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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926091/functional-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into not only cells of mesodermal lineages, but also into endodermal and ectodermal derived elements, including neurons and glial cells. For this reason, MSCs have been extensively investigated to develop cell-based therapeutic strategies, especially in pathologies whose pharmacological treatments give poor results, if any. As in the case of irreversible neurological disorders characterized by progressive neuronal death, in which behavioral and cognitive functions of patients inexorably decline as the disease progresses...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925896/allopurinol-old-drug-new-indication-in-neonates
#2
Kim V Annink, Axel R Franz, Jan B Derks, Mario Rüdiger, Frank van Bel, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of neonatal mortality and neurological morbidity, even despite hypothermia treatment. Neuronal damage in these infants is partly caused by the production of superoxides via the xanthine-oxidase pathway and concomitant free radical formation. Allopurinol is a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor and can potentially reduce the formation of these superoxides that lead to brain damage in HIE. METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the animal and clinical data about the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol in HIE and the relevant mechanisms leading to brain injury in HIE...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925885/spreading-depolarization-waves-in-neurological-diseases-a-short-review-about-its-pathophysiology-and-clinical-relevance
#3
Yağmur Çetin Taş, İhsan Solaroğlu, Yasemin Gürsoy-Özdemir
Lesion growth following acutely injured brain tissue after stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury is an important issue and a new target area for promising therapeutic interventions. Spreading depolarization or peri-lesion depolarization waves were demonstrated as one of the significant contributors of continued lesion growth. In this short review, we discuss the pathophysiology for SD forming events and try to list findings detected in neurological disorders like migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in both human as well as experimental studies...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925742/visual-search-performance-in-patients-with-vision-impairment-a-systematic-review
#4
Cassia Senger, Maria Rita Rodrigues Alves Margarido, Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Ligia Issa De Fendi, André Messias, Jayter Silva Paula
PURPOSE: Patients with visual impairment are constantly facing challenges to achieve an independent and productive life, which depends upon both a good visual discrimination and search capacities. Given that visual search is a critical skill for several daily tasks and could be used as an index of the overall visual function, we investigated the relationship between vision impairment and visual search performance. METHODS: A comprehensive search was undertaken using electronic PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases from January 1980 to December 2016, applying the following terms: "visual search", "visual search performance", "visual impairment", "visual exploration", "visual field", "hemianopia", "search time", "vision lost", "visual loss", and "low vision"...
September 19, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924115/neurological-complications-in-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-egpa-the-roles-of-history-and-the-results-of-physical-examinations-in-the-diagnosis-of-egpa
#5
Hiroshi Oiwa, Sho Mokuda, Tomoyasu Matsubara, Masamoto Funaki, Ikuko Takeda, Takemori Yamawaki, Kazuhiko Kumagai, Eiji Sugiyama
Objective To investigate the clinical symptoms, the physical and neurological findings, and the clinical course of neurological complications in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Methods A retrospective chart review of EGPA cases managed by two referral hospitals was performed, with a focus on the neurological findings. The study analyzed the symptoms at the onset of EGPA and investigated their chronological relationship. The patient delay (the delay between the onset of symptoms and the initial consultation), and the physician delay (the delay from consultation to the initiation of therapy) were determined and compared...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923299/masson-s-tumor-revealed-by-an-intracerebral-hematoma-case-report-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
C Salaud, D Loussouarn, K Buffenoir, T Riem
We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who underwent total resection of a Masson's tumor or intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), which was discovered due to a left temporal intracerebral hematoma revealed by aphasia. IPEH is more often localized on cutaneous and subcutaneous locations, intracranial IPEH are rare and only approximately twenty cases have been published to date. These tumors are a benign vascular lesion composed of papillary intravascular proliferation of epithelial cellular associated thrombosis with fibrin deposits responsible for vascular lumen obliteration...
September 15, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923147/idiopathic-syringomyelia-in-a-military-helicopter-pilot
#7
Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923025/intrafamilial-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-a-taiwanese-family-with-a-mapt-p-r5h-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Hui-Chi Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin, Pei-Lung Chen, Shih-Jung Cheng, Pei-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in executive function that frequently overlaps with parkinsonism and motor neuron disorders. Several genes have been identified to cause autosomal dominant forms of FTD, including the gene coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT). While most reported pathogenic mutations in MAPT occur in exons 9-13, few families have been reported with mutations outside of this region...
September 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922884/a-single-institution-experience-with-pineal-region-tumors-50-tumors-over-1-decade
#9
Isaac Josh Abecassis, Brian Hanak, Jason Barber, Martin Mortazavi, Richard G Ellenbogen
BACKGROUND: Pineal region tumors are rare intracranial tumors that are more common in children than adults. Surgical management of tumors in this region using a tailored approach is a strategy that enhances extent of resection and neurological outcome. OBJECTIVE: To review our institutional experience with pineal region tumors in children and adults over the past 10 years. METHODS: Our institutional pathology database and patient records were retrospectively reviewed for details regarding clinical and radiological presentation, surgical management, extent of resection, morbidity, and neurological outcome...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922350/stem-cells-and-cell-based-therapies-for-cerebral-palsy-a-call-for-rigor
#10
REVIEW
Lauren L Jantzie, Joseph Scafidi, Shenandoah Robinson
Cell-based therapies hold significant promise for infants at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) from perinatal brain injury (PBI). PBI leading to CP results from multi-faceted damage to neural cells. Complex developing neural networks are injured by neural cell damage plus unique perturbations in cell signaling. Given that cell-based therapies can simultaneously repair multiple injured neural components during critical neurodevelopmental windows, these interventions potentially offer efficacy for patients with CP...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922311/motor-imagery-training-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Zaqueline Fernandes Guerra, Alessandra L G Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of studies have suggested that imagery training (motor imagery [MI]) has value for improving motor function in persons with neurologic conditions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the available literature related to efficacy of MI in the recovery of individuals after stroke. METHODS: We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently selected clinical trials that investigated the effect of MI on outcomes commonly investigated in studies of stroke recovery...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922230/optimal-dose-of-perineural-dexamethasone-to-prolong-analgesia-after-brachial-plexus-blockade-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Kyle Robert Kirkham, Alain Jacot-Guillarmod, Eric Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Perineural dexamethasone has gained popularity in regional anesthesia to prolong analgesia duration. However, uncertainty remains regarding the optimal perineural dose. Clarification of this characteristic is of significant importance as the administration of dexamethasone may lead to dose-dependent complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to define the optimal perineural dexamethasone dose to prolong analgesia after brachial plexus blockade for adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922053/distribution-and-function-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-the-nervous-system
#13
Jun Wang, Shao-Wu Ou, Yun-Jie Wang
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the basic ion channels for neuronal excitability, which are crucial for the resting potential and the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. To date, at least nine distinct sodium channel isoforms have been detected in the nervous system. Recent studies have identified that voltage-gated sodium channels not only play an essential role in the normal electrophysiological activities of neurons but also have a close relationship with neurological diseases...
September 18, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921378/chemistry-and-chemical-equilibrium-dynamics-of-bmaa-and-its-carbamate-adducts
#14
Pedro Diaz-Parga, Joy J Goto, V V Krishnan
Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been demonstrated to contribute to the onset of the ALS/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) and is implicated in the progression of other neurodegenerative diseases. While the role of BMAA in these diseases is still debated, one of the suggested mechanisms involves the activation of excitatory glutamate receptors. In particular, the excitatory effects of BMAA are shown to be dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions, which in turn forms carbamate adducts in physiological conditions...
September 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921173/maximizing-safe-resections-the-roles-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-and-intraoperative-mr-imaging-in-glioma-surgery-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Eric Suero Molina, S Schipmann, W Stummer
Malignant glioma surgery involves the challenge of preserving the neurological status of patients harboring these lesions while pursuing a maximal tumor resection, which is correlated with overall and progression-free survival. Presently, several tools exist for assisting neurosurgeons in visualizing malignant tissue. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has increasingly been used during the last decade for identifying malignant glioma. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), first introduced in the mid-1990s, is being evaluated as a further tool to maximize the extent of resection...
September 18, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920040/parasympathetic-cholinergic-and-neuropeptide-mechanisms-of-migraine
#16
REVIEW
Nikita Mikhailov, Oleg V Mamontov, Alexei A Kamshilin, Rashid Giniatullin
CONTEXT: Migraine mechanisms remain largely uncovered for various reasons including a very high complexity of the neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in this disorder and a plethora of endogenous biologically active compounds involved in the pathological process. The functional role of parasympathetic innervation of meninges and cholinergic mechanisms of migraine are among little explored issues despite multiple evidence indirectly indicating the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and its analogues in migraine and other types of headache...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919799/maple-syrup-urine-disease-mechanisms-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Patrick R Blackburn, Jennifer M Gass, Filippo Pinto E Vairo, Kristen M Farnham, Herjot K Atwal, Sarah Macklin, Eric W Klee, Paldeep S Atwal
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919610/open-door-laminoplasty-for-multilevel-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-and-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-opll-using-titanium-reconstruction-miniplate-and-screws
#18
M K Ahsan, M A Awwal, S I Khan, N Zaman, M H Haque, Z Zahangiri
To review outcome of 25 patients who underwent open-door cervical laminoplasty for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) using titanium reconstruction miniplate and screws. Records of 18 men and 7 women aged 35 to 78 (mean, 62.6) years were reviewed retrospectively from October 2009 and October 2014 at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and in our private settings, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Four patients had 5 levels (C3-C7), 21 patients had 4 levels (C3-C6) decompression and 3 patients (12%) performed foraminotomies...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919565/treatment-of-large-or-giant-cavernous-aneurysm-associated-with-a-persistent-trigeminal-artery-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Tatsuya Ishikawa, Koji Yamaguchi, Hidenori Anami, Masatake Sumi, Tomomi Ishikawa, Takakazu Kawamata
BACKGROUND: Primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common anomaly of primitive carotid-basilar anastomosis and is associated with cerebrovascular anomalies, such as aneurysm. Large or giant cavernous aneurysm associated with PTA is rare, and the treatment strategies differ in comparison to large or giant aneurysm without PTA. In this article, we report an unusual case of a giant cavernous aneurysm associated with PTA and review treatment strategies for large or giant cavernous aneurysm associated with PTA...
September 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919008/immunoadsorption-in-neurological-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Satoru Oji, Kyoichi Nomura
In recent years, immunoadsorption has been increasingly recognized as an alternative to therapeutic plasma exchange and used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and multiple sclerosis, as well as autoimmune encephalitis. Unlike therapeutic plasma exchange, which requires fluid replacement with a blood solution such as fresh frozen plasma or albumin, immunoadsorption is a blood purification technique that enables the selective removal of humoral factors from separated plasma through a high-affinity adsorbent with tryptophan or phenylalanine...
August 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
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