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Maggy T Sikulu-Lord, Masabho P Milali, Michael Henry, Robert A Wirtz, Leon E Hugo, Floyd E Dowell, Gregor J Devine
Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sharon Bewick, Folashade Agusto, Justin M Calabrese, Ephantus J Muturi, William F Fagan
La Crosse encephalitis is a viral disease that has emerged in new locations across the Appalachian region of the United States. Conventional wisdom suggests that ongoing emergence of La Crosse virus (LACV) could stem from the invasive Asian tiger (Aedes albopictus) mosquito. Efforts to prove this, however, are complicated by the numerous transmission routes and species interactions involved in LACV dynamics. To analyze LACV transmission by Asian tiger mosquitoes, we constructed epidemiologic models. These models accurately predict empirical infection rates...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Ru-Qian He, Qing-Yi Zeng, Pan Zhu, Yi-Xin Bao, Rong-Yuan Zheng, Hui-Qin Xu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a seizure relapse and the high-risk period of recurrence after antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal and to determine the predictive factors for a seizure relapse in adult patients with focal epilepsy who were seizure-free for more than 2years. METHODS: Using the Wenzhou Epilepsy Follow-Up Registry Database, 200 adult patients with focal epilepsy were recruited, who were undergoing follow-up, met the inclusion criteria of this study, were seizure-free for more than 2years, began withdrawing between June 2003 and June 2014, and were followed up prospectively for at least 1year or until a seizure relapse...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A Hp Khor, K S Lim, C T Tan, Z Kwan, C C Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Leon E Hugo, Natalie A Prow, Bing Tang, Greg Devine, Andreas Suhrbier
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus associated with epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease in humans. Aedes albopictus has emerged as an important new natural vector for CHIKV transmission; however, mouse models for studying transmission have not been developed. METHODS: Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were infected with CHIKV via membrane feeding and by using infected adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Paraffin sections of infected mosquitoes were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody staining using an anti-CHIKV antibody...
October 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Emmanuel Nakouné, Basile Kamgang, Nicolas Berthet, Alexandre Manirakiza, Mirdad Kazanji
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kayvan Etebari, Sultan Asad, Guangmei Zhang, Sassan Asgari
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are appearing as an important class of regulatory RNAs with a variety of biological functions. The aim of this study was to identify the lincRNA profile in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and evaluate their potential role in host-pathogen interaction. The majority of previous RNA-Seq transcriptome studies in Ae. aegypti have focused on the expression pattern of annotated protein coding genes under different biological conditions. Here, we used 35 publically available RNA-Seq datasets with relatively high depth to screen the Ae...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ayse Tosun, Seda Erisen Karaca, Tolga Unuvar, Yakup Yurekli, Cigdem Yenisey, Imran Kurt Omurlu
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) disorders and possible risk factors in patients with epilepsy only (EO), cerebral palsy only (CPO), and cerebral palsy-epilepsy (CP + E). METHODS: A total of 122 patients [EO (n = 54), CPO (n = 30), CP + E (n = 38)] and 30 healthy children were evaluated. BMD was only measured in patient groups, not in control subjects. BMD of lumbar vertebrae was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Garima Shukla, Anupama Gupta, Priya Agarwal, Shivani Poornima
PURPOSE: Levetiracetam (LEV) is often chosen early in the treatment of refractory epilepsy; however, its adverse effects have largely been studied as part of clinical trials. Oxcarbazepine and valproate (VPA) are the other commonly used AEDs and, hence, serve as good comparators. This study was conducted to evaluate behavioral abnormalities and somnolence among patients with epilepsy being treated with LEV and/or OXC compared with those receiving VPA. METHOD: Data of consecutive patients attending our intractable epilepsy clinic over a 2 1/2-year period were reviewed, and patients with at least one seizure a month, who had been initiated on either or a combination of LEV, VPA, or OXC, were included for analysis...
October 15, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Dennis Pérez, Marta Castro, Ángel Manuel Álvarez, Lizet Sánchez, María Eugenia Toledo, Damayanti Matos, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Pierre Lefèvre
Objective To identify facilitators and barriers to the process of translating community empowerment strategies into the practice of the national Aedes aegypti control program in Cuba. Methods A case study of the process was conducted from 2005 to 2009 at national and provincial levels of the control program. Data from participant observation, in-depth interviews, and document analysis were triangulated and analyzed inductively and deductively. Results The main facilitators identified included a proposal for an empowerment strategy effective in reducing Aedes aegypti infestation, which was explained in such a way that it could be implemented by program staff; and a control program with national coverage capable of implementing the proposal...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Takashi Suzuki, Joseph H Osei, Akihiro Sasaki, Michelle Adimazoya, Maxwell Appawu, Daniel Boakye, Nobuo Ohta, Samuel Dadzie
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Cheng-Yang Hsieh, Chien-Chou Su, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Chin-Wei Huang, Swu-Jane Lin, Soko Setoguchi
We compared persistence of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, valproic acid, and phenytoin in an Asian population with epilepsy.A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Adult epilepsy patients newly prescribed with AEDs between 2005 and 2009 were included. The primary outcome was persistence, defined as the treatment duration from the date of AED initiation to the date of AED discontinuation, switching, hospitalization due to seizure or disenrollment from databases, whichever came first...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Richmond Darko, Jessica L Mashburn
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Rafael de Oliveira Christe, André Barretto Bruno Wilke, Paloma Oliveira Vidal, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Culicidae mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens; however, males and females have different responses to selective pressures, leading to distinct evolutionary outcomes. A better understanding of this phenomenon is crucial to establish effective control strategies for this mosquito. Although Aedes fluviatilis is considered a secondary vector for several diseases, there is a dearth of data about its ecology, population structure and sexual dimorphism. The goal of this study was therefore to assess sexual dimorphism patterns in Aedes fluviatilis...
October 13, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kazuhiro Muramatsu, Noriko Sawaura, Tomomi Ogata, Nishiki Makioka, Keiko Tomita, Toshino Motojima, Kuniko Ida, Kyoko Hazama, Hirokazu Arakawa
INTRODUCTION: Levetiracetam has a high tolerability and is effective against various seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. However, no study has specifically evaluated the efficacy of levetiracetam in children with refractory epilepsy based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the presence of intellectual disability (ID). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated levetiracetam efficacy and safety in 49 pediatric patients who met the following inclusion criteria: (1) diagnosis of refractory epilepsy with first-line antiepileptic (AED) treatment ⩾2years, (2) younger than 20years old, and (3) received oral levetiracetam treatment for ⩾6months...
October 13, 2016: Brain & Development
Charles Lowell Cantrell, Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones, Abbas Ali
Hierochloë odorata (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae), commonly known as sweetgrass, has documented use as an insect repellent by the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta. Both the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta would use braided plant material in a sachet in clothing or burn them from one end as incense, air/clothing freshener, and insect repellent. This study evaluated the insect repellent properties of this plant using an in vitro mosquito Aedes aegypti feeding bioassay-directed approach to identify the compound(s) responsible for the observed activities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tamar M van Veenendaal, Dominique M IJff, Albert P Aldenkamp, Richard H C Lazeron, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Paul A M Hofman, Anton J A de Louw, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Although antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective in suppressing epileptic seizures, they also induce (cognitive) side effects, with mental slowing as a general effect. This study aimed to assess whether concentrations of MR detectable neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, are associated with mental slowing in patients with epilepsy taking AEDs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from patients with localization-related epilepsy using a variety of AEDs from three risk categories, i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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