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Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Poonam Piplani, Chhanda Charan Danta
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the statistical reports stated that Alzheimer is not just memory loss but it kills and has become the 6th leading cause of death. The number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly and expected to rise to 131.5 million by 2050. Still there is not a drug candidate that can cure the cognitive deficits completely. OBJECTIVE: Series of novel piperazine derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activity...
October 14, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Bachir Latli, Michael Stiasni, Matt Hrapchak, Zhibin Li, Nelu Grinberg, Heewon Lee, Carl A Busacca, Chris H Senanayake
Hyosine butyl bromide, the active ingredient in Buscopan, is an anticholinergic and antimuscarinic drug used to treat pain and discomfort caused by abdominal cramps. A straightforward synthesis of carbon-14- and deuterium-labeled Buscopan was developed using scopolamine, n-butyl-1-(14) C bromide, and n-butyl-(2) H9 bromide, respectively. In a second carbon-14 synthesis, the radioactive carbon was incorporated in the tropic acid moiety to follow its metabolism. Herein, we describe the detailed preparations of carbon-14- and deuterium-labeled Buscopan...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Arjan Blokland, Anke Sambeth, Jos Prickaerts, Wim J Riedel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Daniel Lampignano, Taral R Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Varinder Singh, Aditi Kahol, Inder Pal Singh, Isha Saraf, Richa Shri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ocimum species are traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety, nerve pain, convulsions and a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-amnesic effect of O. basilicum L., O. sanctum L. and O. gratissimum L. extracts using in-vitro and in-vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydro-methanol extracts of plants were evaluated using Ellman and DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Saida Haider, Saiqa Tabassum, Tahira Perveen
Cognitive decline is found to be a common feature of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to recapitulate AD associated cognitive deficits and to plan therapeutic strategies researchers have developed various preclinical dementia models to recapitulate different aspects of cognitive domains affected in AD brain. So, the present study was aimed to compare alterations in previously reported dementia models i.e. pharmacological (Scopolamine-induced and corticosterone-induced), Environmental (Aluminium-induced and noise-stress) and physiological (natural aging) models in rats in a single experimental study across three cognitive domains spatial, recognition, and associative memory and associated alterations in their oxidative status and neurochemical profile to select appropriate dementia model...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Liliya V Vasileva, Damianka P Getova, Nina D Doncheva, Andrey S Marchev, Milen I Georgiev
: Rhodiola rosea L., family Crassulaceae also known as Golden Root or Arctic root is one of the most widely used medicinal plants with effect on cognitive dysfunction, psychological stress and depression. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a standardized commercial Rhodiola extract on learning and memory processes in naive rats as well as its effects in rats with scopolamine-induced memory impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were used in the study...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hongping Chen, Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
A method was developed for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure was evaluated. Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) was studied as clean-up step, using graphitized black carbon (GBC) and primary secondary amine (PSA). The extract was diluted with water (50:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis. The method was validated and recoveries (except chia samples spiked at 10μg/kg) ranged from 75% to 92%...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Priyanka Pahwa, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Asparagus adscendens Roxb. commonly known as safed musli and belonging to the Liliaceae family is cultivated mainly in Asian countries. In traditional medicine, safed musli is recommended as nerve tonic and remedy for memory impairment. The present study was aimed to evaluate nootropic and antiamnesic activities of Asparagus adscendens extract (AAE) using in silico and in vivo approach. Phytoconstituents of A. adscendens root reported in literature were subjected to in silico prediction using PASS and Pharmaexpert...
October 4, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Eilif Dahl
A previously healthy 65-year-old female passenger presented on the 3rd day of her voyage with a small facial laceration after she fell and hit her forehead, following sudden blurred vision and dizziness. When the ship's doctor noticed that one pupil was much bigger than the other, he feared intracranial bleeding and considered helicopter evacuation. Her symptoms had started shortly after she had removed a transdermal scopolamine patch from behind her ear. Getting scopolamine from her hands in direct contact with the eye surface caused mydriasis...
2016: International Maritime Health
Zhuo Chen, Chao Huang, Wenbin Ding
Memory impairment is a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, and its suppression could be beneficial to improve the quality of life of those patients. Z-guggulsterone, a compound extracted from the resin of plant Commiphora whighitii, exhibits numerous pharmacological effects in clinical practice, such as treatment of inflammation, arthritis, obesity and lipid metabolism disorders. However, the role and possible mechanism of Z-guggulsterone on brain-associated memory impairments are largely unknown...
September 28, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Akash Gautam, Renu Wadhwa, Mahendra K Thakur
BACKGROUND: In our earlier study, we have shown the memory enhancing and scopolamine-induced amnesia recovery properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract using behavioral paradigm and expression analysis of synaptic plasticity genes. PURPOSE: However, the exact mechanism through which Ashwagandha demonstrates these effects is still unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we hypothesized that the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract) possesses cholinergic properties, which in turn inhibit the anti-cholinergic nature of scopolamine...
July 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Mari Paz Serrano, Raquel Herrero-Labrador, Hunter S Futch, Julia Serrano, Alejandro Romero, Ana Patricia Fernandez, Abdelouahid Samadi, Mercedes Unzeta, Jose Marco-Contelles, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease requires the development of multitarget drugs for treating the symptoms of the disease and its progression. Both cholinergic and monoamine oxidase dysfunctions are involved in the pathological process. Thus, we hypothesized that the development of therapies focused on these targets might be effective. We have developed and assessed a new product, coded ASS234, a multipotent acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase/monoamine oxidase A-B inhibitor with a potent inhibitory effect on amyloid-β aggregation as well as antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ting Xu, Xiangfeng Shen, Huali Yu, Lili Sun, Weihong Lin, Chunxiao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng root is used in traditional oriental medicine for human health. Its main active components such as saponins and polysaccharides have been widely evaluated for treating diseases, but secondary active components such as oligosaccharides have been rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the impact of water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (WGOS), which were isolated from the warm-water extract of Panax ginseng root, on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice and its antineuroinflammatory mechanisms...
July 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Kadir Demirci, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, İshak Suat Övey, Hasan Balaban
A potent antioxidant, selenium might modulate dementia-induced progression of brain and blood oxidative and apoptotic injuries. The present study explores whether selenium protects against experimental dementia (scopolamine, SCOP)-induced brain, and blood oxidative stress, apoptosis levels, and cytokine production in rats. Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as an untreated control. The second group was treated with SCOP to induce dementia. The third and fourth groups received 1...
September 15, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ismail O Ishola, Folasade M Adamson, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) basal forebrain cholinergic neurons appear to be targeted primarily in early stages of the disease. Scopolamine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) has been used for decades to induce working and reference memory impairment in rodents. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola seeds extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment/oxidative stress. Rats were pretreated with kolaviron (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg p...
September 8, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
A Rigal, S Mouchabac, C S Peretti
INTRODUCTION: The number of patients with depression in the world is 350 millions according to estimates. The search for new treatments, particularly in forms of resistant depression, is necessary given the growing number of patients experiencing treatment failure and resistance. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic antimuscarinic molecule, is one of the treatments under evaluation. It falls within the assumptions of cholinergic disruption of the pathophysiology of depression, at different levels (genetic, receptorial [muscarinic and glutamate receptors], hormonal, synaptic…)...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Paula Śramska, Artur Maciejka, Anna Topolewska, Piotr Stepnowski, Łukasz P Haliński
Tropane alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants. Among them, plants from Datura genus produce significant amounts of scopolamine and hyoscyamine; the latter undergoes racemization to atropine during isolation. Because of their biological importance, toxic properties and commonly reported food and animal feed contamination by different Datura sp. organs, there is a constant need for reliable methods for the analysis of tropane alkaloids in many matrices. In the current study, three extraction and sample-clean up procedures for the determination of scopolamine and atropine in plant material were compared in terms of their effectiveness and repeatability...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Francis M Rotella, Kerstin Olsson, Nancy Martinez, Alexandra Mordo, Ilanna Kohen, Alon Aminov, Jeremy Pagirsky, Alice Yu, Vishal Vig, Richard J Bodnar
Rats display conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) for fats. Previous studies demonstrated that whereas expression of an already-acquired corn oil (CO)-CFP was mildly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2, NMDA or opioid receptor antagonists, the acquisition or learning of CO-CFP was eliminated by NMDA antagonists, and significantly reduced by DA D1 and D2, but not opioid antagonists. Previous studies of fructose-CFP demonstrated that muscarinic (scopolamine) and nicotinic (mecamylamine) cholinergic receptor antagonists and GABAB (baclofen) receptor agonism reduced the expression of this acquired response, and that scopolamine, but not mecamylamine or baclofen eliminated the acquisition or learning of this response...
September 4, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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