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Health politics, policy and law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744945/understanding-the-development-of-a-regulated-market-approach-to-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-new-zealand-using-punctuated-equilibrium-theory
#1
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). METHODS: The analysis draws on three years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734843/understanding-of-for-whom-under-what-conditions-and-how-the-compulsory-licensing-of-pharmaceuticals-works-in-brazil-and-thailand-a-realist-synthesis
#2
Kyung-Bok Son, Chang-Yup Kim, Tae-Jin Lee
When pharmaceuticals are not fully available mainly due to the high cost of medicines, a government can issue compulsory licensing (CL). It is well documented that Brazil and Thailand have notably attempted CL. A realist review was undertaken to understand the identical social interventions in comparative settings, and to draw practical implications for attempting CL relevant for middle-income countries in the era of high-cost medicines. CL is not only a politically well-devised measure to achieve universal health coverage, but also a tentative commitment, which is determined both at the country level and at the global level...
May 8, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683205/prohibiting-physicians-dual-practice-in-iran-policy-options-for-implementation
#3
Mohammad Bazyar, Arash Rashidian, Nader Jahanmehr, Faranak Behzadi, Javad Moghri, Leila Doshmangir
BACKGROUND: In Iran, based on the recent national policy documents, physician dual practice (PDP) has been prohibited. This study aimed to develop policy options (POs) to implement physicians' dual practice prohibition law in Iran. METHODS: International evidence published in English and local documents published in Persian about PDP analyzed and results (advantages, disadvantages, challenges and requirements to ban PDP, and applied policies to limit the dual practice) were extracted...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649194/regulatory-chills-tobacco-industry-legal-threats-and-the-politics-of-tobacco-standardised-packaging-in-new-zealand
#4
Eric Crosbie, George Thomson
AIMS: To describe the process of enacting tobacco standardised packaging (SP) amidst tobacco industry legal threats in New Zealand. METHODS: Relevant government and NGO documents, and media items were reviewed. Policymakers and health advocates in New Zealand were interviewed. The data were triangulated and thematically analysed. RESULTS: In 2011, the New Zealand Government announced the goal of becoming a smokefree country (reducing smoking prevalence to 5%) by the year 2025, and considered adopting SP...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644562/exacerbating-inequalities-health-policy-and-the-behavioural-sciences
#5
Kathryn MacKay, Muireann Quigley
There have been calls for some time for a new approach to public health in the United Kingdom and beyond. This is consequent on the recognition and acceptance that health problems often have a complex and multi-faceted aetiology. At the same time, policies which utilise insights from research in behavioural economics and psychology ('behavioural science') have gained prominence on the political agenda. The relationship between the social determinants of health (SDoH) and behavioural science in health policy has not hitherto been explored...
April 11, 2018: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608864/structural-determinants-and-children-s-oral-health-a-cross-national-study
#6
S R Baker, L Foster Page, W M Thomson, T Broomhead, K Bekes, P E Benson, F Aguilar-Diaz, L Do, C Hirsch, Z Marshman, C McGrath, A Mohamed, P G Robinson, J Traebert, B Turton, B J Gibson
Much research on children's oral health has focused on proximal determinants at the expense of distal (upstream) factors. Yet, such upstream factors-the so-called structural determinants of health-play a crucial role. Children's lives, and in turn their health, are shaped by politics, economic forces, and social and public policies. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's clinical (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth) and self-reported oral health (oral health-related quality of life) and 4 key structural determinants (governance, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and social policy) as outlined in the World Health Organization's Commission for Social Determinants of Health framework...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590520/mass-shootings-mental-illness-and-gun-control
#7
Sean Philpott-Jones
In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538641/medical-society-engagement-in-contentious-policy-reform-the-ethiopian-society-for-obstetricians-and-gynecologists-esog-and-ethiopia-s-2005-reform-of-its-penal-code-on-abortion
#8
Sarah Jane Holcombe
Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake...
May 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505461/brazilian-public-policies-on-drugs-an-analysis-considering-the-aspects-of-assistance-prevention-and-supply-control
#9
Jacqueline de Souza, Regina C Fioratti, Maraiza M Macedo, Jaqueline Queiroz de Macedo
Since 2004, Brazilian policy makers have been making some changes in the drug policies. It has prioritized a harm reduction perspective instead of a prohibitionist one. Nevertheless, this latter perspective also persists in some parts of the policies and strategies used to deal with this phenomenon in Brazil. This study aims to analyze the structure of the drug policies in Brazil. It is a documental search of Brazilian mental health legislation (laws, decrees, and ordinances) regarding alcohol and other drugs since 2001...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474486/assessing-changes-in-hiv-related-legal-and-policy-environments-lessons-learned-from-a-multi-country-evaluation
#10
Laura Ferguson, Alexandra Nicholson, Ian Henry, Amitrajit Saha, Tilly Sellers, Sofia Gruskin
INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. METHODS: We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446214/new-developments-in-india-concerning-the-policy-of-passive-euthanasia
#11
Scaria Kanniyakonil
Euthanasia and assisted dying are illegal in India according to Sections 306 and 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. There have been a number of cases where the Indian High Courts and Indian Supreme Court issued differing verdicts concerning the right to life and the right to die. Nevertheless, on 7 March 2011, a paradigm shift happened as a result of the Indian Supreme Court's judgment on involuntary passive euthanasia in the case of Aruna Shanbaug. In its judgment, the Supreme Court requested the government to prepare a law on euthanasia...
February 15, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416990/politics-of-ebola-and-the-critical-role-of-global-health-diplomacy-for-the-caricom
#12
Vijay Kumar Chattu
The 2014 Ebola epidemic was the largest in history, affecting Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and Mali in West Africa. The International Health Regulations are legally binding in 194 countries including all the member states of WHO "to prevent, protect against, control, and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease." Since the Caribbean Community region heavily depends on tourism, a single case of the disease anywhere in the region could have serious negative consequences for the rest of the region's tourism industry...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382340/38-8-million-additional-modern-contraceptive-users-this-in-fact-is-a-never-before-opportunity-to-strengthen-investment-and-action-on-adolescent-contraception
#13
EDITORIAL
Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Marina Plesons, Emily Sullivan, Lianne Gonsalves, Lale Say
BACKGROUND: We thank Bijlmakers et al. for their interest in our article, "A never-before opportunity to strengthen investment and action on adolescent contraception, and what we must do to make full use of it", and are grateful for the opportunity to respond to their four key assertions. RESPONSE: First, we fully agree that sexual rights are controversial, which we discussed in depth in our original article. However, we reaffirm that there is global consensus on adolescent contraception as evidenced in part by recent data emerging from FP2020 on 38...
January 30, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369257/universal-health-insurance-coverage-in-vietnam-a-stakeholder-analysis-from-policy-proposal-1989-to-implementation-2014
#14
Chi K Hoang, Peter Hill, Huong T Nguyen
CONTEXT: In 1989, health insurance (HI) was introduced in Vietnam and began to be implemented in 1992. There was limited progress until the 2014 Law on HI that was revised with the aim of universal health insurance coverage (UHIC) by 2020. This article explores stakeholder roles and positions from the initial introduction of HI to the implementation of the Master Plan accelerating UHIC. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the influence of stakeholders in accelerating UHIC to achieve equity in health care...
March 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359948/statutory-regulation-of-traditional-medicine-practitioners-and-practices-the-need-for-distinct-policy-making-guidelines
#15
Nadine Ijaz, Heather Boon
The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area...
April 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346480/changing-collective-social-norms-in-favour-of-reduced-harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-review-of-reviews
#16
Peter Anderson, Eva Jané-Llopis, Omer Syed Muhammad Hasan, Jürgen Rehm
Background: Public sector bodies have called for policies and programmes to shift collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol. This article aims to identify and summarize the evidence and propose how policies and programmes to shift social norms could be implemented and evaluated. Design: Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Data sources: Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register and Epub Ahead of Print databases...
January 16, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235401/what-do-human-rights-bring-to-discussions-of-power-and-politics-in-health-policy-and-systems
#17
Lisa Forman
Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities...
December 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231790/uptake-of-postabortion-care-services-and-acceptance-of-postabortion-contraception-in-puntland-somalia
#18
Kingsley Chukwumalu, Meghan C Gallagher, Sabine Baunach, Amy Cannon
Unsafe abortion is responsible for at least 9% of all maternal deaths worldwide; however, in humanitarian emergencies where health systems are weak and reproductive health services are often unavailable or disrupted, this figure is higher. In Puntland, Somalia, Save the Children International (SCI) implemented postabortion care (PAC) services to address the issue of high maternal morbidity and mortality due to unsafe abortion. Abortion is explicitly permitted by Somali law to save the life of a woman, but remains a sensitive topic due to religious and social conservatism that exists in the region...
November 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121943/managing-intra-eu-mobility-do-who-principles-of-ethical-recruitment-have-relevance
#19
Réka Kovács, Edmond Girasek, Eszter Kovács, Zoltán Aszalós, Edit Eke, Károly Ragány, Zoltán Cserháti, Miklós Szócska
BACKGROUND: The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel provides for guidance in health workforce management and cooperation in the international context. This article aims to examine whether the principles of the voluntary WHO Global Code of Practice can be applied to trigger health policy decisions within the EU zone of free movement of persons. METHODS: In the framework of the Joint Action on European Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting project (Grant Agreement: JA EUHWF 20122201 (see healthworkforce...
November 9, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094422/health-democracy-in-europe-cancer-patient-organization-participation-in-health-policy
#20
Kyriakos Souliotis, Lily E Peppou, Eirini Agapidaki, Chara Tzavara, Dominique Debiais, Stanimir Hasurdjiev, Francois Sarkozy
BACKGROUND: Patient organization participation in health policy decision making is an understudied area of inquiry. A handful of qualitative studies have suggested that the growing number of patient organizations in Europe and their increasing involvement in policy issues do not result in high political effectiveness. However, existing research is largely country-specific. OBJECTIVE: To examine the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO) participation in health policy decision making in EU-28 and to identify their correlates...
November 1, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
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