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Prabhat Upadhyay, Ananya Sadhu, Praveen K Singh, Aruna Agrawal, K Ilango, Suresh Purohit, Govind Prasad Dubey
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia yet treatment options are extremely limited. The disease is associated with cognitive impairment as well as structural irregularities, accumulation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, diminished levels of acetylcholine, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the brain. We have previously reported on the positive effects of a united states patented (US 7,273,626 B2) poly herbal test formulation, consisting of Bacopa monnieri, Hippophae rhamnoides and Dioscorea bulbifera extracts, on cognitive deficits in AD patients...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dinesh Dhingra, Kapil Soni
Boldine, a bioactive compound, has been reported to be neuroprotective, but its effect on learning and memory has not been explored. So, the present study was aimed to study the effect of boldine on the learning and memory of the Swiss albino male young and aged mice. Boldine (1.5, 3 and 6mg/kg, po) and physostigmine salicylate (0.1mg/kg, ip) were administered to separate groups of mice for 7 successive days. Morris water maze was utilized as a behavioural model to study the effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhen Long, Yanhai Zhang, Paul Gamache, Zhimou Guo, Frank Steiner, Nana Du, Xiaoda Liu, Yan Jin, Xingguo Liu, Lvye Liu
Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Lin Bao, Xuan-Yu Sha, Hang Zhao, Si-Qin-Gao-Wa Han, Wu-Li-Ji Hasi
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to measure scopolamine hydrobromide. First, the Raman characteristic peaks of scopolamine hydrobromide were assigned, and the characteristic peaks were determined. The optimal aggregation agent was potassium iodide based on a comparative experimental study. Finally, the SERS spectrum of scopolamine hydrobromide was detected in aqueous solution, and the semi-quantitative analysis and the recovery rate were determined via a linear fitting. The detection limit of scopolamine hydrobromide in aqueous solution was 0...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Hye-Sun Lim, Bu-Yeo Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Soo-Jin Jeong
Allylguaiacol is a phytochemical occurring in various plants such as cloves, cinnamon, basil, and nutmeg. Pharmacological effects of allylguaiacol include antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activity. Although allylguaiacol is considered to have neuroprotective effects, there is no report on its regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of allylguaiacol as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated HT22 hippocampal cells...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Rodrigo Zanandrea, Murilo S Abreu, Angelo Piato, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Ana C V V Giacomini
We examined whether lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, 100mg/L) is able to prevent memory impairment induced by scopolamine. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of lithium on anxiety-like behavior and acetylcholinesterase activity in adult zebrafish. We demonstrated that lithium prevents the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, decreases exploration and increases the activity of acetylcholinesterase in zebrafish. Collectively, this contributes to a better understanding of the pharmacology of lithium, its interaction with cholinergic neurotransmission, and its possible application to therapeutic treatments aimed at improving cognition...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Marissa A Smail, Jessica L Soles, Tracy E Karwoski, Robert T Rubin, Michael E Rhodes
Central cholinergic systems regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis differentially in males and females (sexual diergism). We previously investigated the role of muscarinic receptors in this regulation by administering physostigmine (PHYSO), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, to male and female rats pretreated with scopolamine (SCOP), a nonselective muscarinic antagonist. SCOP pretreatment enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) responses in both sexes; males had greater ACTH responses while females had greater CORT responses...
November 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Trevor J Hamilton, Adam Morrill, Kayla Lucas, Joshua Gallup, Megan Harris, Meghan Healey, Taylor Pitman, Melike Schalomon, Shannon Digweed, Martin Tresguerres
Scopolamine (hyoscine) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that has traditionally been used to treat motion sickness in humans. However, studies investigating depressed and bipolar populations have found that scopolamine is also effective at reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. The potential anxiety-reducing (anxiolytic) effects of scopolamine could have great clinical implications for humans; however, rats and mice administered scopolamine showed increased anxiety in standard behavioural tests...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Bing Chun Yan, Joon Ha Park, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Bich-Na Shin, Jae-Chul Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Seongkweon Hong, Young Joo Lee, Soo Young Choi, Moo-Ho Won
GABAergic projections terminate on numerous hippocampal interneurons containing calcium binding proteins (CBPs), including calbindin D‑28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV). Memory deficits and expression levels of CB, CR, and PV were examined in the hippocampal subregions following systemic scopolamine (Scop; 1 mg/kg) treatment for 4 weeks in mice. Scop treatment induced significant memory deficits from 1 week after Scop treatment. CB, CR and PV immunoreactivities distributions were in hippocampal subregions [CA1 and CA3 regions, and the dentate gyrus (DG)]...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ramakrishna Nirogi, Saivishal Daripelli, Vijay Benade, Chaitanya Tirumalasetty, Gopinadh Bhyrapuneni, Pradeep Jayarajan
Drug-induced changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics in animals may be used to predict central activity of drugs in humans. Previous studies have established that drugs affect EEG characteristics in humans and rodents in a similar manner. However, there has been little work to establish correlations between drug effects on behavioral and EEG characteristics in rats. In the current study, we have simultaneously monitored EEG characteristics during a novel object recognition task (NORT) or open field (OF) test in rats...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kathrin Laura Kohnen, Selahaddin Sezgin, Michael Spiteller, Hansjörg Hagels, Oliver Kayser
Tropane alkaloids (TAs), especially hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are important precursors for anticholinergic and antispasmodic drugs. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are currently obtained at commercial scale from hybrid crosses of Duboisia myoporoides x Duboisia leichhardtii plants. In this study, we present a global investigation of localization and organization of TA biosynthesis in a Duboisia myoporoides R. Br. wildtype line. The tissue-specific spatial distribution of TAs within D. myoporoides is presented, including quantification of the TAs littorine, 6-hydroxy hyoscyamine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and additionally, hyoscyamine aldehyde as well as scopolamine glucoside...
October 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Nicha Puangmalai, Wipawan Thangnipon, Rungtip Soi-Ampornkul, Nirut Suwanna, Patoomratana Tuchinda, Saksit Nobsathian
Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, affects learning and memory resulting from cholinergic dysfunction. Scopolamine has been employed to induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in vivo and in vitro through alteration of cholinergic system. N-benzylcinnamide (PT-3), purified from Piper submultinerve, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective properties against amyloid-β-induced neuronal toxicity in rat cortical primary cell culture and to improve spatial learning and memory of aged rats through alleviating oxidative stress...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Manjinder Singh, Maninder Kaur, Nirmal Singh, Om Silakari
A novel series of flavonoid based compounds were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated for Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity integrated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibitory and antioxidant potential. Most of the derivatives inhibited AChE in nanomolar IC50 range along with good AGEs inhibitory and radical scavenging activity. Among them, 7m, strongly inhibited AChE (IC50 = 5.87 nM) and found to be potent as compared to the reference drug donepezil (IC50 = 12...
September 11, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Mengshi Wang, Wenchuan Bi, Kaiyue Fan, Tongde Li, Tingxu Yan, Feng Xiao, Bosai He, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In our previous study, we found both Alpinia oxyphylla and Schisandra chinensis can improve the cognitive function of AD. To investigate whether the Alpinia oxyphylla - Schisandra chinensis herb pair (ASHP) has ameliorating effect on cognitive impairment, we used scopolamine to induce learning and memory impairments, as a mouse model of AD. Subsequently, we carried out Y-maze test and Morris water maze test to observe the behavior of mice. Finally, the level of Acetylcholine (Ach) and muscarinic receptor (M1) receptors, the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) were measured by commercial assay kits and ELISA kit...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alaa Alachkar, Dorota Łażewska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Bassem Sadek
The involvement of histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) in memory is well known, and the potential of H3R antagonists in therapeutic management of neuropsychiatric diseases, e.g., Alzheimer disease (AD) is well established. Therefore, the effects of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist E159 (2.5-10 mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male rats on dizocilpine (DIZ)-induced memory deficits were studied in passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and in novel object recognition (NOR) using pitolisant (PIT) and donepezil (DOZ) as standard drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Li-Na Qiao, Hai-Long Yang, Lian-Hong Tan, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Qiao-Ling Gao, Sheng-Hong Zhou, Yong-Chen Zhang, Yong-Sheng Yang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous otopoint electrostimulaiton (TCOES) on seizure frequency, immunoreactivity of hippocampal gliocytes and expression of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6(IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (CTLE) rats, so as to investigate its antiepileptic mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into control, model and TCOES groups (n=12 in each group). The CTLE model was established by intraperitoneal injection (i...
June 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Péter Pelsőczi, György Lévay
Automated homecage monitoring systems are now widely recognized and used tools in cognitive neuroscience. However, few of these studies cover pharmacological interventions. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic memory disrupting agent is frequently used to study learning behavior. We studied the impact of scopolamine treatment in a relevant dose-range on activity, drinking behavior and reversal learning of C57BL/DJ mice in a homecage-like, social environment, using the IntelliCage. Naïve mice were first habituated to the IntelliCage, where they learned to nosepoke in any of the four corners in order to gain access to the water reward...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Fei Mao, Huan Wang, Wei Ni, Xinyu Zheng, Manjiong Wang, Keting Bao, Dazheng Ling, Xiaokang Li, Yixiang Xu, Haiyan Zhang, Jian Li
Through drug discovery strategies of repurposing and redeveloping existing drugs, a series of novel tadalafil derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated to seek dual-target AChE/PDE5 inhibitors as good candidate drugs for AD. Among these derivatives, 1p and 1w exhibited excellent selective dual-target AChE/PDE5 inhibitory activities and improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetrability. Importantly, 1w·Cit (citrate of 1w) could reverse the cognitive dysfunction of scopolamine-induced AD mice and exhibited an excellent effect on enhancing cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in vivo, a crucial factor in memory formation and synaptic plasticity...
October 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Tanushree Naik, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah Vanitha, Pradumn Kumar Rajvanshi, Manjegowda Chandrika, Subban Kamalraj, Chelliah Jayabaskaran
Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
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