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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#1
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329517/genome-wide-analyses-of-direct-target-genes-of-four-rice-nac-domain-transcription-factors-involved-in-drought-tolerance
#2
Pil Joong Chung, Harin Jung, Yang Do Choi, Ju-Kon Kim
BACKGROUND: Plant stress responses and mechanisms determining tolerance are controlled by diverse sets of genes. Transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in conferring drought tolerance under drought stress conditions, and the identification of their target genes can elucidate molecular regulatory networks that orchestrate tolerance mechanisms. RESULTS: We generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing the 4 rice TFs, OsNAC5, 6, 9, and 10, under the control of the root-specific RCc3 promoter...
January 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329424/brassinosteroids-regulate-pavement-cell-growth-by-mediating-bin2-induced-microtubule-stabilization
#3
Xiaolei Liu, Qin Yang, Yuan Wang, Linhai Wang, Ying Fu, Xuelu Wang
Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroid hormones, play important roles in regulating plant development. The cytoskeleton also affects key developmental processes and a deficiency in BR biosynthesis or signaling leads to abnormal phenotypes similar to those of microtubule-defective mutants. However, how BRs regulate microtubule and cell morphology remains unknown. Here, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified tubulin proteins that interact with Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a negative regulator of BR responses in plants...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327969/atozf1-positively-regulates-defense-against-bacterial-pathogens-and-npr1-independent-salicylic-acid-signaling
#4
Nidhi Singh, Swadhin Swain, Anupriya Singh, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays critical roles in defense signaling against biotrophic pathogens. Pathogen inoculation leads to SA accumulation in plants. SA activates a transactivator protein NPR1, which, in turn, transcriptionally activates many defense response genes. Reports also suggest the presence of NPR1-independent pathways for SA signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the characterization of a zinc-finger protein-coding gene AtOZF1 that positively influences NPR1-independent SA signaling...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324661/protein-activity-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-rhodopsins-caro-and-opsa-and-their-relation-to-fungus-plant-interaction
#5
Alexander Adam, Stephan Deimel, Javier Pardo-Medina, Jorge García-Martínez, Tilen Konte, M Carmen Limón, Javier Avalos, Ulrich Terpitz
Fungi possess diverse photosensory proteins that allow them to perceive different light wavelengths and to adapt to changing light conditions in their environment. The biological and physiological roles of the green light-sensing rhodopsins in fungi are not yet resolved. The rice plant pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi exhibits two different rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. CarO was previously characterized as a light-driven proton pump. We further analyzed the pumping behavior of CarO by patch-clamp experiments. Our data show that CarO pumping activity is strongly augmented in the presence of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid and in sodium acetate, in a dose-dependent manner under slightly acidic conditions...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324636/simple-sequence-repeat-ssr-genetic-linkage-map-of-d-genome-diploid-cotton-derived-from-an-interspecific-cross-between-gossypium-davidsonii-and-gossypium-klotzschianum
#6
Joy Nyangasi Kirungu, Yanfeng Deng, Xiaoyan Cai, Richard Odongo Magwanga, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Yuhong Wang, Zhenmei Zhang, Kunbo Wang, Fang Liu
The challenge in tetraploid cotton cultivars is the narrow genetic base and therefore, the bottleneck is how to obtain interspecific hybrids and introduce the germplasm directly from wild cotton to elite cultivars. Construction of genetic maps has provided insight into understanding the genome structure, interrelationships between organisms in relation to evolution, and discovery of genes that carry important agronomic traits in plants. In this study, we generated an interspecific hybrid between two wild diploid cottons, Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum, and genotyped 188 F2:3 populations in order to develop a genetic map...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321596/high-resolution-31p-nmr-spectroscopy-generates-a-quantitative-evolution-profile-of-phosphorous-translocation-in-germinating-sesame-seed
#7
Honghao Cai, Wei-Gang Chuang, Xiaohong Cui, Ren-Hao Cheng, Kuohsun Chiu, Zhong Chen, Shangwu Ding
Phosphorus metabolism and circulation are essential bio-physicochemical processes during development of a plant and have been extensively studied and known to be affected by temperature, humidity, lighting, hormones etc. However, a quantitative description of how various phosphorous species evolve over time has not been reported. In this work, a combined 31P liquid and solid state NMR spectroscopic methodology is employed, supported by a new extraction scheme and data analysis method, to carry out a quantitative investigation of phosphorous circulation in germinating sesame seeds in dark and under illumination with and without adding a growth hormone...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321184/a-sizer-model-for-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-root-growth
#8
Irina Pavelescu, Josep Vilarrasa-Blasi, Ainoa Planas-Riverola, Mary-Paz González-García, Ana I Caño-Delgado, Marta Ibañes
Plant roots grow due to cell division in the meristem and subsequent cell elongation and differentiation, a tightly coordinated process that ensures growth and adaptation to the changing environment. How the newly formed cells decide to stop elongating becoming fully differentiated is not yet understood. To address this question, we established a novel approach that combines the quantitative phenotypic variability of wild-type Arabidopsis roots with computational data from mathematical models. Our analyses reveal that primary root growth is consistent with a Sizer mechanism, in which cells sense their length and stop elongating when reaching a threshold value...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320569/transcriptome-profiling-of-pumpkin-cucurbita-moschata-duch-leaves-infected-with-powdery-mildew
#9
Wei-Li Guo, Bi-Hua Chen, Xue-Jin Chen, Yan-Yan Guo, He-Lian Yang, Xin-Zheng Li, Guang-Yin Wang
Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317679/primed-primary-metabolism-in-systemic-leaves-a-functional-systems-analysis
#10
Jens Schwachtje, Axel Fischer, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka
Plants evolved mechanisms to counteract bacterial infection by preparing yet uninfected systemic tissues for an enhanced defense response, so-called systemic acquired resistance or priming responses. Primed leaves express a wide range of genes that enhance the defense response once an infection takes place. While hormone-driven defense signalling and defensive metabolites have been well studied, less focus has been set on the reorganization of primary metabolism in systemic leaves. Since primary metabolism plays an essential role during defense to provide energy and chemical building blocks, we investigated changes in primary metabolism at RNA and metabolite levels in systemic leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that were locally infected with Pseudomonas syringae...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317252/flavonoids-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-local-and-systemic-effects
#11
REVIEW
P I Oteiza, C G Fraga, D A Mills, D H Taft
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI tract can have an impact systemically, e...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316708/carbon-monoxide-potentiates-high-temperature-induced-nicotine-biosynthesis-in-tobacco
#12
Tielong Cheng, Liwei Hu, Pengkai Wang, Xiuyan Yang, Ye Peng, Ye Lu, Jinhui Chen, Jisen Shi
Carbon monoxide (CO) acts as an important signal in many physiological responses in plants, but its role in plant secondary metabolism is still unknown. Nicotine is the main alkaloid generated in tobacco and the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) has previously been reported to efficiently induce its biosynthesis. Whether and how CO interacts with JA to regulate nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that high temperature (HT) induces quick accumulation of nicotine in tobacco roots, combined with an increase in CO and JA concentration...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315590/brassinosteroids-regulate-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Ji Hyea Lee, Jeongyeo Lee, HyeRan Kim, Won Byoung Chae, Sun-Ju Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Man-Ho Oh
Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight...
January 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313187/allelic-variants-of-ossub1a-cause-differential-expression-of-transcription-factor-genes-in-response-to-submergence-in-rice
#14
Niharika Sharma, Trang Minh Dang, Namrata Singh, Slobodan Ruzicic, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Ute Baumann, Sigrid Heuer
BACKGROUND: Flooding during seasonal monsoons affects millions of hectares of rice-cultivated areas across Asia. Submerged rice plants die within a week due to lack of oxygen, light and excessive elongation growth to escape the water. Submergence tolerance was first reported in an aus-type rice landrace, FR13A, and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor (TF) gene SUB1A-1 was identified as the major tolerance gene. Intolerant rice varieties generally lack the SUB1A gene but some intermediate tolerant varieties, such as IR64, carry the allelic variant SUB1A-2...
January 8, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306799/purine-salvage-in-plants
#15
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashihara, Claudio Stasolla, Tatsuhito Fujimura, Alan Crozier
Purine bases and nucleosides are produced by turnover of nucleotides and nucleic acids as well as from some cellular metabolic pathways. Adenosine released from the S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle is linked to many methyltransferase reactions, such as the biosynthesis of caffeine and glycine betaine. Adenine is produced by the methionine cycles, which is related to other biosynthesis pathways, such those for the production of ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamines. These purine compounds are recycled for nucleotide biosynthesis by so-called "salvage pathways"...
January 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306633/development-of-an-improved-sample-preparation-platform-for-acidic-endogenous-hormones-in-plant-tissues-using-electromembrane-extraction
#16
Joon Hyuk Suh, Sang Beom Han, Yu Wang
Despite their importance in pivotal signaling pathways due to trace quantities and complex matrices, the analysis of plant hormones is a challenge. Here, to improve this issue, we present an electromembrane extraction technology combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determination of acidic plant hormones including jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, gibberellic acid and gibberellin A4 in plant tissues. Factors influencing extraction efficiency, such as voltage, extraction time and stirring rate were optimized using a design of experiments...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304736/transcriptome-analysis-of-response-to-plasmodiophora-brassicae-infection-in-the-arabidopsis-shoot-and-root
#17
Solmaz Irani, Brett Trost, Matthew Waldner, Naghabushana Nayidu, Jiangying Tu, Anthony J Kusalik, Christopher D Todd, Yangdou Wei, Peta C Bonham-Smith
BACKGROUND: Clubroot is an important disease caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae that infects the Brassicaceae. As a soil-borne pathogen, P. brassicae induces the generation of abnormal tissue in the root, resulting in the formation of galls. Root infection negatively affects the uptake of water and nutrients in host plants, severely reducing their growth and productivity. Many studies have emphasized the molecular and physiological effects of the clubroot disease on root tissues...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304291/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-calax-and-capin-gene-families-in-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-under-various-abiotic-stresses-and-hormones-treatments
#18
Chenghao Zhang, Wenqi Dong, Zong-An Huang, MyeongCheoul Cho, Qingcang Yu, Chuanyu Wu, Chenliang Yu
Auxin plays key roles in regulating plant growth and development as well as in responses to environmental stresses. The intercellular transport of auxin is mediated by four gene families, with the ATP-binding cassette family B (ABCB), the Auxin resistant1/ like (AUX1AUX/LAX) family, the pin-formed(PIN)families, and the PIN-LIKES (PILS) family. Here, the latest assembled pepper genome was used to characterise and analyse the CaLAX and CaPIN families. Genome-wide investigations into these families, including chromosomal distributions, phytogenic relationships and intron/exon structures, were performed...
January 5, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304061/comparative-analysis-of-mirna-and-mrna-abundance-in-determinate-cucumber-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#19
Chao Ma, Jingjing Yang, Qing Cheng, Aijun Mao, Jian Zhang, Shiping Wang, Yiqun Weng, Changlong Wen
Determinate cucumber is a type of short vines, fewer nodes, and terminal flowers, it is suitable for high-density planting and available harvesting in field cultivation, whereas the indeterminate cucumber is preferred to cultivate in greenhouses. However, many biotic or abiotic stresses could lead indeterminate cucumber to be determinate in greenhouse cultivation, which may decrease yield and fruit quality. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to investigate the key factors forming determinate and terminal flowering in cucumber...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303051/a-novel-function-of-geranylgeraniol-in-regulating-testosterone-production
#20
Hsin-Jung Ho, Hitoshi Shirakawa, Puspo E Giriwono, Asagi Ito, Michio Komai
Isoprenoids play widely differing roles in various physiological processes in animals and plants. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an isoprenoid found in plants, and is an important metabolic derivative in the isoprenoid/cholesterol synthesis pathway. Earlier studies focused on GGOH's ability to improve the side effects of bisphosphonate therapy by regulating the mevalonate pathway. More recently, the mevalonate pathway-independent effects of GGOH have been described, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and neuroprotective activities...
January 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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