencing and assembly of very large, often polyploid, genomes remain a challenging task, limiting long-range sequence information and phased sequence variation for applications such as plant breeding. The 15 Gb hexaploid bread wheat genome has been particularly challenging to sequence, and several different approaches have recently generated long-range assemblies. Mapping and understanding the types of assembly errors is important for optimising future sequencing and assembly approaches and for comparative genomics...
May 11, 2018: GigaScience
Edoardo Del Poggetto, Angelo Toto, Chiara Aloise, Francesco Di Piro, Ludovica Gori, Francesco Malatesta, Stefano Gianni, Fabrizio Chiti, Francesco Bemporad
A set of missense mutations in the gene encoding profilin-1 has been linked to the onset of familiar forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease). The pathogenic potential of these mutations is linked to the formation of intracellular inclusions of the mutant proteins and correlates with the mutation-induced destabilization of its native, fully folded state. However, the mechanism by which these mutations promote misfolding and self-assembly is yet unclear. Here, using temperature-jump and stopped-flow kinetic measurements, we show that, during refolding, wild-type profilin-1 transiently populates a partially folded (PF) state endowed with hydrophobic clusters exposed to the solvent and with no detectable secondary structure...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yutaka Yamada, Akihiko Horibe
The three-phase contact line motion on a superhydrophobic surface through particle-laden sessile droplet evaporation was investigated. Sample surfaces with micro- and nanoscale structures were generated by various durations of chemical treatment and SiO_{2} spherical particles with different sizes were used as additives of test liquid. The contact angle and contact radius profiles were studied, and the discontinuous motion of those profiles on micro- and nanostructured hierarchical surfaces was observed, while it was not observed on a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Jianping Xu, Guancheng Jiang
Brine reaction and precipitation in porous media sometimes occur in the presence of a strong fluid flowing field, which induces the mobilization of the precipitated salts and distorts their spatial distribution. It is interesting to investigate how the distribution responds to such mobilization. We view these precipitates as random walkers in the complex inner space of the porous media, where they make stochastic jumps among locations and possibly wait between successive transitions. In consideration of related experimental results, the waiting time of the precipitates at a particular position is allowed to range widely from short sojourn to permanent residence...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Q L Bi, Y J Lü, W H Wang
The density layering phenomenon originating from a free surface gives rise to the layerlike dynamics and stress heterogeneity in ultrathin Cu-Zr glassy films, which facilitates the occurrence of multistep relaxations in the timescale of computer simulations. Taking advantage of this condition, we trace the relaxation decoupling and evolution with temperature simply via the intermediate scattering function. We show that the β relaxation hierarchically follows fast and slow modes in films, and there is a β-relaxation transition as the film is cooled close to the glass transition...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Bai-Zhuo Li, Zhi-Cheng Wang, Jia-Lu Wang, Fu-Xiang Zhang, Dong-Ze Wang, Feng-Yuan Zhang, Yu-Ping Sun, Qiang Jing, Hua-Fu Zhang, Shugang Tan, Y K Li, Chun-Mu Feng, Yu-Xue Mei, Cao Wang, Guanghan Cao
ThFeAsN<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub>O<sub><i>x</i></sub> (0≤<i>x</i>≤0.6) system with heavy electron doping has been studied by the measurements of X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. The non-doped compound exhibits superconductivity at <i>T<sub>c</sub><sup>onset</sup></i>=30 K, which is possibly due to an internal uniaxial chemical pressure that is manifested by the extremely small value of As height with respect to the Fe plane...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Jonatan R Ruiz, Carla Moreira, Luís Lopes, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jorge Mota, Rute Santos
The aims of this study were to examine the longitudinal association between muscular fitness (MF) and blood pressure (BP) 2 years later, and to determine whether changes in MF over a 2-year period were associated with BP at follow-up, in adolescents. The sample comprised 734 youths (349 girls) aged from 12 to 18 years. MF was assessed with the standing long jump and handgrip tests. Socioeconomic status, pubertal stage, waist circumference, resting BP, and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured according to standard procedures...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Che-Cheong Ryew, Seung-Hyun Hyun
The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of knee compression bandage and arm swing control on the maximum horizontal distance and ground reaction force variables in standing long jump. Adult male (n=8; mean age, 22.75±1.98 years; mean heights, 1.77±0.03 m; mean weights, 71.82±12.87 kg) participated in the experiment. The results obtained from variables of ground reaction force (GRF) in medial lateral, anterior posterior (AP), vertical (V) direction, resultant GRF (RGRF), decay rate (%), and maximum horizontal distance (MHD) were as follows; MHD, AP GRF, VGRF, RGRF (AP-V), and ratio of load reduction (%) showed more effective result under both wearing of knee compression bandage and arm swing...
April 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Mostafa R A Nabawy, Girupakaran Sivalingam, Russell J Garwood, William J Crowther, William I Sellers
Jumping spiders are proficient jumpers that use jumps in a variety of behavioural contexts. We use high speed, high resolution video to measure the kinematics of a single regal jumping spider for a total of 15 different tasks based on a horizontal gap of 2-5 body lengths and vertical gap of +/-2 body lengths. For short range jumps, we show that low angled trajectories are used that minimise flight time. For longer jumps, take-off angles are steeper and closer to the optimum for minimum energy cost of transport...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
José Pino-Ortega, Javier García-Rubio, Sergio J Ibáñez
The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the inertial device WIMU (Realtrack Systems SL, Almería, Spain) for the assessment of the vertical jump, counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). Fifteen soccer players were evaluated in two identical sessions separated by one week. In each session, participants performed three jumps of each type. The flight time was quantified by the inertial device WIMU and by a force platform (Twin Plates; Globus Sport and Health Technologies LLC, Codogné, Italy) at the same time...
2018: PeerJ
Mingyue Zhang, Linlin Dong, Huichao Zou, Junnan Li, Quanyi Li, Guonian Wang, Hulun Li
Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic used to alleviate moderate or severe pain but the development of drug tolerance and dependence limits its use in pain management. Previous studies showed that cannabinoid type 2 (CB2 ) receptor ligands may modulate opioid effects. However, there is no report of the effect of CB2 receptor agonist on acute morphine tolerance and physical dependence. We therefore investigated the effect of a CB2 receptor agonist (AM1241) on morphine-induced morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Daniel S Yanni, Aurora S Cruz, Alexander Y Halim, Amandip S Gill, Michael G Muhonen, Robert F Heary, Ira M Goldstein
Pediatric spinal trauma can present a surgeon with difficult management decisions given the rarity of these cases, pediatric anatomy, and a growing spine. The need to stabilize a traumatically unstable pediatric spine can be an operative challenge given the lack of instrumentation available. The authors present a surgical technique and an illustrative case that may offer a novel, less disruptive method of stabilization. A 2-year-old girl presented after an assault with an L1-2 fracture subluxation with lateral listhesis and fractured jumped facets exhibited on CT scans...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Hai Ting Gu, Ping Xie, Yan Fang Sang, Zi Yi Wu
Abrupt change is an important manifestation of hydrological process with dramatic variation in the context of global climate change, the accurate recognition of which has great significance to understand hydrological process changes and carry out the actual hydrological and water resources works. The traditional method is not reliable at both ends of the samples. The results of the methods are often inconsistent. In order to solve the problem, we proposed a comprehensive weighted recognition method for hydrological abrupt change based on weighting by comparing of 12 commonly used methods for testing change points...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xu Lei, Ping Xie, Zi Yi Wu, Yan Fang Sang, Jiang Yan Zhao, Bin Bin Li
Due to the global climate change and frequent human activities in recent years, the pure stochastic components of hydrological sequence is mixed with one or several of the variation ingredients, including jump, trend, period and dependency. It is urgently needed to clarify which indices should be used to quantify the degree of their variability. In this study, we defined the hydrological variability based on Hurst coefficient and Bartels statistic, and used Monte Carlo statistical tests to test and analyze their sensitivity to different variants...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
César Augusto da Silva, Lucas Helal, Roberto Pacheco da Silva, Karlyse Claudino Belli, Daniel Umpierre, Ricardo Stein
BACKGROUND: Although compression garments are used to improve sports performance, methodological approaches and the direction of evidence regarding garments for use in high-intensity exercise settings are diverse. OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to summarize the association between lower-limb compression garments (LLCGs) and changes in sports performance during high-intensity exercise. We also aimed to summarize evidence about the following physiological parameters related to sports performance: vertical jump height (VJ), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2 submax), blood lactate concentrations ([La]), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, 6-20 Borg scale)...
May 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
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