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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445781/mitochondrial-ros-control-of-cancer
#1
REVIEW
María Del Pilar Sosa Idelchik, Ulrike Begley, Thomas J Begley, J Andrés Melendez
Mitochondria serves a primary role in energy maintenance but also function to govern levels of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS). ROS have long been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and are now considered to be integral to the regulation of diverse signaling networks that drive proliferation, tumor cell survival and malignant progression. mROS can damage DNA, activate oncogenes, block the function of tumor suppressors and drive migratory signaling. The mitochondrion's oxidant scavenging systems including SOD2, Grx2, GPrx, Trx and TrxR are key of the cellular redox tone...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403066/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#2
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nubaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
April 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401359/ultrastructure-of-fat-body-cells-and-malpighian-tubule-cells-in-overwintering-scoliopteryx-libatrix-noctuoidea
#3
Saška Lipovšek, Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak
The herald moths, Scoliopteryx libatrix, overwinter in hypogean habitats. The ultrastructure of their fat body (FB) cells and Malpighian tubule (MT) epithelial cells was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and essential biometric and biochemical measurements were performed. The FB was composed of adipocytes and sparse urocytes. The ultrastructure of both cells did not change considerably during this natural starvation period, except for rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) which became more abundant in March females...
April 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327410/mitochondria-control-acute-and-chronic-responses-to-hypoxia
#4
G S McElroy, N S Chandel
There are numerous mechanisms by which mammals respond to hypoxia. These include acute changes in pulmonary arterial tone due to smooth muscle cell contraction, acute increases in respiration triggered by the carotid body chemosensory cells, and chronic changes such as induction of red blood cell proliferation and angiogenesis by hypoxia inducible factor targets erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor, respectively. Mitochondria account for the majority of oxygen consumption in the cell and have recently been appreciated to serve as signaling organelles required for the initiation or propagation of numerous homeostatic mechanisms...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290896/-deficiency-of-magnesium-and-pyridoxine-as-a-risk-factors-for-coronary-heart-disease
#5
O A Gromova, I Yu Torshin, A G Nazarenko, A G Kalachev
Deficiency of magnesium and vitamin 6 is a modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). A combined deficiency of magnesium and vitamin 6 disrupts the functioning myocardial tissue due to the formation of endothelial dysfunction, prothrombotic changes in blood viscosity characteristics, improve vascular tone, failure of the mitochondria. Receiving organic magnesium salts in combination with adequate doses of pyridoxine can be effective in the prevention and treatment of CHD.
October 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275246/sarcoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-in-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#6
REVIEW
Camila Lopez-Crisosto, Christian Pennanen, Cesar Vasquez-Trincado, Pablo E Morales, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Andrew F G Quest, Mario Chiong, Sergio Lavandero
Repetitive, calcium-mediated contractile activity renders cardiomyocytes critically dependent on a sustained energy supply and adequate calcium buffering, both of which are provided by mitochondria. Moreover, in vascular smooth muscle cells, mitochondrial metabolism modulates cell growth and proliferation, whereas cytosolic calcium levels regulate the arterial vascular tone. Physical and functional communication between mitochondria and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and balanced mitochondrial dynamics seem to have a critical role for optimal calcium transfer to mitochondria, which is crucial in calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial metabolism in both types of muscle cells...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242328/mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-tfam-rs1937-and-ap-endonuclease-1-ape1-rs1130409-alleles-are-associated-with-reduced-cognitive-performance
#7
Meryl S Lillenes, Mari Støen, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Per Selnes, Vidar T V Stenset, Thomas Espeseth, Ivar Reinvang, Tormod Fladby, Tone Tønjum
Mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage is intimately connected to ageing and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A particular culprit in this context is oxidative stress, which is a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to hyperactive or dysfunctional mitochondria and/or reduced DNA repair capacity. Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for repairing oxidative damage events in chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA. Defects in BER have been detected in ageing and neurodegeneration...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928909/using-proteomics-to-discover-novel-biomarkers-for-fatty-liver-development-and-response-to-cb1r-antagonist-treatment-in-an-obese-mouse-model
#8
Chin-Chang Chen, Tzung-Yan Lee, Ching-Fai Kwok, Yung-Pei Hsu, Kuang-Chung Shih, Yan-Jie Lin, Low-Tone Ho
Over activity of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) plays a key role in increasing the incidence of obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Tissue proteome analysis has been applied to investigate the bioinformatics regarding the mode of action and therapeutic mechanism. The aim of this study was to explore the potential pathways altered with CB1R in obesity-induced fatty liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard chow diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 1-week treatment of CB1R inverse agonist AM251 at 5 mg/kg...
January 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532003/formyl-peptide-receptor-activation-elicits-endothelial-cell-contraction-and-vascular-leakage
#9
Camilla F Wenceslau, Cameron G McCarthy, R Clinton Webb
The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379687/malpighian-tubule-cells-in-overwintering-cave-crickets-troglophilus-cavicola-kollar-1833-and-t-neglectus-krauss-1879-rhaphidophoridae-ensifera
#10
Saška Lipovšek, Tone Novak, Franc Janžekovič, Nina Weiland, Gerd Leitinger
During winter, cave cricket larvae undergo dormancy in subterranean habitats; this dormancy is termed diapause in second year Troglophilus cavicola larvae because they mature during this time, and termed quiescence in T. neglectus, because they mature after dormancy. Here we used electron microscopy to analyze ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells in the Malpighian tubules (MTs) of T. cavicola during diapause, in order to compare them with previous findings on T. neglectus. Moreover, the autophagosomes were studied with immunofluorescence microscopy in both species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347901/role-of-mitochondria-in-cerebral-vascular-function-energy-production-cellular-protection-and-regulation-of-vascular-tone
#11
David W Busija, Ibolya Rutkai, Somhrita Dutta, Prasad V Katakam
Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343404/effect-of-simvastatin-on-vascular-tone-in-porcine-coronary-artery-potential-role-of-the-mitochondria
#12
H Almukhtar, M J Garle, P A Smith, R E Roberts
Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence...
August 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335372/maintenance-of-vascular-integrity-by-pericytes-is-essential-for-normal-kidney-function
#13
Dario R Lemos, Graham Marsh, Angela Huang, Gabriela Campanholle, Takahide Aburatani, Lan Dang, Ivan Gomez, Ken Fisher, Giovanni Ligresti, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Jeremy S Duffield
Pericytes are tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitor cells anatomically associated with the vasculature that have been shown to participate in tissue regeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that kidney pericytes, derived from FoxD1(+) mesodermal progenitors during embryogenesis, are necessary for postnatal kidney homeostasis. Diphtheria toxin delivery to FoxD1Cre::RsDTR transgenic mice resulted in selective ablation of >90% of kidney pericytes but not other cell lineages. Abrupt increases in plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and albuminuria within 96 h indicated acute kidney injury in pericyte-ablated mice...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109594/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-oxidative-status-disruption-in-brainstem-of-weaned-rats-immediate-response-to-maternal-protein-restriction
#14
Diorginis José Soares Ferreira, Anderson Apolônio da Silva Pedroza, Glauber Rude Feitoza Braz, Reginaldo Correia da Silva-Filho, Talitta Arruda Lima, Mariana Pinheiro Fernandes, Sonia Q Doi, Claudia Jacques Lagranha
Mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction has been postulated as an important mechanism associated to a number of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. One of the hypotheses is that this is caused by the metabolic challenge generated by the mismatch between prenatal predicted and postnatal reality. Perinatal low-protein diet produces several effects that are manifested in the adult animal, including altered sympathetic tone, increased arterial blood pressure and oxidative stress in the brainstem. The majority of the studies related to nutritional programming postulates that the increased risk levels for non-communicable diseases are associated with the incompatibility between prenatal and postnatal environment...
April 21, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944358/intracellular-angiotensin-ii-as-a-regulator-of-muscle-tone-in-vascular-resistance-vessels-pathophysiological-implications
#15
REVIEW
Walmor C De Mello
The influence of intracellular angiotensin II on the regulation of potassium current and membrane potential of smooth muscle cells of mesenteric arteries and its relevance for the regulation of vascular tone was reviewed. The presence of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) in different cells of the cardiovascular system, was discussed including their presence in the nuclei and mitochondria. Emphasis was given to the opposite effects of intracellular and extracellular angiotensin II (Ang II) on the regulation of potassium current, membrane potential and contractility of vascular resistance vessels and its implication to vascular physiology and pathology and the possible role of epigenetic factors on the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and renin in vascular resistance vessels as well as its possible pathophysiological role in hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases...
April 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26804996/igf-1-receptor-differentially-regulates-spontaneous-and-evoked-transmission-via-mitochondria-at-hippocampal-synapses
#16
Neta Gazit, Irena Vertkin, Ilana Shapira, Martin Helm, Edden Slomowitz, Maayan Sheiba, Yael Mor, Silvio Rizzoli, Inna Slutsky
The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is a key regulator of lifespan, growth, and development. While reduced IGF-1R signaling delays aging and Alzheimer's disease progression, whether and how it regulates information processing at central synapses remains elusive. Here, we show that presynaptic IGF-1Rs are basally active, regulating synaptic vesicle release and short-term plasticity in excitatory hippocampal neurons. Acute IGF-1R blockade or transient knockdown suppresses spike-evoked synaptic transmission and presynaptic cytosolic Ca(2+) transients, while promoting spontaneous transmission and resting Ca(2+) level...
February 3, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697984/evidence-for-a-mitochondrial-angiotensin-1-7-system-in-the-kidney
#17
Bryan A Wilson, Manisha Nautiyal, TanYa M Gwathmey, James C Rose, Mark C Chappell
Evidence for an intracellular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in various cell organelles now includes the endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and mitochondria (Mito). Indeed, angiotensin (ANG) AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes were functionally linked to Mito respiration and nitric oxide production, respectively, in previous studies. We undertook a biochemical analysis of the Mito RAS from male and female sheep kidney cortex. Mito were isolated by differential centrifugation followed by a discontinuous Percoll gradient and were coenriched in Mito membrane markers VDAC and ATP synthase, but not β-actin or cathepsin B...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26660451/crosstalk-of-mitochondria-with-nadph-oxidase-via-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-signalling-and-its-role-for-vascular-function
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Daiber, Fabio Di Lisa, Matthias Oelze, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Sebastian Steven, Eberhard Schulz, Thomas Münzel
Cardiovascular diseases are associated with and/or caused by oxidative stress. This concept has been proven by using the approach of genetic deletion of reactive species producing (pro-oxidant) enzymes as well as by the overexpression of reactive species detoxifying (antioxidant) enzymes leading to a marked reduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and in parallel to an amelioration of the severity of diseases. Likewise, the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases is aggravated by overexpression of RONS producing enzymes as well as deletion of antioxidant RONS detoxifying enzymes...
June 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26587784/reducing-adiposity-in-a-critical-developmental-window-has-lasting-benefits-in-mice
#19
Jaclyn S Lerea, Laurence E Ring, Rim Hassouna, Angie C N Chong, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Tamas L Horvath, Lori M Zeltser
Although most adults can lose weight by dieting, a well-characterized compensatory decrease in energy expenditure promotes weight regain more than 90% of the time. Using mice with impaired hypothalamic leptin signaling as a model of early-onset hyperphagia and obesity, we explored whether this unfavorable response to weight loss could be circumvented by early intervention. Early-onset obesity was associated with impairments in the structure and function of brown adipose tissue mitochondria, which were ameliorated by weight loss at any age...
February 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186741/impaired-mitochondrial-energy-supply-coupled-to-increased-h2o2-emission-under-energy-redox-stress-leads-to-myocardial-dysfunction-during-type%C3%A2-i-diabetes
#20
Carlo G Tocchetti, Brian A Stanley, Vidhya Sivakumaran, Djahida Bedja, Brian O'Rourke, Nazareno Paolocci, Sonia Cortassa, Miguel A Aon
In Type I diabetic (T1DM) patients, both peaks of hyperglycaemia and increased sympathetic tone probably contribute to impair systolic and diastolic function. However, how these stressors eventually alter cardiac function during T1DM is not fully understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that impaired mitochondrial energy supply and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission is centrally involved in T1DM cardiac dysfunction due to metabolic/redox stress and aimed to determine the mitochondrial sites implicated in these alterations...
October 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
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