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pathology of kidney

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156254/xenografted-tissue-models-for-the-study-of-human-endometrial-biology
#1
REVIEW
Satu Kuokkanen, Liyin Zhu, Jeffrey W Pollard
The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156008/urinalysis-for-the-diagnosis-of-glomerulonephritis-role-of-dysmorphic-red-blood-cells
#2
Abdurrahman M Hamadah, Kamel Gharaibeh, Kristin C Mara, Katherine A Thompson, John C Lieske, Samar Said, Samih H Nasr, Nelson Leung
Background: Dysmorphic red blood cells (dRBCs) on urine microscopy have been associated with glomerulonephritis (GN). We assessed the prevalence and ability of dRBCs to differentiate GN from other kidney diseases. Methods: Adult patients with kidney biopsy performed between 2012 and 2015 at a single center who had a concurrent urinalysis were retrospectively studied. The association of ≥25% dRBCs with the presence of glomerular pathology was assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed on significantly associated variables...
October 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155497/clinical-and-pathological-factors-associated-with-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#3
REVIEW
Shuang Liang, Guang-Yan Cai, Xiang-Mei Chen
As an important complication of diabetic mellitus, diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Given the diminished quality of life and the economic cost, identification of the risk factors for DKD and initiation of in-time therapies are of great importance. The initiators of DKD include hyperglycemia and predisposing genes, while the promotors of DKD include hyperglycemia, albuminuria, hypertension, dyslipdemia, insulin resistance, anemia, long duration of diabetes, smoking, ethnicity, westernization, sex, age, and so on...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155496/insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Hong Xu, Juan J Carrero
This review provides an overview of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IR is a pathological state in which target tissues fail to respond normally to insulin. IR is understood as a consequence of CKD and its prevalence rises particularly in advanced CKD stages. Mechanisms leading to IR are complex and multifactorial, involving post-receptor signaling defects, unhealthy lifestyles, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, anemia, and uremic toxicity, as shown by human and experimental studies over the last 30 years...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155318/kidney-pathology-after-hematologic-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-observation-study-of-indication-biopsies-and-autopsies
#5
Michael Girsberger, Jörg P Halter, Helmut Hopfer, Michael Dickenmann, Thomas Menter
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an increasingly used treatment for hematologic malignancies as well as for non-malignant diseases. Kidney impairment remains an important early and late posttransplant complication. Numerous histopathologic changes have been reported but the pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Furthermore, correlations between clinical findings and morphologic changes are not well studied. Between 2000 and 2016, 17 patients after allogeneic (n=12) or autologous (n=5) HCT underwent kidney biopsy for either proteinuria or deterioration of kidney function at our center...
November 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153556/fatty-acids-in-nephrotic-syndrome-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Stefano Turolo, Alberto Edefonti, Marie Louise Syren, Franca Marangoni, William Morello, Carlo Agostoni, Giovanni Montini
The role of fatty acids (FAs) in inflammation and in the related chronic diseases has been demonstrated. However, there is a lack of consistent and agreed knowledge about the role of FA profile and renal physiology and pathology, most articles focusing on the effect of polyunsaturated FAs supplementation, without considering the impact of basal FA metabolism on the efficacy of the supplementation. Here, we have summarized the specific literature concerning the assessment of circulating FA in 2 renal diseases, namely nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease, also under hemodialytic treatment, and have received the most significant contributions in the last years...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152654/nephrin-loss-is-reduced-by-grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-in-the-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-rat-model
#7
Xianhua Li, Zhaoli Gao, Haiqing Gao, Baoying Li, Tao Peng, Bei Jiang, Xiangdong Yang, Zhao Hu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major causes of end‑stage renal failure. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) are known to act as antioxidants. The current study aimed to determine the effects of GSPE on the streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rat model and to explore the underlying mechanism of its action. Wistar rats were induced into a diabetic state by injection of STZ and were treated with 250 mg·kg‑1·day‑1 GSPE for 24 weeks. Kidney samples were collected for observation of renal pathological changes by light microscope (periodic acid‑Schiff staining) and electron microscopy...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151912/duodenal-angiomyolipoma-with-multiple-systemic-vascular-malformations-and-aneurysms-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Yiqiu Wang, Xiuli Zhang, Peng Liu, Guan Jiang, Wenlou Liu
Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are barely benign mesenchymal tumors that usually occur in the kidneys and may be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Extrarenal AMLs are markedly rare and infrequently observed in the duodenum. In the present case report, a 22-year-old female patient with duodenal AMLs presenting multiple systemic vascular malformations and aneurysms is described. The patient had a medical history of aneurysm rupture of the right subclavian artery and no other manifestation of TSC. Surgical intervention was performed...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151408/-protective-effect-of-5-aminosalicylic-acid-on-the-kidney-of-paraquat-poisoning-rats-by-nrf2-are-signal-pathway
#9
Yu Wang, Manhong Zhou, Yuanlan Lu, Anyong Yu, Jianguo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on renal injury poisoned by paraquat (PQ) in rats and its mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy clean male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal saline (NS) control group, 5-ASA control group, PQ model group and 5-ASA treatment group, with 6 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of 2% PQ solution 20 mg/kg, and the same volume of NS was given in NS control group and 5-ASA control group...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151252/dominant-c3-glomerulopathy-new-roles-for-an-old-actor-in-renal-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Nicola Pirozzi, Antonella Stoppacciaro, Paolo Menè
Recently, a number of reports have described dominant C3 deposits in renal biopsies of patients with infection-related glomerulonephritis (GN). While acute post-infectious GN and membranoproliferative GN are commonly characterized by immune deposits containing C3 and/or C4, the absence of immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or immune complexes at light or electron microscopy is a rather unusual observation. Dominant C3 deposition is believed to result from the alternative pathway of complement activation via the C3bBb "tickover" convertase...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#11
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3(-)) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148534/genetic-testing-of-complement-and-coagulation-pathways-in-patients-with-severe-hypertension-and-renal-microangiopathy
#12
Christopher P Larsen, Jon D Wilson, Alejandro Best-Rocha, Marjorie L Beggs, Randolph A Hennigar
A diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy on kidney biopsy in a patient presenting with hypertensive emergency has historically elicited the diagnosis of malignant hypertension-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Recent studies, however, have raised awareness that a number of these patients may actually represent atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. To further investigate this premise, we performed next-generation sequencing to interrogate the coding regions of 29 complement and coagulation cascade genes associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in 100 non-elderly patients presenting with severe hypertension, renal failure and a kidney biopsy showing microangiopathic changes limited to the classic accelerated hypertension-associated lesion of arterial intimal edema ('mucoid intimal hyperplasia') in isolation and without accompanying glomerular microthrombi...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147783/new-virus-of-the-family-flaviviridae-detected-in-lumpfish-cyclopterus-lumpus
#13
Renate Hvidsten Skoge, Jarle Brattespe, Arnfinn Lodden Økland, Heidrun Plarre, Are Nylund
In this study, we determined the complete coding sequence of a putative new member of the family Flaviviridae, named "Cyclopterus lumpus virus" (CLuV), which is associated with a serious disease in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). The virus was present in all tissues tested, but pathology was primarily observed in the liver and kidneys. CLuV shows low but distinct similarity to the unassigned Tamana bat virus (TABV). Unlike other known members of the family Flaviviridae, translation of the entire CLuV polyprotein is dependent on a - 1 ribosomal frameshift in the NS2A region...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145462/circulating-soluble-endoglin-modifies-the-inflammatory-response-in-mice
#14
Laura Ruiz-Remolina, Claudia Ollauri-Ibáñez, Lucía Pérez-Roque, Elena Núñez-Gómez, Fernando Pérez-Barriocanal, José Miguel López-Novoa, Miguel Pericacho, Alicia Rodríguez-Barbero
Inflammation is associated with every health condition, and is an important component of many pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Circulating levels of soluble endoglin have been shown to be higher in the serum of patients with cardiovascular diseases with a significant inflammatory component. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implication of circulating soluble endoglin in the inflammatory response. For this purpose, a transgenic mouse expressing human soluble endoglin (sEng+) was employed, and three different inflammatory approaches were used to mimic inflammatory conditions in different tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145401/anatomically-specific-intratubular-and-interstitial-biominerals-in-the-human-renal-medullo-papillary-complex
#15
Ling Chen, Ryan S Hsi, Feifei Yang, Benjamin A Sherer, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145295/extrarenal-teratoma-with-nephroblastoma-in-the-retroperitoneum-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Yanan Li, Chuanfen Lei, Bo Xiang, Fuyu Li, Chuan Wang, Qi Wang, Siyuan Chen, Yi Ji
RATIONALE: Teratoma with nephroblastoma is a rare disease. The most common site at which teratoma with nephroblastoma occurs is the kidney. The mechanisms underlying the development of teratoma with nephroblastoma have not been fully elucidated. PATIENT CONCERNS: In the current report, we describe the clinical characteristics of a 3-year-old girl with a complaint of a painless abdominal mass in the upper right side of the body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a cystic-solid mass with a clear boundary...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142961/the-renal-pathology-of-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Nobuo Tsuboi, Yusuke Okabayashi, Akira Shimizu, Takashi Yokoo
Obesity causes various structural, hemodynamic, and metabolic alterations in the kidney. Most of these are likely to be compensatory responses to the systemic increase in metabolic demand that is seen with obesity. In some cases, however, renal injury becomes clinically apparent as a result of compensatory failure. Obesity-related glomerulopathy is the best known of such disease states. Factors that may sensitize obese individuals to renal compensatory failure and associated injury include the severity and number of obesity-associated conditions or complications, including components of metabolic syndrome, and the mismatch of body size to nephron mass, due to nephron reductions of congenital or acquired origin...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142763/array-characterization-of-prenatally-diagnosed-15q26-microdeletion-and-2q37-1-duplication-report-of-a-new-case-with-multicystic-kidneys-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Molka Kammoun, Wafa Slimani, Hanene Hannachi, Mohamed Bibi, Ali Saad, Soumaya Mougou-Zerelli
We report on a molecular cytogenetic characterization of 15q26 deletion and 2q37.1 duplication in a fetus presenting with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), diaphragmatic hernia, multicystic kidneys, left kidney pyelectasis, and clubfeet. A terminal 15q26 deletion and a terminal 2q duplication of at least 10 and 9 Mb, respectively, derived from a maternal translocation, were found. The 15q26 deletion represents a contiguous gene deletion syndrome mainly characterized by IUGR, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and less frequently kidney defects...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141749/visualization-of-west-nile-virus-in-urine-sediment-using-electron-microscopy-and-immunogold-up-to-nine-years-postinfection
#19
Kristy O Murray, Steven Kolodziej, Shannon E Ronca, Rodion Gorchakov, Patricia Navarro, Melissa S Nolan, Amber Podoll, Kevin Finkel, Sreedhar Mandayam
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important emerging flavivirus in North America. Experimental studies in animals infer the development of persistent infection in the kidneys. In humans, recent studies suggest the possibility of persistent renal infection and chronic kidney disease. Considering the discrepancies between published studies on viral RNA detection in urine of convalescing WNV-positive patients, we explored the use of electron microscopy (EM) with anti-WNV E protein antibody immunogold labeling to detect virus in the urine sediment from a subset of study participants in the Houston WNV cohort...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141366/-in-vitro-early-detection-of-amyloid-plaques-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-pittsburgh-compound-b-modified-magnetic-nanoparticles
#20
J Q Zeng, J Q Wu, M H Li, P J Wang
Objective: To construct magnetic nanoparticles targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, the pathological biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to study their binding capability in vitro. Methods: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles Mn(0.6)Zn(0.4)Fe(2)O(4) (MZF) were coated with amphiphilic star-block copolymeric micelles and modified with Aβ-specific probe Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to construct a novel magnetic nanoparticle MZF-PiB, which specifically targeted amyloid plaques. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the morphological features of MZF-PiB...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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