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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220595/guanosine-tetraphosphate-modulates-salicylic-acid-signaling-and-the-resistance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-turnip-mosaic-virus
#1
Hela Abdelkefi, Matteo Sugliani, Ke Hang, Seddik Harchouni, Ludivine Soubigou-Taconnat, Sylvie Citerne, Gregory Mouille, Hatem Fakhfakh, Christophe Robaglia, Ben Field
Chloroplasts can act as key players in the perception and acclimation of plants to incoming environmental signals. A growing body of evidence indicates that chloroplasts play a critical role in plant immunity. Chloroplast function can be regulated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp). In plants (p)ppGpp levels increase in response to abiotic stress and to plant hormones that are involved in abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Here we analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants that over accumulate (p)ppGpp and unexpectedly found a decrease in the levels of a broad range of transcripts for plant defense and immunity...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220591/transcriptome-analysis-of-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-infected-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-roots-reveals-complex-gene-expression-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-of-both-host-and-nematode-during-susceptible-and-resistance-responses
#2
Neha Shukla, Rachita Yadav, Pritam Kaur, Simon Rasmussen, Shailendra Goel, Manu Agarwal, Arun Jagannath, Ramneek Gupta, Amar Kumar
Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible plants and two infection time intervals from resistant plants, grown under soil conditions. Differentially expressed genes during susceptible (1827-tomato, 462-RKN) and resistance (25-tomato, 160-RKN) interactions were identified...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220140/nbs-lrr-protein-pik-h4-interacts-with-osbihd1-to-balance-rice-blast-resistance-and-growth-by-coordinating-ethylene-brassinosteroid-pathway
#3
Hao Liu, Shuangyu Dong, Fengwei Gu, Wei Liu, Guili Yang, Ming Huang, Wuming Xiao, Yongzhu Liu, Tao Guo, Hui Wang, Zhiqiang Chen, Jiafeng Wang
The regulation of innate immunity and plant growth, along with the trade-off between them, affects the defense and recovery mechanisms of the plant after it is attacked by pathogens. Although it is known that hormonal crosstalk plays a major role in regulating interaction of plant growth and PAMP-triggered immunity, the relationship between plant growth and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) remains unclear. In a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screening for Pik-H4-interacting proteins, a homeodomain transcription factor OsBIHD1 was identified, which is previously known to function in biotic and abiotic stress responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#4
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214531/the-skeletal-developmental-toxicity-of-chlormequat-chloride-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#5
Dan Huang, Shuang Wu, Xiaohong Hou, Lixia Jia, Qinghe Meng, Hongqian Chu, Jianjun Jiang, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao
Chlormequat Chloride (CCC), a widely used plant growth regulator, could decrease body weight in animals; however, the mechanism has not been well studied. This study was designed to evaluate the skeletal development toxicity of CCC on pubertal male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to investigate whether CCC impacts the development of chondrocyte, osteoblast and osteoclast through growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). Rats from 23 to 70 on postnatal days were exposed to CCC daily by gavage at doses of 0, 75, 150, and 300mg/kg bw/d...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212843/natural-extranuclear-androgen-receptor-ligands-as-endocrine-disruptors-of-cancer-cell-growth
#6
Marilena Kampa, George Notas, Elias Castanas
Even though the term endocrine disruption primarily designates environmental chemicals that can interfere with the action of hormones, in recent years it has been extended to include also plant derived compounds that can reach the human body, naturally, or have been identified and studied as alternative pharmaceutical agents. In fact, for a large number of them, their antihormonal action was appreciated by different traditional herbal medicines. In the present review we report the majority of the plant derived compounds that exhibit an antiandrogenic effect and the known mechanisms of action...
February 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212614/transcriptomic-profiling-provides-molecular-insights-into-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-adventitious-rooting-in-mung-bean-seedlings
#7
Shi-Weng Li, Yan Leng, Rui-Fang Shi
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been known to function as a signalling molecule involved in the modulation of various physiological processes in plants. H2O2 has been shown to act as a promoter during adventitious root formation in hypocotyl cuttings. In this study, RNA-Seq was performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying H2O2-induced adventitious rooting. RESULTS: RNA-Seq data revealed that H2O2 treatment greatly increased the numbers of clean reads and expressed genes and abundance of gene expression relative to the water treatment...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211480/visualisation-of-abscisic-acid-and-12-oxo-phytodienoic-acid-in-immature-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-seeds-using-desorption-electrospray-ionisation-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#8
Hirofumi Enomoto, Takuya Sensu, Kei Sato, Futoshi Sato, Thanai Paxton, Emi Yumoto, Koji Miyamoto, Masashi Asahina, Takao Yokota, Hisakazu Yamane
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211339/phytoextraction-of-contaminated-urban-soils-by-panicum-virgatum-l-enhanced-with-application-of-a-plant-growth-regulator-bap-and-citric-acid
#9
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209457/metabolomic-approach-reveals-the-biochemical-mechanisms-underlying-drought-stress-tolerance-in-thyme
#10
Parviz Moradi, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Jeremy Pritchard
Thyme as a perennial herb has been recognized globally for its antimicrobial, antiseptic and spasmolytic effects. In this investigation, we have used non-targeted metabolite and volatile profiling combined with the morpho-physiological parameters in order to understand the responses at the metabolite and physiological level in drought sensitive and tolerant thyme plant populations. The results at the metabolic level identified the significantly affected metabolites. Significant metabolites belonging to different chemical classes consisting amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and lipids have been compared in tolerant and sensitive plants...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209137/transcriptional-analysis-of-defense-mechanisms-in-upland-tetraploid-switchgrass-to-greenbugs
#11
Teresa Donze-Reiner, Nathan A Palmer, Erin D Scully, Travis J Prochaska, Kyle G Koch, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Jeffrey D Bradshaw, Paul Twigg, Keenan Amundsen, Scott E Sattler, Gautam Sarath
BACKGROUND: Aphid infestation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has the potential to reduce yields and biomass quality. Although switchgrass-greenbug (Schizaphis graminum; GB) interactions have been studied at the whole plant level, little information is available on plant defense responses at the molecular level. RESULTS: The global transcriptomic response of switchgrass cv Summer to GB was monitored by RNA-Seq in infested and control (uninfested) plants harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days after infestation (DAI)...
February 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207822/identification-classification-and-transcription-profiles-of-the-b-type-response-regulator-family-in-pear
#12
Junbei Ni, Songling Bai, Ling Gao, Minjie Qian, Linbing Zhong, Yuanwen Teng
Type-B response regulators (B-RRs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. In model plants, B-RRs have been shown to play important roles in cytokinin signal transduction. However, the functions of B-RRs in pear have not been well studied. In this report, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 11 putative genes encoding B-PpRR proteins based on the published genome sequence of Pyrus bretschneideri. A phylogenetic tree of the B-PpRR family was constructed, and the motif distribution, chromosome localization, and gene structure of B-PpRR family genes were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203244/pistil-transcriptome-analysis-to-disclose-genes-and-gene-products-related-to-aposporous-apomixis-in-hypericum-perforatum-l
#13
Giulio Galla, Sara Zenoni, Linda Avesani, Lothar Altschmied, Paride Rizzo, Timothy F Sharbel, Gianni Barcaccia
Unlike sexual reproduction, apomixis encompasses a number of reproductive strategies, which permit maternal genome inheritance without genetic recombination and syngamy. The key biological features of apomixis are the circumvention of meiosis (i.e., apomeiosis), the differentiation of unreduced embryo sacs and egg cells, and their autonomous development in functional embryos through parthenogenesis, and the formation of viable endosperm either via fertilization-independent means or following fertilization with a sperm cell...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199783/next-generation-transgenic-cotton-pyramiding-rnai-and-bt-counters-insect-resistance
#14
Mi Ni, Wei Ma, Xiaofang Wang, Meijing Gao, Yan Dai, Xiaoli Wei, Lei Zhang, Yonggang Peng, Shuyuan Chen, Lingyun Ding, Yue Tian, Jie Li, Haiping Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Guowang Xu, Wangzhen Guo, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu, Shannon Heuberger, Bruce E Tabashnik, Tianzhen Zhang, Zhen Zhu
Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are extensively cultivated worldwide. To counter rapidly increasing pest resistance to crops that produce single Bt toxins, transgenic plant "pyramids" producing two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest have been widely adopted. However, cross-resistance and antagonism between Bt toxins limits the sustainability of this approach. Here we describe development and testing of the first pyramids of cotton combining protection from a Bt toxin and RNA interference (RNAi)...
February 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199080/characterization-of-cyp115-as-a-gibberellin-3-oxidase-indicates-that-certain-rhizobia-can-produce-bioactive-gibberellin-a4
#15
Ryan S Nett, Tiffany Contreras, Reuben J Peters
The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones are produced not only by plants but also by fungi and bacteria. Previous characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-rich GA biosynthetic operon found in many symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia led to the elucidation of bacterial GA biosynthesis and implicated GA9 as the final product. However, GA9 does not exhibit hormonal/biological activity and presumably requires further transformation to elicit an effect in the legume host plant. Some rhizobia that contain the GA operon also possess an additional CYP (CYP115), and here we show that this acts as a GA 3-oxidase to produce bioactive GA4 from GA9...
February 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#16
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197719/regulatory-crosstalk-between-micrornas-and-hormone-signalling-cascades-controls-the-variation-on-seed-dormancy-phenotype-at-arabidopsis-thaliana-seed-set
#17
Yang Liu, Yousry A El-Kassaby
We employed an Illumina sequencing approach to identify candidate microRNA cohorts that may greatly contribute to seed dormancy modulation and to construct a microRNA-gene regulatory network in hormone signalling cascades. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important signalling molecules and regulate many developmental programs of plants. Some miRNAs have been integrated into gene regulatory networks (GRNs) and coordinate developmental plasticity, but few study systematically investigated how phenotypical variations are regulated through differential expression of miRNA tags in GRNs during seed set...
February 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197166/ectopic-expression-of-the-wild-grape-wrky-transcription-factor-vqwrky52-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-enhances-resistance-to-the-biotrophic-pathogen-powdery-mildew-but-not-to-the-necrotrophic-pathogen-botrytis-cinerea
#18
Xianhang Wang, Rongrong Guo, Mingxing Tu, Dejun Wang, Chunlei Guo, Ran Wan, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate, revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197165/prevention-of-preharvest-sprouting-through-hormone-engineering-and-germination-recovery-by-chemical-biology
#19
Mariko Nonogaki, Hiroyuki Nonogaki
Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197155/dissecting-the-biochemical-and-transcriptomic-effects-of-a-locally-applied-heat-treatment-on-developing-cabernet-sauvignon-grape-berries
#20
Fatma Lecourieux, Christian Kappel, Philippe Pieri, Justine Charon, Jérémy Pillet, Ghislaine Hilbert, Christel Renaud, Eric Gomès, Serge Delrot, David Lecourieux
Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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