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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919765/scopolamine-alleviates-involuntary-lingual-movements-tardive-dyskinesia-or-dystonia
#1
Jianbo Hu, Jianbo Lai, Shaohua Hu, Yi Xu
Cholinergic hypofunction was believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia, and therefore, anticholinergic treatment might exacerbate the condition. We describe herein a middle-aged male with feeble chewing movements, involuntary rolling motions of the tongue, and abnormally tightened cheeks which developed after consuming different psychotropic medications. These symptoms did not improve after routine treatment for tardive dyskinesia, but responded well to anticholinergic agents, such as scopolamine and benzhexol hydrochloride...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917975/the-memory-ameliorating-effects-of-dhp1402-an-herbal-mixture-on-cholinergic-blockade-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#2
Haneul Kim, Hyung Eun Lee, In Ho Jung, Se Jin Jeon, Jiabao Zhang, Yubeen Kwon, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F Chow (rhamnaceae) and Codonopsis lanceolata (Siedbold & Zucc.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Trautv. (campanulaceae), compositions of DHP1402, have long been used for treating anti-dementia or hypomnesia as folk medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: It has been reported that Z. jujuba var. spinosa and C. lanceolata are effective on cognitive function with different mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the synergistic effects of Ziziphus jujuba var...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913501/acute-poisoning-due-to-ingestion-of-datura-stramonium-a-case-report
#3
Sebastian Daniel Trancă, Robert Szabo, Mihaela Cociş
Datura stramonium (DS) is a widespread annual plant, containing atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can produce poisoning with a severe anticholinergic syndrome. Teenagers ingest the roots, seeds or the entire plant to obtain its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. We presented the case of a 22 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room in a coma after consuming Datura stramonium, 2 hours earlier. The patient presented with fever, tachycardia with right bundle branch block, and urinary retention...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901737/melatonin-improves-cognitive-deficits-via-restoration-of-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-scopolamine-induced-amnesia
#4
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Dae Won Kim, Jinseu Park, Soo Young Choi, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Bing Chun Yan, Il-Jun Kang, Bich Na Shin, Yun Lyul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Young Joo Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Melatonin is known to improve cognitive deficits and its functions have been studied in various disease models, including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated effects of melatonin on cognition and the cholinergic system of the septum and hippocampus in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to mice for 2 and 4 weeks. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests revealed that both treatments of scopolamine significantly impaired spatial learning and memory; however, 2- and 4-week melatonin treatments significantly improved the spatial learning and memory...
September 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900141/dianxianning-improved-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-pathological-characteristics-partially-through-daf-2-daf-16-insulin-like-pathway-in-transgenic-c-elegans
#5
Dejuan Zhi, Dong Wang, Wenqi Yang, Ziyun Duan, Shuqian Zhu, Juan Dong, Na Wang, Ningbo Wang, Dongqing Fei, Zhanxin Zhang, Xin Wang, Meizhu Wang, Hongyu Li
Dianxianning (DXN) is a traditional Chinese formula, and has been approved in China for treating epilepsy since 1996. Here anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of DXN has been reported. DXN improved AD-like symptoms of paralysis and 5-HT sensitivity of transgenic Aβ1-42 C. elegans. In worms, DXN significantly increased Aβ monomers and decreased the toxic Aβ oligomers, thus reducing Aβ toxicity. DXN significantly suppressed the expression of hsp-16.2 induced by juglone, and up-regulated sod-3 expression. These results indicated that DXN increased stress resistance and protected C...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894228/ascorbic-acid-tethered-polymeric-nanoparticles-enable-efficient-brain-delivery-of-galantamine-an-in-vitro-in-vivo-study
#6
Kavita R Gajbhiye, Virendra Gajbhiye, Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Srikanth Pilla, Vandana Soni
The aim of this work was to enhance the transportation of the galantamine to the brain via ascorbic acid grafted PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) using SVCT2 transporters of choroid plexus. PLGA-b-PEG copolymer was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. PLGA-b-PEG-NH2 and PLGA-b-mPEG NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. PLGA-b-PEG NPs with desirable size, polydispersity, and drug loading were used for the conjugation with ascorbic acid (PLGA-b-PEG-Asc) to facilitate SVCT2 mediated transportation of the same into the brain...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893667/amnestic-drugs-in-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-zolpidem-and-scopolamine
#7
Mark Galizio, Michael Mathews, Madeleine Mason, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Paul Soto
The odor span task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure designed to provide an analysis of working memory capacity in rodents. The procedure takes place in an arena apparatus and rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli in the form of scented lids with the selection of new stimuli reinforced. This procedure makes it possible to study drug effects as a function of the number of stimuli to remember. In the present study, the non-selective positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulator flunitrazepam impaired odor span performance at doses that did not affect a control odor discrimination...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878678/verapamil-blocks-scopolamine-enhancement-effect-on-memory-consolidation-in-passive-avoidance-task-in-rats
#8
Verónica Giménez De Béjar, María Caballero Bleda, Natalija Popović, Miroljub Popović
Our recent data have indicated that scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, improves memory consolidation, in a passive avoidance task, tested in rats. It has been found that verapamil, a phenylalkylamine class of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonist, inhibits [3H] N-methyl scopolamine binding to M1 muscarinic receptors. However, there are no data about the effect of verapamil on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task, in rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of verapamil (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873551/are-tropane-alkaloids-present-in-organic-foods-detection-of-scopolamine-and-atropine-in-organic-buckwheat-fagopyron-esculentum-l-products-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#9
Martina Cirlini, Teresa M Demuth, Alberto Biancardi, Michael Rychlik, Chiara Dall'Asta, Renato Bruni
A closer monitoring of tropane alkaloids (TA) in foods is now recommended by the European Commission, following a series of alerts related to the contamination of buckwheat with weeds of the genus Datura. A novel, accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the rapid detection of scopolamine and atropine in buckwheat foods. A suitable extraction protocol was set up to maximize recoveries and detection limits in different raw, processed and baked foods. The method offers good performances in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and precision, with LOQs at 0...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872831/novel-vilazodone-tacrine-hybrids-as-potential-multitarget-directed-ligands-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-accompanied-with-depression-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#10
Xiaokang Li, Huan Wang, Yixiang Xu, Wenwen Liu, Qi Gong, Wei Wang, Xiaoxia Qiu, Jin Zhu, Fei Mao, Haiyan Zhang, Jian Li
Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric complications of Alzheimer's disease (AD), affecting up to 50% of the patients. A novel series of hybrid molecules were designed and synthesized by combining the pharmacophoric features of vilazodone and tacrine as potential multitarget-directed ligands for the treatment of AD with depression. In vitro biological assays were conducted to evaluate the compounds; among the 30 hybrids, compound 1e showed relatively balanced profiles between acetylcholinesterase inhibition (IC50 = 3...
September 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870544/multi-analysis-determination-of-tropane-alkaloids-in-cereals-and-solanaceaes-seeds-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-single-stage-exactive-orbitrap
#11
Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
Tropane alkaloids are a wide group of substances that comprises more than 200 compounds occurring especially in the Solanaceae family. The main aim of this study is the development of a method for the analysis of the principal tropane alkaloids as atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, tropane, tropine, littorine, homatropine, apoatropine, aposcopolamine, scopoline, tropinone, physoperuvine, pseudotropine and cuscohygrine in cereals and related matrices. For that, a simple solid-liquid extraction was optimized and a liquid chromatographic method coupled to a single stage Exactive-Orbitrap was developed...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864239/network-oscillatory-activity-driven-by-context-memory-processing-is-differently-regulated-by-glutamatergic-and-cholinergic-neurotransmission
#12
Adam M P Miller, Brendan J Frick, David M Smith, Jelena Radulovic, Kevin A Corcoran
Memory retrieval requires coordinated intra- and inter-regional activity in networks of brain structures. Dysfunction of these networks and memory impairment are seen in many psychiatric disorders, but relatively little is known about how memory retrieval and memory failure are represented at the level of local and regional oscillatory activity. To address this question, we measured local field potentials (LFPs) from mice as they explored a novel context, retrieved memories for contextual fear conditioning, and after administration of two amnestic agents: the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP)...
August 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852153/ethyl-acetate-extract-components-of-bushen-yizhi-formula-provides-neuroprotection-against-scopolamine-induced-cognitive-impairment
#13
Shi-Jie Zhang, Dan Luo, Lin Li, Rui-Rong Tan, Qing-Qing Xu, Jie Qin, Lei Zhu, Na-Chuan Luo, Ting-Ting Xu, Rong Zhang, Lei Yang, Qi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and there is no effective cure for this devastating disease to date. Bushen Yizhi Formula (BSYZ-F), a Chinese herbal compound, has proved to be effective for AD. In this study, we further investigate the effective part of BSYZ-F, ethyl acetate extract components of BSYZ-F (BSYZ-E), protects scopolamine (SCOP)-induced cognitive impairment, which shows a similar effect to BSYZ-F. We also find that BSYZ-E could protect against SCOP-induced cholinergic system dysfunction...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842342/phytochemical-analysis-molecular-docking-and-antiamnesic-effects-of-methanolic-extract-of-silybum-marianum-l-gaertn-seeds-in-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#14
Nausheen Nazir, Nasiara Karim, Heba Abdel-Halim, Imran Khan, Syed Fazal Wadood, Muhammad Nisar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn and its main component silymarin have been extensively studied and have been found effective in various neurological disorders. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of the current study is to identify phytoconstituents in the methanolic extract (Me. Ext) of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn seeds and to study in-vivo the anti-amnesic effects along with in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and buteryl cholinesterase (BChE) inhibition potential...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837785/canagliflozin-prevents-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats-comparison-with-galantamine-hydrobromide-action
#15
Nadia M S Arafa, Elham H A Ali, Mohamed Kamel Hassan
Canagliflozin (CAN) is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a little information about its effect on the cholinergic system that proposed mechanism for memory improvement occurring by SGLT2 drugs. This study aimed to estimate the effect of CAN as compared to galantamine (GAL) treatments for two weeks on scopolamine hydrobromide (SCO) -induced memory dysfunction in experimental rats. Animals divided into six groups; control (CON), CAN, GAL, SCO, SCO + CAN and SCO + GAL...
August 21, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830814/p-coumaric-acid-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-recovers-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairments
#16
Hyun-Bum Kim, Seok Lee, Eun-Sang Hwang, Sungho Maeng, Ji-Ho Park
Due to the improvement of medical level, life expectancy increased. But the increased incidence of cognitive disorders is an emerging social problem. Current drugs for dementia treatment can only delay the progress rather than cure. p-Coumaric acid is a phenylpropanoic acid derived from aromatic amino acids and known as a precursor for flavonoids such as resveratrol and naringenin. It was shown to reduce oxidative stress, inhibit genotoxicity and exert neuroprotection. Based on these findings, we evaluated whether p-coumaric acid can protect scopolamine induced learning and memory impairment by measuring LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice and cognitive behaviors in rats...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817076/spirulina-maxima-extract-prevents-neurotoxicity-via-promoting-activation-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-neuronal-cells-and-mice
#17
Eun-Jeong Koh, Young-Jin Seo, Jia Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814961/compound-schisandra-ginseng-notoginseng-lycium-extract-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-disorders-in-mice
#18
Ning Li, Cong Liu, Shu Jing, Mengyang Wang, Han Wang, Jinghui Sun, Chunmei Wang, Jianguang Chen, He Li
Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807671/selective-inhibition-of-extra-synaptic-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptors-by-s44819-a-new-therapeutic-agent
#19
Lori-An Etherington, Balázs Mihalik, Adrienn Pálvölgyi, István Ling, Katalin Pallagi, Szabolcs Kertész, Péter Varga, Ben G Gunn, Adam R Brown, Matthew R Livesey, Olivia Monteiro, Delia Belelli, József Barkóczy, Michael Spedding, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni, Jeremy J Lambert
In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate neuronal inhibition and are important therapeutic targets. GABAARs are composed of 5 subunits, drawn from 19 proteins, underpinning expression of 20-30 GABAAR subtypes. In the CNS these isoforms are heterogeneously expressed and exhibit distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. We report the discovery of S44819, a novel tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine-derivative, that selectively inhibits α5-subunit-containing GABAARs (α5-GABAARs)...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807620/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-but-not-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-plays-a-role-in-morphine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats
#20
Jinling Sun, Lin Tian, Ruisi Cui, Heng Ruan, Xinwang Li
Background and Aim The cholinergic system can affect drug reward. The present study aimed to examine the roles of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. METHODS: To analyze the roles of mAChR and nAChR in behavioral sensitization induced by morphine (5mg/kg), seven experiments were designed. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of 3, 1, and 0.3 mg/kg scopolamine and 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05mg/kg scopolamine, respectively, on the locomotor activity when administered alone...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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