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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812959/periocular-manifestations-of-trigeminal-trophic-syndrome-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#1
Katherine A McVeigh, Morag Adams, Richard Harrad, Rebecca Ford
Trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) is a condition whereby persistent facial ulceration presents consequent to central or peripheral insult to the trigeminal nerve. Lesions are created by repetitive self-inflicted manipulation and trauma of dysaesthetic skin within the trigeminal dermatome. We discuss four cases with aetiologies varied from presumed microvascular compromise to resection of cerebral meningioma, cerebrovascular accident, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus. We discuss the management of the under-recognised associated periocular skin ulcerations that result from physical manipulation of dysesthic skin and prove to be persistent and challenging to treat...
August 16, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811992/analysis-of-the-literature-on-cervical-spine-fractures-in-ankylosing-spinal-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Sebastian Hartmann, Anja Tschugg, Christoph Wipplinger, Claudius Thomé
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative literature review. OBJECTIVE: The numbers of low-energy cervical fractures seen in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (also known as Bechterew disease) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (also known as Forestier disease) have greatly increased over recent decades. These fractures tend to be particularly overlooked, leading to delayed diagnosis and secondary neurological deterioration. The aim of the present evaluation was to summarize current knowledge on cervical fractures in patients with ankylosing spinal disorders (ASDs)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811170/zika-virus-research-models
#3
REVIEW
Jessica L Kublin, James B Whitney
The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurological defects in both neonates, and adults. The WHO declared the 2016 Zika epidemic a public health emergency and issued an unprecedented recommendation to women in affected regions to delay pregnancy until the risks surrounding Zika virus could be understood, or the epidemic contained. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding Zika transmission and pathogenesis to aid the development of drugs and vaccines...
August 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811085/the-use-of-phenobarbital-and-other-anti-seizure-drugs-in-newborns
#4
REVIEW
Mohamed El-Dib, Janet S Soul
Neonatal seizures constitute the most frequent presenting neurologic sign encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. Despite limited efficacy and safety data, phenobarbital continues to be used near-universally as the first-line anti-seizure drug (ASD) in neonates. The choice of second-line ASDs varies by provider and institution, and is still not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. In this review, we discuss the available evidence supporting the efficacy, mechanism of action, potential adverse effects, key pharmacokinetic characteristics such as interaction with therapeutic hypothermia, logistical issues, and rationale for use of neonatal ASDs...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811042/understanding-readmissions-in-children-undergoing-surgery-a-pediatric-nsqip-analysis
#5
Afif N Kulaylat, Dorothy V Rocourt, Anthony Y Tsai, Kathryn L Martin, Brett W Engbrecht, Mary C Santos, Robert E Cilley, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Peter W Dillon
BACKGROUND: Readmission is increasingly being utilized as an important clinical outcome and measure of hospital quality. Our aim was to delineate rates, risk factors, and reasons for unplanned readmission in pediatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pediatric patients (n=130,274) undergoing surgery (2013-2014) at hospitals enrolled in the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP-P) was performed. Logistic regression was used to model factors associated with unplanned 30-day readmission...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810931/a-comprehensive-regional-clinical-and-educational-ecpr-protocol-decreases-time-to-ecmo-in-patients-with-refractory-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#6
Brian Grunau, Sarah Carrier, Jamil Bashir, William Dick, Luke Harris, Robert Boone, Dan Kalla, Frank Scheuermeyer, Brian Twaites, Ron Straight, James Abel, Ken McDonald, Ruth MacRedmond, David Agulnik, Joe Finkler, Jeanne MacLeod, Jim Christenson, Anson Cheung
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within CPR (ECPR) may improve survival for refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We developed a prehospital, emergency department (ED), and hospital-based clinical and educational protocol to improve the key variable of time-to-ECPR (TTE). METHODS: In a single urban health region we involved key prehospital, clinical, and administrative stakeholders over a 2-year period, to develop a regional ECPR program with destination to a single urban tertiary care hospital...
August 16, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810519/the-beneficial-role-of-naringin-a-citrus-bioflavonoid-against-oxidative-stress-induced-neurobehavioral-disorders-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-rodents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, H Shylaja, Yogananda Moolemath
OBJECTIVES: Naringin is a bioflavonoid, very abundantly found in citrus species. In literature, naringin has been scientifically well documented for its beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we have made an attempt to correlate the protective role of naringin against oxidative stress-induced neurological disorders in rodents. METHODS: The systematic search was performed using electronic databases; the search was mainly focused on the role of naringin in oxidative stress-induced neuropathological conditions in rodents...
August 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810281/-hyponatremia-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
Heiner Mönig, Alexander Arlt
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalized patients, with up to 30 % having a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It is now clear that the clinical problem extends beyond the neurological symptoms, which can be explained by intracerebral osmotic fluid shifts and brain edema. Instead, chronic hyponatremia is associated with impaired gait stability and an increased risk of bone fragility fractures. Moreover, hyponatremia has been demonstrated to be an indicator of poor prognosis in a variety of conditions...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808901/the-utility-of-routine-intensive-care-admission-for-patients-undergoing-intracranial-neurosurgical-procedures-a-systematic-review
#9
Cesar Cimonari de Almeida, M Dustin Boone, Yosef Laviv, Burkhard S Kasper, Clark C Chen, Ekkehard M Kasper
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. METHODS: We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission...
August 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807754/transgenerational-effects-of-early-environmental-insults-on-aging-and-disease-incidence
#10
REVIEW
Mirela Ambeskovic, Tessa J Roseboom, Gerlinde A S Metz
Adverse early life experiences are major influences on developmental trajectories with potentially life-long consequences. Prenatal or early postnatal exposure to stress, undernutrition or environmental toxicants may reprogram brain development and increase risk of behavioural and neurological disorders later in life. Not only experience within a single lifetime, but also ancestral experience affects health trajectories and chances of successful aging. The central mechanism in transgenerational programming of a disease may the formation of epigenetic memory...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807442/age-is-related-to-neurological-outcome-in-patients-with-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca-receiving-therapeutic-hypothermia-th
#11
Se Jong Oh, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Ho Jang, In Cheol Hwang, Jae Hyuk Woo, Yong Su Lim, Hyuk Jun Yang
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the patients' outcomes after cardiac arrest based on age in one center, to determine whether geriatric patients had worse outcomes. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study. The patients admitted to the intensive care unit on successful resuscitation after OHCA were retrospectively identified and evaluated. RESULTS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients over 18years of-age with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (>24h) after cardiac arrest who were admitted to the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) and received post-cardiac arrest care between March 2007 and December 2013...
July 29, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807158/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-molecular-imaging-of-neurological-disorders
#12
Yao Yao, Ting Chen, Jing Huang, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian
Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807156/metabolic-factors-and-adult-neurogenesis-impacts-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-brain-repair-in-neurological-diseases
#13
Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen
Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807107/etiologies-and-management-of-cutaneous-flushing-nonmalignant-causes
#14
REVIEW
Azeen Sadeghian, Hailey Rouhana, Brittany Oswald-Stumpf, Erin Boh
The flushing phenomenon may represent a physiologic or a pathologic reaction. Although flushing is usually benign, it is prudent that the physician remains aware of potentially life-threatening conditions associated with cutaneous flushing. A thorough investigation should be performed if the flushing is atypical or not clearly associated with a benign underlying process. The diagnosis often relies on a pertinent history, review of systems, physical examination, and various laboratory and imaging modalities, all of which are discussed in the 2 articles in this continuing medical education series...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805718/myoclonic-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Olaf Eberhardt, Helge Topka
Few movement disorders seem to make a straightforward approach to diagnosis and treatment more difficult and frustrating than myoclonus, due to its plethora of causes and its variable classifications. Nevertheless, in recent years, exciting advances have been made in the elucidation of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of many disorders presenting with myoclonus. Here, we provide a review of all of the important types of myoclonus encountered in pediatric and adult neurology, with an emphasis on the recent developments that have led to a deeper understanding of this intriguing phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805697/multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Borros M Arneth
The psychiatric and neurological aspects of health may present methodological challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This is especially true for patients whose symptoms indicate the coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These cases raise critical questions regarding the relationship between the mind and the brain. Studies have noted that patients with MS have an increased risk of developing SCZ or bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested here that MS and a subgroup of SCZ have similar etiologies...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805093/monitoring-disease-progression-in-spinocerebellar-ataxias-implications-for-treatment-and-clinical-research
#17
Lidia Sarro, Lorenzo Nanetti, Anna Castaldo, Caterina Mariotti
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal dominant diseases characterized by progressive gait and limb incoordination, disequilibrium, dysarthria, and eye movement disturbances. Approximately 40 genetic subtypes of SCAs are known and classified according to the causative disease gene/locus. With the possibility of the specific genetic diagnosis in patients and at-risk family members, several clinical scales and functional tests have been validated and used in ataxic patients with the purposes of measuring the entity of disease progression in natural history studies and the possible slowing of neurological impairment in therapeutic trials...
August 13, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804736/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-its-receptor-upar-promote-neurorepair-in-the-ischemic-brain
#18
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Manuel Yepes
Despite the fact that ischemic stroke has been considered a leading cause of mortality in the world, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ischemic injury and the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients have led to a sharp decrease in the number of stroke deaths. However, this decrease in stroke mortality has also led to an increase in the number of patients that survive the acute ischemic injury with different degrees of disability. Unfortunately, to this date we do not have an effective therapeutic strategy to promote neurological recovery in these growing population of stroke survivors...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803968/acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-potential-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-pharmacological-intervention
#19
REVIEW
Emrullah Hayta, Hasan Elden
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the serious central nervous system injuries, which can lead to significant neurological impairments and a reduction in quality of life with loss in sensory and motor functions. Although recent advancements contribute to the understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes developed after SCI, currently, there is limited innovative and effective treatment options besides conventional rehabilitation and management of SCI to alleviate the condition. Improvements in neurological functions of the individuals with SCI depend mainly on the mechanical damage occurring in the primary injury and on pathophysiological alterations associated with secondary damage...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803441/thermoregulation-disorders-of-central-origin-how-to-diagnose-and-treat
#20
Marta Zawadzka, Marta Szmuda, Maria Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska
Fever is a common symptom in the Intensive Care Unit. At least half of febrile episodes are caused by infection. Excluding infectious etiology and other non-infectious causes of fever, especially in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disorders, attention should be paid to disturbances of thermoregulatory centre. In particular, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebral trauma, along with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke are strongly associated with the development of central fever. Proper, speedy diagnosis of the cause of fever makes it possible to implement preventive measures against the harmful effects of hyperthermia on the CNS and to avoid the consequences of inappropriate treatment...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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