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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877414/evaluation-of-the-analgesic-and-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-transdermally-administered-fentanyl-in-goats
#1
Megan J Burke, Lawrence R Soma, Raymond C Boston, Jeffery A Rudy, Thomas P Schaer
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the analgesic properties and pharmacokinetics of transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) in goats. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Preclinical Testing Facility at a University Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: Thirty-four adult female Boer-cross goats. INTERVENTIONS: Goats underwent surgery as part of a concurrent orthopedic research study. Twelve hours prior to surgery, each goat received a TFP (target dosage of 2...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868303/adjuvants-to-local-anesthetics-current-understanding-and-future-trends
#2
EDITORIAL
Amlan Swain, Deb Sanjay Nag, Seelora Sahu, Devi Prasad Samaddar
Although beneficial in acute and chronic pain management, the use of local anaesthetics is limited by its duration of action and the dose dependent adverse effects on the cardiac and central nervous system. Adjuvants or additives are often used with local anaesthetics for its synergistic effect by prolonging the duration of sensory-motor block and limiting the cumulative dose requirement of local anaesthetics. The armamentarium of local anesthetic adjuvants have evolved over time from classical opioids to a wide array of drugs spanning several groups and varying mechanisms of action...
August 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860851/transdermal-buprenorphine-and-fentanyl-patches-in-cancer-pain-a-network-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Jin Seok Ahn, Johnson Lin, Setsuro Ogawa, Chen Yuan, Tony O'Brien, Brian Hc Le, Andrea M Bothwell, Hanlim Moon, Yacine Hadjiat, Abhijith Ganapathi
Treatment of cancer pain is generally based on the three-step World Health Organization (WHO) pain relief ladder, which utilizes a sequential approach with drugs of increasing potency. Goals of pain management include optimization of analgesia, optimization of activities of daily living, minimization of adverse effects, and avoidance of aberrant drug taking. In addition, it is recommended that analgesic regimens are individualized and simplified to help ensure patient compliance and should provide the least invasive, easiest, and safest route of opioid administration to ensure adequate analgesia...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860712/a-comparison-of-oral-controlled-release-morphine-and-oxycodone-with-transdermal-formulations-of-buprenorphine-and-fentanyl-in-the-treatment-of-severe-pain-in-cancer-patients
#4
Krzysztof Nosek, Wojciech Leppert, Hanna Nosek, Jerzy Wordliczek, Dariusz Onichimowski
AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare analgesia and adverse effects during oral morphine and oxycodone and transdermal fentanyl and buprenorphine administration in cancer patients with pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cancer patients treated at home and in outpatient clinics with severe pain (numerical rating scale score 6-10) fail to respond to non-opioids and/or weak opioids. All patients were randomized to either morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl or buprenorphine and divided into subgroups with predominant neuropathic and nociceptive pain component...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791598/opioid-medications-in-the-management-of-chronic-abdominal-pain
#5
REVIEW
Dajie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic abdominal pain is a complex medical condition. The causes of chronic abdominal pain are extremely diverse ranging from chronic pancreatitis, Crohn's disease, to chronic pain with no clear etiology. Treatment of chronic abdominal pain remains a challenge in our clinical practice. While current interventions with celiac plexus blocks and pain medications provide some relief for these patients, but these treatments are typically less efficacious and limited by various adverse effects...
August 8, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745394/opioids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Andrew L Gray, Elliot Krane, Navil Sethna, Miranda Al van Tilburg, Boris Zernikow, Philip J Wiffen
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as importantWe designed a suite of seven reviews on chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol as priority areas) in order to review the evidence for children's pain utilising pharmacological interventions in children and adolescents...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722116/opioids-for-cancer-related-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Tess E Cooper, Anna-Karenia Anderson, Andrew L Gray, Marie-Claude Grégoire, Gustaf Ljungman, Boris Zernikow
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. Views on children's pain have changed over time and relief of pain is now seen as important. In the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, and it was assumed that children quickly forgot about painful experiences...
July 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683172/opioids-for-cancer-pain-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Bee Wee, Sheena Derry, Rae F Bell, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Opioid (morphine-like) drugs are commonly used to treat moderate or severe cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the World Health Organization (WHO) pain treatment ladder. The most commonly-used opioid drugs are buprenorphine, codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, tramadol, and tapentadol...
July 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593737/influence-of-opioids-on-immune-function-in-patients-with-cancer-pain-from-bench-to-bedside
#9
REVIEW
Jason W Boland, A Graham Pockley
In patients with cancer, opioids are principally used for the management of acute surgical and chronic cancer-related pain. However, opioids have many non-analgesic effects, including direct and indirect effects on cancer cells and on anti-tumour immunity (natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and T-cells). Direct effects on immune cells are manifested via opioid and non-opioid Toll-like receptors, whereas indirect effects are manifested via the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579821/opioid-analgesics-related-pharmacokinetic-drug-interactions-from-the-perspectives-of-evidence-based-on-randomized-controlled-trials-and-clinical-risk-management
#10
REVIEW
Xiu-Qin Feng, Ling-Ling Zhu, Quan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity results in complex polypharmacy which may bear a risk of drug interactions. A better understanding of opioid analgesics combination therapy used for pain management could help warrant medication safety, efficacy, and economic relevance. Until now there has been no review summarizing the opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions from the perspective of evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library, using a PRISMA flowchart...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578864/exposure-to-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-and-overdose-risk-among-illicit-opioid-users-in-rhode-island-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Jennifer J Carroll, Brandon D L Marshall, Josiah D Rich, Traci C Green
BACKGROUND: Illicit fentanyl use has become wide spread in the US, causing high rates of overdose deaths among people who use drugs. This study describes patterns and perceptions of fentanyl exposure among opioid users in Rhode Island. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted via questionnaire with a convenience sample of 149 individuals using illicit opioids or misusing prescription opioids in Rhode Island between January and November 2016. Of these, 121 knew of fentanyl and reported known or suspected exposure to fentanyl in the past year...
August 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556303/screening-approach-for-identifying-candidate-drugs-and-drug-drug-interactions-related-to-hip-fracture-risk-in-persons-with-alzheimer-disease
#12
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Piia Lavikainen, Jussi Paananen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
PURPOSE: To assess whether a "drugome-wide" screen with case-crossover design is a feasible approach for identifying candidate drugs and drug-drug interactions. METHODS: All community-dwelling residents of Finland who received a clinically verified Alzheimer disease diagnosis in 2005 to 2011 and experienced incident hip fracture (HF) afterwards (N = 4851). Three scenarios were used to test the sensitivity of this approach (1) hazard period 0 to 30 and control period 31 to 61 days before HF, (2) hazard period 0 to 30 and control period 336 to 366 days before HF, and (3) hazard period 0 to 14 and control period 16 to 30 days before HF...
August 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526486/plasma-concentrations-of-transdermal-fentanyl-and-buprenorphine-in-pigs-sus-scrofa-domesticus
#13
Suzanne Osorio Lujan, Walid Habre, Youssef Daali, Zhaoxin Pan, Peter W Kronen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the absorption characteristics of fentanyl and buprenorphine administered transdermally in swine. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized comparative experimental trial. ANIMALS: Twenty-four Yorkshire gilts weighing 27.8±2.2 kg (mean±standard deviation). METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned to different doses of transdermal patches (TPs) of fentanyl (50 μg hour(-1), 75 μg hour(-1) and 100 μg hour(-1)) or buprenorphine (35 μg hour(-1) and 70 μg hour(-1)), once or twice...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343650/-surveillance-system-on-drug-abuse-interest-of-the-french-national-oppidum-program-of-french-addictovigilance-network
#14
Elisabeth Frauger, Liselotte Pochard, Quentin Boucherie, Adeline Giocanti, Cécile Chevallier, Amélie Daveluy, Valérie Gibaja, Anne-Sylvie Caous, Céline Eiden, Nicolas Authier, Reynald Le Boisselier, Marylène Guerlais, Émilie Jouanjus, Marion Lepelley, Véronique Pizzoglio, Stéphanie Pain, Nathalie Richard, Joëlle Micallef
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs...
September 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340233/increase-in-drug-overdose-deaths-involving-fentanyl-rhode-island-january-2012-march-2014
#15
Melissa C Mercado, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, Michele K Bohm, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
Objective.:  This study identified sociodemographic, substance use, and multiple opioid prescriber and dispenser risk factors among drug overdose decedents in Rhode Island, in response to an increase in overdose deaths (ODs) involving fentanyl. Methods.:  This cross-sectional investigation comprised all ODs reviewed by Rhode Island's Office of the State Medical Examiners (OSME) during January 2012 to March 2014. Data for 536 decedents were abstracted from OSME's charts, death certificates, toxicology reports, and Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) databases...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322465/opioid-substitution-therapy-or-hidden-opioids-are-a-minefield-for-nalmefene-an-atypical-case-series-of-11-patients-in-lorraine
#16
Melissa Yéléhé-Okouma, Hervé Martini, Jérémie Lemarié, Pierre Labroca, Nadine Petitpain, Valérie Gibaja, François Paille, Pierre Gillet
Opioid antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene are used in drug therapy for alcoholism. Nalmefene, approved in Europe in February 2013 for the reduction of alcohol consumption, is used in patients with alcohol dependence. We report 11 cases of opioid withdrawal syndrome after a single dose of nalmefene in patients usually treated with methadone, buprenorphine, but also with fentanyl or loperamide. Nalmefene is both a partial agonist and an antagonist of opioid receptors. Regarding to its opioid antagonist activity, nalmefene is contraindicated in patients with an opioid treatment...
March 21, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241764/changes-over-time-in-prescription-practices-of-pain-medications-in-switzerland-between-2006-and-2013-an-analysis-of-insurance-claims
#17
Maria M Wertli, Oliver Reich, Andri Signorell, Jakob M Burgstaller, Johann Steurer, Ulrike Held
BACKGROUND: In Europe, scant information is available about prescription practices for pain medications. The aim of this research was to assess changes in prescription rates of non-opioid, weak opioid, and strong opioid medications between 2006 and 2013 in the Swiss population. METHODS: Using insurance claims data covering one-sixth of the Swiss population, we analyzed the numbers of reimbursed pain medications, the number of reimbursements per persons, and the cumulative dose in milligrams...
February 27, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192911/open-port-probe-sampling-interface-for-the-direct-coupling-of-biocompatible-solid-phase-microextraction-to-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#18
Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Chang Liu, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W Arnold, Thomas R Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn
In recent years, the direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and mass spectrometry (MS) has shown its great potential to improve limits of quantitation, accelerate analysis throughput, and diminish potential matrix effects when compared to direct injection to MS. In this study, we introduce the open port probe (OPP) as a robust interface to couple biocompatible SPME (Bio-SPME) fibers to MS systems for direct electrospray ionization. The presented design consisted of minimal alterations to the front-end of the instrument and provided better sensitivity, simplicity, speed, wider compound coverage, and high-throughput in comparison to the LC-MS based approach...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118835/pilot-evaluation-of-a-novel-unilateral-onychectomy-model-and-efficacy-of-an-extended-release-buprenorphine-product
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Masataka Enomoto, Patricia D Kigin, David Bledsoe, Robyn Slone, Jonathan Hash, Charles E Smith, B Duncan X Lascelles
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), transdermal fentanyl patches, and transmucosal buprenorphine are probably the most commonly used options for providing post-operative analgesia in the early at-home period. However, these require daily administration or are associated with abuse concerns. One of the significant unmet needs in veterinary surgery and pain management is for longer acting opioids for cats to effectively bridge the gap between the in-hospital and at-home recovery periods...
January 24, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101968/defined-daily-doses-ddd-do-not-accurately-reflect-opioid-doses-used-in-contemporary-chronic-pain-treatment
#20
Suzanne Nielsen, Natasa Gisev, Raimondo Bruno, Wayne Hall, Milton Cohen, Briony Larance, Gabrielle Campbell, Marian Shanahan, Fiona Blyth, Nicholas Lintzeris, Sallie Pearson, Richard Mattick, Louisa Degenhardt
OBJECTIVE: To assess how well the defined daily dose (DDD) metric reflects opioid utilisation among chronic non-cancer pain patients. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, utilising a 7-day medication diary. SETTING: Community-based treatment settings, Australia. SUBJECTS: A sample of 1101 people prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. METHODS: Opioid dose data was collected via a self-completed 7-day medication diary capturing names, strengths and doses of each medication taken in the past week...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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