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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922722/topiramate-versus-carbamazepine-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-an-individual-participant-data-review
#1
REVIEW
Sarah J Nolan, Maria Sudell, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy, the majority of which may be able to achieve remission with a single antiepileptic drug (AED).The correct choice of first-line antiepileptic therapy for individuals with newly diagnosed seizures is of great importance...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921244/towards-green-oviposition-deterrents-effectiveness-of-syzygium-lanceolatum-myrtaceae-essential-oil-against-six-mosquito-vectors-and-impact-on-four-aquatic-biological-control-agents
#2
Giovanni Benelli, Mohan Rajeswary, Marimuthu Govindarajan
Essential oils (EOs) from plants may be alternative sources of molecules toxic against mosquito vectors of public health relevance. Most of researches in this field focused on EOs as larvicides or ovicides, while limited efforts focused on the exploitation of EOs as oviposition deterrents. In the present study, the larvicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of Syzygium lanceolatum leaf EO was evaluated against six mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, An. subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920393/detection-of-wolbachia-in-aedes-albopictus-and-their-effects-on-chikungunya-virus
#3
Noor Afizah Ahmad, Indira Vythilingam, Yvonne A L Lim, Nur Zatil Aqmar A Zabari, Han Lim Lee
Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus The effects of Wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemination of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was also studied...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920175/bridging-the-gap-between-experimental-data-and-model-parameterization-for-chikungunya-virus-transmission-predictions
#4
Rebecca C Christofferson, Christopher N Mores, Helen J Wearing
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has experienced 2 major expansion events in the last decade. The most recently emerged sublineage (ECSA-V) was shown to have increased efficiency in a historically secondary vector, Aedes albopictus, leading to speculation that this was a major factor in expansion. Subsequently, a number of experimental studies focused on the vector competence of CHIKV, as well as transmission modeling efforts. Mathematical models have used these data to inform their own investigations, but some have incorrectly parameterized the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of the mosquitoes, using vector competence data...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920174/perspectives-and-challenges-in-entomological-risk-assessment-and-vector-control-of-chikungunya
#5
Mawlouth Diallo, Ibrahima Dia, Diawo Diallo, Cheikh Tidiane Diagne, Yamar Ba, Sergio Yactayo
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is primarily spread by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito vectors. Because there is no licensed vaccine for CHIKV, identifying ways to reduce or eliminate mosquito populations is the most effective strategy to immediately halt transmission to man. Strategies to assess the entomological risk and to control the vector are absolutely crucial to demolishing the rise of CHIKV. This review provides perspectives in entomological risk assessment and vector control, challenges for both, and gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed through rigorous research and multidisciplinary collaborations...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920173/invasiveness-of-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-and-vectorial-capacity-for-chikungunya-virus
#6
Leon Philip Lounibos, Laura D Kramer
In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (VC). The invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. Vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become infectious in the mosquito, depends largely on vector and virus genetics, and most A...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920169/chikungunya-its-history-in-africa-and-asia-and-its-spread-to-new-regions-in-2013-2014
#7
Herve Zeller, Wim Van Bortel, Bertrand Sudre
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. There are 3 circulating CHIKV genotypes, Asia, East/Central/South Africa, and West Africa. CHIKV was first reported in 1953 in Tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of CHIKV were mainly reported in Africa and Asia. However, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from Kenya over to the southwestern Indian Ocean region, India, and Southeast Asia...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919590/rebuttal-to-the-manuscript-by-r-j-porter-epires-d-16-00150
#8
D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité
Development of new effective medicines for patients, who continue to have seizures or experience unwanted side-effects, is an important goal. The human "Photosensitivity Model", a POC study, helps to achieve this goal by providing accurate PharmacoKinetic / PharmcoDynamic (PK/PD) data in epilepsy patients at a very early stage and in a highly controlled, standardized and safe setting (in- hospital video-EEG photic stimulation tests and single-dose AED administration). All information referred to in this rebuttal is based on evidence and not on personal communication...
November 27, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919463/newer-anti-epileptic-drugs-vitamin-status-and-neuropathy-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#9
V Cahill, D McCorry, I Soryal, Y A Rajabally
OBJECTIVE: Whether new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may result in neuropathy is unknown but possible given their effects on vitamin metabolism. This analysis aimed to determine frequency and correlates of neuropathy in subjects treated with new AEDs in relation to drug used, length of exposure and serum vitamin B12 and folate levels. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 52 consecutive epileptic subjects. Presence of neuropathy was determined using the Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS)...
December 2, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919276/erratum-to-aedes-albopictus-and-aedes-japonicus-two-invasive-mosquito-species-with-different-temperature-niches-in-europe
#10
Sarah Cunze, Lisa K Koch, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918946/toxicity-of-ar-curcumene-and-epi-%C3%AE-bisabolol-from-hedychium-larsenii-zingiberaceae-essential-oil-on-malaria-chikungunya-and-japanese-encephalitis-mosquito-vectors
#11
Mashael Marzouq AlShebly, Fatma Saeed AlQahtani, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Kasi Gopinath, Periasamy Vijayan, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes act as vectors of key pathogens and parasites. Plant essential oils have been recognized as important sources of biopesticides, which do not induce resistance and have limited toxic effects on human health and non-target organisms. In this research, we evaluated the larvicidal and oviposition deterrence activity of Hedychium larsenii essential oil (EO) and its major compounds ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol. Both molecules showed high toxicity against early third instars of Anopheles stephensi (LC50=10...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918641/evaluation-of-the-biocompatibility-of-polypyrrole-implanted-subdurally-in-gaers
#12
Sebastien H Bauquier, Karen J McLean, Jonathan L Jiang, Ray C Boston, Alan Lai, Zhilian Yue, Simon E Moulton, Amy J Halliday, Gordon Wallace, Mark J Cook
This blinded controlled prospective randomized study investigates the biocompatibility of polypyrrole (PPy) polymer that will be used for intracranial triggered release of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Three by three millimeters PPy are implanted subdurally in six adult female genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg. Each rat has a polymer implanted on one side of the cortex and a sham craniotomy performed on the other side. After a period of seven weeks, rats are euthanized and parallel series of coronal sections are cut throughout the implant site...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918577/control-of-aedes-aegypti-breeding-a-novel-intervention-for-prevention-and-control-of-dengue-in-an-endemic-zone-of-delhi-india
#13
B N Nagpal, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Arshad Shamim, Kumar Vikram, Aruna Srivastava, N R Tuli, Rekha Saxena, Himmat Singh, V P Singh, V N Bhagat, N K Yadav, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study is based on hypothesis that whether continuous entomological surveillance of Ae. aegypti and simultaneous appropriate interventions in key containers during non-transmission (December-May) months would have any impact on breeding of Aedes and dengue cases during the following transmission months (June-November). The impact of the surveillance and intervention measures undertaken during non-transmission months were assessed by entomological indicators namely container index (CI), house index (HI), pupal index (PI) and breteau index (BI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918451/bioactivities-of-a-new-pyrrolidine-alkaloid-from-the-root-barks-of-orixa-japonica
#14
Xin Chao Liu, Daowan Lai, Qi Zhi Liu, Ligang Zhou, Qiyong Liu, Zhi Long Liu
A new pyrrolidine alkaloid named (Z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one was isolated from the ethanol extract of the root barks of Orixa japonica. The structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. The compound exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 232.09 μg/mL), Anopheles sinensis (LC50 = 49.91 μg/mL), and Culex pipiens pallens (LC50 = 161.10 μg/mL). The new alkaloid also possessed nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (LC50 = 391...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918261/indoor-development-of-aedes-aegypti-in-germany-2016
#15
Helge Kampen, Stephanie Jansen, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Doreen Walther
In spring 2016, a German traveller returning from Martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred Aedes aegypti. Thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for Zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. The detection of Ae. aegypti by the 'Mueckenatlas' project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in Germany.
November 24, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917342/genomic-studies-of-envelope-gene-sequences-from-mosquito-and-human-samples-from-bangkok-thailand
#16
Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul, Surachet Benjathummarak, Hyun Ngoc Son, Supatra Thongrungkiat, Pongrama Ramasoota
Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus showing a high degree of genetic variation as a consequence of its proofreading inability. This variation plays an important role in virus evolution and pathogenesis. Although levels of within-host genetic variation are similar following equilibrium, variation among different hosts is frequently different. To identify dengue quasispecies present among two hosts, we collected patient samples from six acute DENV cases and two pools of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and analyzed the genetic variation of regions of the viral envelope gene...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916757/-efficacy-and-safety-of-levetiracetam-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-symptomatic-refractory-epilepsy-treated-in-a-department-of-neurosurgery
#17
Keiko Suzuki, Tomoyuki Kawataki, Hiroki Sato, Masakazu Ogiwara, Hiroyuki Kinouchi
The number of patients who suffer from symptomatic partial epilepsy is significant, and those who undergo neurosurgery often experience refractory seizures. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new-generation anti epileptic drug (AED). Previous studies have shown that LEV has favorable efficacy and a good safety profile with few drug interactions, as it has a unique pharmacological mechanism and acts on synaptic vesicle protein. This study aimed at estimate the efficacy and safety of 1,000 to 2,000 mg/day of LEV as an add-on therapy for refractory symptomatic seizures treated in the department of neurosurgery of our hospital...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916676/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-of-stigmasterol-hexacosanol-is-responsible-for-larvicidal-and-repellent-properties-of-chromolaena-odorata
#18
Sriramya Gade, Maheshwari Rajamanikyam, Varahalarao Vadlapudi, Krishna Madhav Nukala, Rajendar Aluvala, Chandrasekhar Giddigari, Naga Jyothi Karanam, Nabin C Barua, Richa Pandey, Vijaya Saradhi V Upadhyayula, Prabhakar Sripadi, Ramars Amanchy, Suryanarayana Murty Upadhyayula
BACKGROUND: Chromolaena odorata, has been traditionally known for its insect repellent property. Aim of this study was to determine larvicidal tendency of C. odorata on Culex quinquefasciatus and isolate compounds responsible for this activity and to determine the mechanism of action of these compounds. METHODS: C. odorata plant extract was screened for mosquito larvicidal activity. The extract was fractionated using chromatography and the bioactive fraction showing larvicidal activity was identified...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912950/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-as-an-add-on-therapy-to-oral-montelukast-in-the-treatment-of-mild-persistent-asthma-in-children
#19
Pak-Hong Chan, Ching-Yee To, Eric Yat-Tung Chan, Handong Li, Xiuxia Zhang, Pok-Yu Chow, Po-Ling Liu, Shuk-Yu Leung, Chung-Hong Chan, Ka-Yan Chan, Johnny Yick-Chun Chan, Jonathan Pak-Heng Ng, Daniel Kwok-Keung Ng
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese medicine are commonly used for treatment of asthma. However, there are only very limited data about its efficacy in children. Therefore, we aimed to determine the efficacy of augmented Yu Ping Feng San (aYPFS) as an add-on to oral montelukast compared with montelukast alone for treatment of mild persistent asthma in children. DESIGN: A single centre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized control trial was carried out. Participants with age 6-18 years who had mild persistent asthma were randomized according to random number list to receive either aYPFS plus montelukast for 24 weeks or placebo plus montelukast for 24 weeks...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911695/dengue-virus-isolation-in-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-captured-during-an-outbreak-in-tokyo-2014-by-a-method-relying-on-antibody-dependent-enhancement-mechanism-using-fc%C3%AE-r-expressing-bhk-cells
#20
Meng Ling Moi, Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Toshinori Sasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Ichiro Kurane, Kyoko Sawabe, Tomohiko Takasaki
Dengue virus (DENV) isolation from mosquitoes is necessary for providing definitive evidence of virus circulation, and is critical for further virological characterization and determination of epidemiological characteristics. By using Aedes albopictus mosquitoes captured during an outbreak in Tokyo in 2014, we compared the DENV isolation rates of a conventional virus isolation method that uses C6/36 mosquito cells as assay cells with those of a virus isolation method that relies on an antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism by using FcγR-expressing baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells and an antibody with ADE activity...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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