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the trophoblast model of cancer

Hong-Jin Zhao, Christian Klausen, Yan Li, Hua Zhu, Yan-Ling Wang, Peter C K Leung
BMP2 expression is spatiotemporally correlated with embryo implantation and is crucial for endometrial decidualization and fertility in mice. BMP2 has been reported to increase the mesenchymal adhesion molecule N-cadherin and enhance cell invasion in cancer cells; moreover, studies suggest that N-cadherin promotes placental trophoblast invasion. However, whether BMP2 can promote trophoblast cell invasion during placentation remains unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BMP2 on human trophoblast cell invasion and the involvement of N-cadherin and SMAD signaling...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Christopher M Tarney, Chunqiao Tian, Eric R Craig, Barbara A Crothers, John K Chan, Glenn D Gist, Nicholas W Bateman, Thomas P Conrads, Chad A Hamilton, George Larry Maxwell, Kathleen M Darcy
OBJECTIVE: Gestational choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic disease that usually arises after a molar pregnancy, but may follow any antecedent pregnancy. Investigations in this rare cancer are limited. We evaluated the prognostic effects of age, race, and stage in choriocarcinomas diagnosed for 4 decades. METHODS: Patients diagnosed as having gestational choriocarcinoma between 1973 and 2014 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were eligible...
February 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Ignace Nzayisenga, Roanne Segal, Natalie Pritchett, Mary J Xu, Paul H Park, Edgie V Mpanumusingo, Denis G Umuhizi, Donald P Goldstein, Ross S Berkowitz, Vedaste Hategekimana, Clemence Muhayimana, Fidel Rubagumya, Temidayo Fadelu, Neo Tapela, Tharcisse Mpunga, Rahel G Ghebre
PURPOSE: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly treatable disease, most often affecting young women of childbearing age. This study reviewed patients managed for GTN at the Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE) in Rwanda to determine initial program outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed for 35 patients with GTN assessed or treated between May 1, 2012, and November 30, 2014. Stage, risk score, and low or high GTN risk category were based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging and the WHO scoring system and determined by beta human chorionic gonadotropin level, chest x-ray, and ultrasound per protocol guidelines for resource-limited settings...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
Na Liu, Shu-Min Peng, Guang-Xi Zhan, Jing Yu, Wei-Min Wu, Hao Gao, Xiao-Feng Li, Xiao-Qing Guo
Human chorionic gonadotropin β (β-hCG) is a well-known and accurate marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors and ovarian germ cell tumors. Recently, β-hCG has been found to be closely related to poor prognosis and metastasis in various other malignant tumors, while its role and mechanism in ovarian cancer is still unclear. In the present study, lentiviral‑mediated transfection and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to alter β-hCG expression in the ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2 and SKOV3, respectively...
September 2017: Oncology Reports
Mengru Bai, Zhiyuan Ma, Dongli Sun, Caihong Zheng, Yayun Weng, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Considering the structure of sulpiride, we speculated that the transporters expressed in placenta might be involved in sulpiride uptake across the blood-placenta barrier. The aim of our study was to determine which transporters contributed to the placental transfer of sulpiride...
December 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Elçin Telli, Hatice Genç, Burcugül Altuğ Tasa, S Sinan Özalp, A Tansu Koparal
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN) is a term used for a group of malignant gynecological tumors including choriocarcinoma. Low-risk neoplasias can be cured using single agents Methotrexate (MTX) and actinomycin-D (ACD), but in certain cases, decreased responsiveness and serious side effects occur. Therefore, researchers have been attempting to find new treatment modalities. One of the most popular way for increasing cancer patient survival rates is supporting treatment with adjuvant molecules or chemosensitizers...
August 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Hironori Takahashi, Akihide Ohkuchi, Tomoyuki Kuwata, Rie Usui, Yosuke Baba, Hirotada Suzuki, Tha Thu Chaw Kyi, Shigeki Matsubara, Shigeru Saito, Toshihiro Takizawa
INTRODUCTION: Adequate extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion is essential for successful placentation. Although miR-520c-3p plays an important role in CD44-mediated invasion in cancer cells, there is little information on whether miR-520c-3p is involved in the regulatory mechanisms of CD44-mediated EVT invasion. METHODS: We screened first trimester trophoblast cells and trophoblast cell lines for expression of miR-520c-3p using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
February 2017: Placenta
Karl Klisch, Elisabeth M Schraner, Alois Boos
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Centrosomes typically consist of 2 centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. Duplication of centrosomes is tightly linked to the cell cycle, which ensures that the number of centrosomes remains constant in proliferating diploid cells...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Pamina Geiger, Barbara Mayer, Irmi Wiest, Sandra Schulze, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
BACKGROUND: Galectin-1 (gal-1) belongs to the family of β-galactoside-binding proteins which primarily recognizes the Galβ1-4GlcNAc sequences of oligosaccharides associated with several cell surface glycoconjugates. The lectin recognizes correspondent glycoepitopes on human breast cancer cells. Galectin-1 is expressed both in normal and malignant tissues. Lymphatic organs naturally possessing high rates of apoptotic cells, express high levels of Galectin-1. Furthermore galectin-1 can initiate T cell apoptosis...
November 8, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yuxia Sui, Shaoguang Li, Peiying Shi, Youjia Wu, Yuxiang Li, Weiying Chen, Liying Huang, Hong Yao, XinHua Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selaginella doederleinii Hieron has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of different cancers, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lung cancer and trophoblastic tumor in China. Previously, the ethyl acetate extract from S. doederleinii (SDEA extract) showed favorable anti-cancer potentials. However, the main chemical composition and anticancer mechanism of the SDEA extract were still not very clear. Until now, there are no reports available about the oral toxicity of the extract...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuan Mao, Xiaoying Wang, Feng Zheng, Changjun Wang, Qi Tang, Xiaojun Tang, Ning Xu, Huiling Zhang, Dawei Zhang, Lin Xiong, Jie Liang, Jin Zhu
Human trophoblastic cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) has been reported to act oncogenically. In this study, one-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis with were employed to evaluate the relationship between Trop2 expression and the clinicopathological features of patients with PC. Then a novel anti-Trop2 Fab antibody was conjugated with Doxorubicin (DOX) to form Trop2Fab-DOX, an antibody-drug conjugate. This Trop2Fab-DOX conjugate was characterized by cell ELISA and immunofluorescence assay...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Min Su, Chao Fan, Sainan Gao, Aiguo Shen, Xiaoying Wang, Yuquan Zhang
We investigated the expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and its effects on vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in ovarian cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in three-dimensional matrices preconditioned by an endothelial-trophoblast cell co-culture system. The co-culture model was established using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HTR-8 trophoblast cells in a three-dimensional culture system. The co-cultured cells were removed with NH4OH, and ovarian cancer cells were implanted into the preconditioned matrix...
November 2015: Oncology Reports
K Ikeda, C Ueda, K Yamada, A Nakamura, Y Hatsuda, S Kawanishi, S Nishii, M Ogawa
Human choriocarcinoma has been used as a model to study trophoblast transcellular drug transport in the placenta. Previous models had limitations regarding low molecular weight drug transport through the intracellular gap junction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate placental carrier-mediated transport across a differentiating JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell (DJEGs) layer model in which the intracellular gap junction was restricted. Cimetidine is the substrate of an efflux transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)...
July 2015: Die Pharmazie
Yin-Lau Lee, Sze-Wan Fong, Andy C H Chen, Tiantian Li, Chaomin Yue, Cheuk-Lun Lee, Ernest H Y Ng, William S B Yeung, Kai-Fai Lee
STUDY QUESTION: Can human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblastic spheroids be used to study the early stages of implantation? SUMMARY ANSWER: We generated a novel human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblastic spheroid model mimicking human blastocysts in the early stages of implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both human embryos and choriocarcinoma cell line derived spheroids can attach onto endometrial cells and are used as models to study the early stages of implantation...
November 2015: Human Reproduction
Deepali V Sawant, Kristia Hamilton, Dario A A Vignali
Counter-regulation afforded by specialized regulatory cell populations and immunosuppressive cytokines is critical for balancing immune outcome. The inhibitory potential of the established suppressive cytokines, IL-10 and TGFβ, has been well elucidated in diverse inflammatory scenarios in conjunction with their key roles in Treg development and function. Despite the early predictions for an immunomodulatory role for the Ebi3/p35 heterodimer in placental trophoblasts, IL-35 biology remained elusive until 2007 when it was established as a Treg-restricted inhibitory cytokine...
July 2015: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Kenneth F Swan, MaryBeth Ferris, Gabriella Pridjian, Deborah E Sullivan, Cindy A Morris
OBJECTIVES: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of the placenta is associated with significant pathological consequences, including pregnancy loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and preterm labor. It is thought that some of these pathological anomalies are attributed to the inability of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) to adequately invade the maternal uterine wall during first trimester pregnancy resulting in impaired remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. Our earlier studies show that HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion, although the mechanism(s) involved are not fully understood...
January 2015: Pregnancy Hypertension
Annie R A McDougall, Mary Tolcos, Stuart B Hooper, Timothy J Cole, Megan J Wallace
BACKGROUND: Trop2 was first discovered as a biomarker of invasive trophoblast cells. Since then most research has focused on its role in tumourigenesis because it is highly expressed in the vast majority of human tumours and animal models of cancer. It is also highly expressed in stem cells and in many organs during development. RESULTS: We review the multifaceted role of Trop2 during development and tumourigenesis, including its role in regulating cell proliferation and migration, self-renewal, and maintenance of basement membrane integrity...
February 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Jiang Gu, Yu Lei, Yuanping Huang, Yingying Zhao, Jing Li, Tao Huang, Junjun Zhang, Juping Wang, Xiaodong Deng, Zhengshan Chen, Christine Korteweg, Ruishu Deng, Meiling Yan, Qian Xu, Shengnan Dong, Monghong Cai, Lili Luo, Guowei Huang, Yun Wang, Qian Li, Changmei Lin, Meng Su, Chunzhang Yang, Zhengping Zhuang
STUDY QUESTION: How does the placenta protect the fetus from immune rejection by the mother? SUMMARY ANSWER: The placenta can produce IgG that is glycosylated at one of its Fab arms (asymmetric IgG; aIgG) which can interact with other antibodies and certain leukocytes to affect local immune reactions at the junction between the two genetically distinct entities. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The placenta can protect the semi-allogenic fetus from immune rejection by the immune potent mother...
February 2015: Human Reproduction
George Hu, Mauricio Leal, Qingcong Lin, Timothy Affolter, Puja Sapra, Brian Bates, Marc Damelin
The use of predictive preclinical models in drug discovery is critical for compound selection, optimization, preclinical to clinical translation, and strategic decision-making. Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPBG), also known as 5T4, is the therapeutic target of several anticancer agents currently in clinical development, largely due to its high expression in tumors and low expression in normal adult tissues. In this study, mice were engineered to express human TPBG under endogenous regulatory sequences by replacement of the murine Tpbg coding sequence...
June 1, 2015: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Colin A Ross
John Beard, the British embryologist and histologist, first proposed his trophoblast model of cancer in 1902. The model has subsequently been expanded by Kelley, and in current times, Gonzalez and Isaacs. The trophoblast model of cancer can be stated as a specified, scientifically testable model, including its core predictions that 1) adult stem cells are ectopic trophoblasts that have migrated to other tissues early in embryogenesis; 2) pancreatic enzymes are the key signal that converts the trophoblast into the stable placenta; 3) cancer arises from trophoblasts that have escaped regulatory control; and 4) pancreatic enzymes can be used to treat cancer...
2015: Nutrition and Cancer
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