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the trophoblast model of cancer

Maryam Khaleghizadeh, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard, Abolfazl Rad, Moein Farshchian, Zahra Hejazi, Mehran Gholamin, Bahram Memar, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
Background: Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a sub-group of tumor-associated antigens which are expressed normally in germ line cells and trophoblast, and aberrantly in a variety of malignancies. One of the most important CTAs is Developmental Pluripotency Associated-2(DPPA2) with unknown biological function. Considering the importance of DPPA2 in developmental events and cancer, preparing a suitable platform to analyze DPPA2 roles in the cells seems to be necessary. Methods: In this study, the coding sequence of DPPA2 gene was amplified and cloned into the retroviral expression vector to produce recombinant retrovirus...
April 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Colin A Ross
The trophoblast model of cancer is incorporated into The Gonzalez Protocol for treatment of cancer and a range of noncancer chronic diseases. The other main component of the Protocol involves the prescription of detailed diets and supplementation. The foundation of the diet and supplementation component of the Protocol is the theory of autonomic types, which range from parasympathetic-dominant, through balanced, to sympathetic-dominant; a person's autonomic type determines the details of the prescribed diet and supplements...
May 10, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Ruixue Wang, Qinhuai Lai, Liangze Tang, Yiran Tao, Yuqin Yao, Yu Liu, Ying Lu, Chaoyong Shen, Ran Lu, Chuanwen Fan, Ruirui Zhang, Yuxi Wang, Lin Yu, Tinghan Yang, Yangping Wu, Yujia Peng, Xian Wei, Yuyin Fu, Weirong Lai, Lantu Gou, Jinliang Yang
5T4, also named as trophoblast glycoprotein, is often upregulated in some cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated that 5T4 was highly expressed in gastric, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer, associated with significantly poor prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients. To search for new targeting drugs for GI cancer, we developed a novel anti-5T4 monoclonal antibody with high affinity and robust internalization ability and conjugated it to the potent microtubule inhibitor DM4 to produce conjugate H6-DM4...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Jinjin Li, Chao Tong, Ping Xu, Lianlian Wang, Ting-Li Han, Li Wen, Xiaofang Luo, Bin Tan, Fangyu Zhu, Shunping Gui, Rufei Gao, Hongbo Qi, Philip N Baker
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE), by inducing trophoblast cell death and consequent placental dysfunction. Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is upregulated in many types of cancer cells; it promotes disulfide bond formation as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production. The aims of present study are to investigate the expression pattern of QSOX1 in placentae of pregnancies complicated by PE and the role of QSOX1 in the regulation of trophoblastic function, thus providing in-depth understanding of the putative involvement of QSOX1 in the development of PE...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Phetcharawan Lye, Enrrico Bloise, Lubna Nadeem, William Gibb, Stephen J Lye, Stephen G Matthews
The placental multidrug transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) protect the foetus from exposure to maternally derived glucocorticoids, toxins and xenobiotics. During pregnancy, maternal glucocorticoid levels can be elevated by stress or exogenous administration. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids modulate the expression of ABCB1/P-gp and ABCG2/BCRP in the first trimester human placenta. Our objective was to examine whether dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol modulate first trimester placental expression of multidrug transporters and determine whether cytotrophoblasts or the syncytiotrophoblast are/is responsible for mediating these effects...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Hong-Jin Zhao, Christian Klausen, Yan Li, Hua Zhu, Yan-Ling Wang, Peter C K Leung
BMP2 expression is spatiotemporally correlated with embryo implantation and is crucial for endometrial decidualization and fertility in mice. BMP2 has been reported to increase the mesenchymal adhesion molecule N-cadherin and enhance cell invasion in cancer cells; moreover, studies suggest that N-cadherin promotes placental trophoblast invasion. However, whether BMP2 can promote trophoblast cell invasion during placentation remains unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BMP2 on human trophoblast cell invasion and the involvement of N-cadherin and SMAD signaling...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Christopher M Tarney, Chunqiao Tian, Eric R Craig, Barbara A Crothers, John K Chan, Glenn D Gist, Nicholas W Bateman, Thomas P Conrads, Chad A Hamilton, George Larry Maxwell, Kathleen M Darcy
OBJECTIVE: Gestational choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic disease that usually arises after a molar pregnancy, but may follow any antecedent pregnancy. Investigations in this rare cancer are limited. We evaluated the prognostic effects of age, race, and stage in choriocarcinomas diagnosed for 4 decades. METHODS: Patients diagnosed as having gestational choriocarcinoma between 1973 and 2014 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were eligible...
February 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Ignace Nzayisenga, Roanne Segal, Natalie Pritchett, Mary J Xu, Paul H Park, Edgie V Mpanumusingo, Denis G Umuhizi, Donald P Goldstein, Ross S Berkowitz, Vedaste Hategekimana, Clemence Muhayimana, Fidel Rubagumya, Temidayo Fadelu, Neo Tapela, Tharcisse Mpunga, Rahel G Ghebre
PURPOSE: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly treatable disease, most often affecting young women of childbearing age. This study reviewed patients managed for GTN at the Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE) in Rwanda to determine initial program outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed for 35 patients with GTN assessed or treated between May 1, 2012, and November 30, 2014. Stage, risk score, and low or high GTN risk category were based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging and the WHO scoring system and determined by beta human chorionic gonadotropin level, chest x-ray, and ultrasound per protocol guidelines for resource-limited settings...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
Na Liu, Shu-Min Peng, Guang-Xi Zhan, Jing Yu, Wei-Min Wu, Hao Gao, Xiao-Feng Li, Xiao-Qing Guo
Human chorionic gonadotropin β (β-hCG) is a well-known and accurate marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors and ovarian germ cell tumors. Recently, β-hCG has been found to be closely related to poor prognosis and metastasis in various other malignant tumors, while its role and mechanism in ovarian cancer is still unclear. In the present study, lentiviral‑mediated transfection and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to alter β-hCG expression in the ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2 and SKOV3, respectively...
September 2017: Oncology Reports
Mengru Bai, Zhiyuan Ma, Dongli Sun, Caihong Zheng, Yayun Weng, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Considering the structure of sulpiride, we speculated that the transporters expressed in placenta might be involved in sulpiride uptake across the blood-placenta barrier. The aim of our study was to determine which transporters contributed to the placental transfer of sulpiride...
December 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Elçin Telli, Hatice Genç, Burcugül Altuğ Tasa, S Sinan Özalp, A Tansu Koparal
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN) is a term used for a group of malignant gynecological tumors including choriocarcinoma. Low-risk neoplasias can be cured using single agents Methotrexate (MTX) and actinomycin-D (ACD), but in certain cases, decreased responsiveness and serious side effects occur. Therefore, researchers have been attempting to find new treatment modalities. One of the most popular way for increasing cancer patient survival rates is supporting treatment with adjuvant molecules or chemosensitizers...
August 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Tomoyuki Kuwata, Rie Usui, Yosuke Baba, Hirotada Suzuki, Tha Thu Chaw Kyi, Shigeki Matsubara, Shigeru Saito, Toshihiro Takizawa
INTRODUCTION: Adequate extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion is essential for successful placentation. Although miR-520c-3p plays an important role in CD44-mediated invasion in cancer cells, there is little information on whether miR-520c-3p is involved in the regulatory mechanisms of CD44-mediated EVT invasion. METHODS: We screened first trimester trophoblast cells and trophoblast cell lines for expression of miR-520c-3p using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
February 2017: Placenta
Karl Klisch, Elisabeth M Schraner, Alois Boos
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Centrosomes typically consist of 2 centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. Duplication of centrosomes is tightly linked to the cell cycle, which ensures that the number of centrosomes remains constant in proliferating diploid cells...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Pamina Geiger, Barbara Mayer, Irmi Wiest, Sandra Schulze, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
BACKGROUND: Galectin-1 (gal-1) belongs to the family of β-galactoside-binding proteins which primarily recognizes the Galβ1-4GlcNAc sequences of oligosaccharides associated with several cell surface glycoconjugates. The lectin recognizes correspondent glycoepitopes on human breast cancer cells. Galectin-1 is expressed both in normal and malignant tissues. Lymphatic organs naturally possessing high rates of apoptotic cells, express high levels of Galectin-1. Furthermore galectin-1 can initiate T cell apoptosis...
November 8, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yuxia Sui, Shaoguang Li, Peiying Shi, Youjia Wu, Yuxiang Li, Weiying Chen, Liying Huang, Hong Yao, XinHua Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selaginella doederleinii Hieron has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of different cancers, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lung cancer and trophoblastic tumor in China. Previously, the ethyl acetate extract from S. doederleinii (SDEA extract) showed favorable anti-cancer potentials. However, the main chemical composition and anticancer mechanism of the SDEA extract were still not very clear. Until now, there are no reports available about the oral toxicity of the extract...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuan Mao, Xiaoying Wang, Feng Zheng, Changjun Wang, Qi Tang, Xiaojun Tang, Ning Xu, Huiling Zhang, Dawei Zhang, Lin Xiong, Jie Liang, Jin Zhu
Human trophoblastic cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) has been reported to act oncogenically. In this study, one-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis with were employed to evaluate the relationship between Trop2 expression and the clinicopathological features of patients with PC. Then a novel anti-Trop2 Fab antibody was conjugated with Doxorubicin (DOX) to form Trop2Fab-DOX, an antibody-drug conjugate. This Trop2Fab-DOX conjugate was characterized by cell ELISA and immunofluorescence assay...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Min Su, Chao Fan, Sainan Gao, Aiguo Shen, Xiaoying Wang, Yuquan Zhang
We investigated the expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and its effects on vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in ovarian cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in three-dimensional matrices preconditioned by an endothelial-trophoblast cell co-culture system. The co-culture model was established using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HTR-8 trophoblast cells in a three-dimensional culture system. The co-cultured cells were removed with NH4OH, and ovarian cancer cells were implanted into the preconditioned matrix...
November 2015: Oncology Reports
K Ikeda, C Ueda, K Yamada, A Nakamura, Y Hatsuda, S Kawanishi, S Nishii, M Ogawa
Human choriocarcinoma has been used as a model to study trophoblast transcellular drug transport in the placenta. Previous models had limitations regarding low molecular weight drug transport through the intracellular gap junction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate placental carrier-mediated transport across a differentiating JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell (DJEGs) layer model in which the intracellular gap junction was restricted. Cimetidine is the substrate of an efflux transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)...
July 2015: Die Pharmazie
Yin-Lau Lee, Sze-Wan Fong, Andy C H Chen, Tiantian Li, Chaomin Yue, Cheuk-Lun Lee, Ernest H Y Ng, William S B Yeung, Kai-Fai Lee
STUDY QUESTION: Can human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblastic spheroids be used to study the early stages of implantation? SUMMARY ANSWER: We generated a novel human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblastic spheroid model mimicking human blastocysts in the early stages of implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both human embryos and choriocarcinoma cell line derived spheroids can attach onto endometrial cells and are used as models to study the early stages of implantation...
November 2015: Human Reproduction
Deepali V Sawant, Kristia Hamilton, Dario A A Vignali
Counter-regulation afforded by specialized regulatory cell populations and immunosuppressive cytokines is critical for balancing immune outcome. The inhibitory potential of the established suppressive cytokines, IL-10 and TGFβ, has been well elucidated in diverse inflammatory scenarios in conjunction with their key roles in Treg development and function. Despite the early predictions for an immunomodulatory role for the Ebi3/p35 heterodimer in placental trophoblasts, IL-35 biology remained elusive until 2007 when it was established as a Treg-restricted inhibitory cytokine...
July 2015: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
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