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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792540/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-diagnosis-and-potential-therapies
#1
Stewart A Weber, Ranish K Patel, Helmi L Lutsep
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as lobar microbleeds, support a diagnosis of CAA and assist with hemorrhage risk assessments. Immunosuppressants are used to treat rarer inflammatory forms of CAA...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792367/visual-and-visuomotor-processing-of-hands-and-tools-as-a-case-study-of-cross-talk-between-the-dorsal-and-ventral-streams
#2
Jorge Almeida, Lénia Amaral, Frank E Garcea, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, Shan Xu, Bradford Z Mahon, Isabel Pavão Martins
A major principle of organization of the visual system is between a dorsal stream that processes visuomotor information and a ventral stream that supports object recognition. Most research has focused on dissociating processing across these two streams. Here we focus on how the two streams interact. We tested neurologically-intact and impaired participants in an object categorization task over two classes of objects that depend on processing within both streams-hands and tools. We measured how unconscious processing of images from one of these categories (e...
May 24, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792179/hopkins-syndrome-following-the-first-episode-of-bronchial-asthma-associated-with-enterovirus-d68-a-case-report
#3
Fumie Hayashi, Shintaro Hayashi, Dai Matsuse, Ryo Yamasaki, Keiji Yonekura, Jun-Ichi Kira
BACKGROUND: Hopkins syndrome (HS) is a rare disorder presenting with acute flaccid paralysis of the limbs following an asthma attack. Neurologists encounter a diagnostic challenge if patients without a history of bronchial asthma develop neurologic features mimicking HS following acute respiratory distress. We report a case of HS occurring after a first episode of bronchial asthma associated with enterovirus D68 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old girl developed acute respiratory distress...
May 23, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792178/anti-ganglioside-complex-antibody-profiles-in-a-recurrent-complicated-case-of-gq1b-seronegative-miller-fisher-syndrome-and-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-a-case-report
#4
Hiroto Ito, Yuki Hatanaka, Yuki Fukami, Yumiko Harada, Rei Kobayashi, Hisashi Okada, Ayumi Uchibori, Atsuro Chiba, Satoshi Okuda
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) are a group of autoimmune neurological disorders (GBS spectrum disorder) that rarely recur. Recently, anti-ganglioside complex antibodies (GSC-Abs) were identified in patients with GBS spectrum disorder. However, there has been no case report describing GSC-Abs profiles in a recurrent case showing different phenotypes. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 33-year-old male patient with GQ1b-seronegative BBE-GBS after two prior episodes of MFS-GBS...
May 23, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792164/a-case-report-of-reversible-generalized-seizures-in-a-patient-with-waardenburg-syndrome-associated-with-a-novel-nonsense-mutation-in-the-penultimate-exon-of-sox10
#5
Noriomi Suzuki, Hideki Mutai, Fuyuki Miya, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Hiroshi Terashima, Noriko Morimoto, Tatsuo Matsunaga
BACKGROUND: Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) can be distinguished from Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) by the presence of dystopia canthorum. About 96% of WS1 are due to PAX3 mutations, and SOX10 mutations have been reported in 15% of WS2. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a patient with WS1 who harbored a novel SOX10 nonsense mutation (c.652G > T, p.G218*) in exon 3 which is the penultimate exon. The patient had mild prodromal neurological symptoms that were followed by severe attacks of generalized seizures associated with delayed myelination of the brain...
May 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#6
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#7
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791932/b3galnt2-related-dystroglycanopathy-expansion-of-the-phenotype-with-novel-mutation-associated-with-muscle-eye-brain-disease-walker-warburg-syndrome-epileptic-encephalopathy-west-syndrome-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#8
Muna A Al Dhaibani, Ayman W El-Hattab, Omar Ismayl, Jehan Suleiman
Mutations in B3GALNT2 , encoding a glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in α-dystroglycan glycosylation, have been recently associated with dystroglycanopathy, a well-recognized subtype of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Only a few cases have been reported with B3GALNT2 -related dystroglycanopathy with variable severity ranging from mild CMD to severe muscle-eye-brain disease. Here, we describe a child with a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in B3GALNT2 . The affected child has severe neurological disease since birth, including muscle disease manifested as hypotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting with elevated creatine kinase, eye disease including microphthalmia and blindness, brain disease with extensive brain malformations including massive hydrocephalus, diffuse cobblestone-lissencephaly, deformed craniocervical junction, and pontocerebellar hypoplasia...
May 23, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791269/the-cystic-dilation-of-ventriculus-terminalis-with-neurological-symptoms-three-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#9
Iraj Lotfinia, Ata Mahdkhah
CONTEXT: The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a very small ependymal-lined residual lumen in the conus medullaris. It is normally present in all subjects during fetal development. VT in adults appears as an unusual pathology with an uncertain pathogenesis. FINDINGS: In this paper, we described three case reports of symptomatic fifth ventricle cystic dilations. All of them were female and their mean age was 59 years. We treated them surgically and all three patients were improved based on clinical and imaging assessments...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790849/-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-encephalitis-the-janus-faced-disorder
#10
Ildiko Sipos
The recognition of the antibody-mediated encephalitis as a separate entity among the immune disorders of the central nervous system was one of the greatest breakthroughs of the last two decades in neurology. Unlike viral or tumor-related encephalitis, the antibody-mediated form has a good response to immunotherapy, which gives a special clinical importance to the discovery. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the first fully characterized antibody-mediated encephalitises. This article attempts to summarize the clinical features of this complex neuropsychiatric disorder with the aim to help its early recognition and to report the clinical course and the outcome of our six seropositive anti-NMDAR cases...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790465/multiple-victims-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-the-aftermath-of-a-wildfire-a-case-series
#11
Luís Ramos Santos, Magna Alves-Correia, Margarida Câmara, Manuela Lélis, Carmo Caldeira, Maria Luz Brazão, José Júlio Nóbrega
INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning may occur in several contexts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective of 37 carbon monoxide poisoning cases that underwent hyperbaric oxygen during wildfires in Funchal in August 2016. RESULTS: The studied sample included 37 patients, mean age of 38 years, 78% males. Ten were firefighters, four children and two pregnant victims. Neurological symptoms were the most reported. Median carboxyhemoglobin level was 3...
March 29, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790202/incidence-and-cost-of-medication-harm-in-older-adults-following-hospital-discharge-a-multicentre-prospective-study-in-the-uk
#12
Nikesh Parekh, Khalid Ali, Jennifer M Stevenson, J Graham Davies, Rebekah Schiff, Tischa Van der Cammen, Jatinder Harchowal, James Raftery, Chakravarthi Rajkumar
AIMS: Polypharmacy is increasingly common in older adults, placing them at risk of medication-related harm (MRH). Patients are particularly vulnerable to problems with their medications in the period following hospital discharge due to medication changes, and poor information transfer between hospital and primary care. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, severity, preventability and cost of medication-related harm (MRH) in older adults in England post-discharge. METHODS: An observational multicentre prospective cohort study recruited 1280 older adults (median age 82 years) from five teaching hospitals in Southern England, UK...
May 22, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790195/a-licence-to-drive-neurological-illness-loss-and-disruption
#13
Melissa Stepney, Susan Kirkpatrick, Louise Locock, Suman Prinjha, Sara Ryan
The sense of freedom and independence that being able to drive generates may be taken for granted by many until it is threatened by illness. Drawing on the 'mobility turn' in social sciences that emphasises the social and emotional significance of the car (Sheller and Urry , ), this article presents secondary analysis of narratives of driving and its significance across four neurological conditions (epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, transient ischaemic attack and motor neurone disease). Taking an interactionist approach we explore how the withdrawal of a driving licence can represent not just a practical and emotional loss of independence, but also loss of enjoyment; of a sense and feeling of 'normal' adulthood and social participation; and of an identity (in some cases gendered) of strength and power...
May 22, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790148/prospective-pilot-study-of-cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitoring-during-pre-hospital-anaesthesia
#14
S Ångerman, S Länkimäki, N Neuvonen, H Kirves, J Nurmi
BACKROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive measure of cerebral tissue oxygenation. The literature on application of this method in pre-hospital setting is limited. The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility of cerebral NIRS during pre-hospital anaesthesia and to quantify the changes in front lobe regional oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) during the pre-hospital phase. METHODS: NIRS monitoring (Nonin SenSmart X-100) of front lobe regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) was initiated before induction of anaesthesia in 31 adult patients and continued until hospital arrival...
May 22, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789371/identification-of-new-risk-factors-for-rolandic-epilepsy-cnv-at-xp22-31-and-alterations-at-cholinergic-synapses
#15
Laura Addis, William Sproviero, Sanjeev V Thomas, Roberto H Caraballo, Stephen J Newhouse, Kumudini Gomez, Elaine Hughes, Maria Kinali, David McCormick, Siobhan Hannan, Silvia Cossu, Jacqueline Taylor, Cigdem I Akman, Steven M Wolf, David E Mandelbaum, Rajesh Gupta, Rick A van der Spek, Dario Pruna, Deb K Pal
BACKGROUND: Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common genetic childhood epilepsy, consisting of focal, nocturnal seizures and frequent neurodevelopmental impairments in speech, language, literacy and attention. A complex genetic aetiology is presumed in most, with monogenic mutations in GRIN2A accounting for >5% of cases. OBJECTIVE: To identify rare, causal CNV in patients with RE. METHODS: We used high-density SNP arrays to analyse the presence of rare CNVs in 186 patients with RE from the UK, the USA, Sardinia, Argentina and Kerala, India...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789216/the-clinical-presentation-and-collateral-pathway-development-of-congenital-absence-of-the-internal-carotid-artery
#16
Peng Zhang, Zheng Wang, Feng-Xia Yu, Han Lv, Xue-Huan Liu, Wei-Hua Feng, Jun Ma, Zheng-Han Yang, Zhen-Chang Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation, risks, and collateral pathway development of the congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA). METHODS: Sixty-four patients (10 new patients and 54 patients from the relevant literature) were studied. Data on demographic, clinical, and radiologic features were collected, followed by an analysis of the risks associated with ICA agenesis. RESULTS: There were 31 male and 33 female patients whose ages ranged from 5 months to 75 years, with a mean age of 31...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789153/adjunct-retrograde-cerebral-perfusion-provides-superior-outcomes-compared-with-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-alone-a-meta-analysis
#17
David H Tian, Justin Weller, Shaheen Hasmat, Aung Oo, Paul Forrest, Hosen Kiat, Tristan D Yan
OBJECTIVE: Retrograde cerebral perfusion is becoming less frequently used as a method of neuroprotection during aortic surgery. The present meta-analysis aims to compare outcomes after arch surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest versus hypothermic circulatory arrest + retrograde cerebral perfusion. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed using 7 databases from their inception to September 2016. Relevant comparative studies that included patient groups who underwent aortic arch surgery using hypothermic circulatory arrest with continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion or hypothermic circulatory arrest alone were identified, and data were extracted by 2 independent researchers...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788958/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-at-l5-vertebra-treated-with-en-bloc-vertebral-resection-a-case-report
#18
Lunhao Chen, Zhong Chen, Yue Wang
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in adult lumbar spine is extremely rare, and optimal treatments remain unclear. In literature, only a few cases of lumbar spine LCH were treated using surgery but en bloc vertebral resection has not been used. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old man presented with unbearable radiating pain at his right leg. Radiological studies revealed a solitary osteolytic lesion, which was moderately enhanced on contrast MR imaging and hyper-metabolic on PET/CT, at the right L5 vertebral body and arch...
May 22, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788799/management-of-the-left-subclavian-artery-during-tevar-complications-and-mid-term-follow-up
#19
Akram Youssef, Tamer Ghazy, Stephan Kersting, Jennifer Lynne Leip, Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann, Utz Kappert, Klaus Matschke, Norbert Weiss, Adrian Mahlmann
BACKGROUND: Numerous conditions that affect the boundary between the aortic arch and descending aorta are treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). In 40 % of cases, coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) cannot be prevented. Subsequently, neurological complications such as stroke or ischemia of the left upper extremity may develop. However, the actual risk of these complications is subject to considerable controversy. The optimal treatment approach, specifically the question whether primary revascularization of the LSA should be performed in all cases, is unclear...
May 23, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788779/elevated-serum-lipid-peroxidation-and-reduced-vitamin-c-and-trace-element-concentrations-are-correlated-with-epilepsy
#20
Abhijit Das, Md Shahid Sarwar, Md Shohel Hossain, Palash Karmakar, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Mohammad Enayet Hussain, Sujan Banik
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the chronic and heterogeneous epidemic neurological disorders leading to substantial mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C, and trace elements namely zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) in epileptic patients of Bangladesh and to establish if there are any pathophysiological correlations. METHODS: This was a case-control study with 40 generalized epileptic patients and 40 healthy subjects as controls...
May 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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