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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938495/polyphenol-enriched-fractions-of-cyclopia-intermedia-selectively-affect-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#1
Babalwa U Jack, Christiaan J Malherbe, Elize L Willenburg, Dalene de Beer, Barbara Huisamen, Elizabeth Joubert, Christo J F Muller, Johan Louw, Carmen Pheiffer
Cyclopia species are increasingly investigated as sources of phenolic compounds with potential as therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that a crude polyphenol-enriched organic fraction (CPEF) of Cyclopia intermedia, currently forming the bulk of commercial production, decreased lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited body weight gain in obese db/db mice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a more effective product and/or one with higher specificity could be obtained by fractionation of the CPEF by purposely increasing xanthone and benzophenone levels...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936653/live-cell-imaging-of-auxin-and-cytokinin-signaling-in-maize-female-gametophytes
#2
Antony M Chettoor, Matthew M S Evans
The plant life cycle is characterized by the alternation of generations between genetically active diploid sporophytes and haploid gametophytes. The gametophytes of flowering plants are sexually dimorphic. While the male gametophyte consists of only three cells (two sperm and a vegetative cell) and is released by the parent sporophyte, the female gametophyte (or embryo sac) is more complex and remains imbedded within diploid sporophyte tissues. In maize, the female gametophyte is embedded in a large ovule surrounded with multiple nucellar cell layers impeding live-cell imaging approaches to study embryo sac functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933739/inoculation-with-azospirillum-sp-and-herbaspirillum-sp-bacteria-increases-the-tolerance-of-maize-to-drought-stress
#3
José Alfredo Curá, Diego Reinaldo Franz, Julián Ezequiel Filosofía, Karina Beatríz Balestrasse, Lautaro Exequiel Burgueño
Stress drought is an important abiotic factor that leads to immense losses in crop yields around the world. Strategies are urgently needed to help plants adapt to drought in order to mitigate crop losses. Here we investigated the bioprotective effects of inoculating corn grown under drought conditions with two types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), A. brasilense, strain SP-7, and H. seropedicae, strain Z-152. Plants inoculated with the bacteria were grown in a greenhouse with perlite as a substrate...
July 26, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931938/dynamic-transcriptome-and-phytohormone-profiling-along-the-time-of-light-exposure-in-the-mesocotyl-of-rice-seedling
#4
Fangjun Feng, Hanwei Mei, Peiqing Fan, Yanan Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Haibin Wei, Ming Yan, Lijun Luo
Mesocotyl elongation is an important trait influencing seedling emergence and establishment in rice direct-seeding cultivation and is immediately inhibited after light exposure. Detailed researches on the molecular basis and biological processes underlying light repression of mesocotyl growth could probably provide useful information for key factors controlling this trait. Here we monitored the transcriptome and endogenous phytohormone changes specifically in the elongating mesocotyl in response to light exposure with a time-course...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928963/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-roles-of-whole-genome-duplications-in-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Carol MacKintosh, David E K Ferrier
Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs)- paleopolyploidy events-are key to solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery' of how flowering plants evolved and radiated into a rich variety of species. The vertebrates also emerged from their invertebrate ancestors via two WGDs, and genomes of diverse gymnosperm trees, unicellular eukaryotes, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and even a rodent carry evidence of lineage-specific WGDs. Modern polyploidy is common in eukaryotes, and it can be induced, enabling mechanisms and short-term cost-benefit assessments of polyploidy to be studied experimentally...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928762/novel-protein-protein-inhibitor-based-approach-to-control-plant-ethylene-responses-synthetic-peptides-for-ripening-control
#6
Mareike Kessenbrock, Simone M Klein, Lena Müller, Mauricio Hunsche, Georg Noga, Georg Groth
Ethylene signaling is decisive for many plant developmental processes. Among these, control of senescence, abscission and fruit ripening are of fundamental relevance for global agriculture. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the signaling network along with the molecular processes of signal perception and transfer are expected to have high impact on future food production and agriculture. Recent advances in ethylene research have demonstrated that signaling of the plant hormone critically depends on the interaction of the ethylene receptor family with the NRAMP-like membrane protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) at the ER membrane, phosphorylation-dependent proteolytic processing of ER-localized EIN2 and subsequent translocation of the cleaved EIN2 C-terminal polypeptide (EIN2-CEND) to the nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928761/hormonal-regulation-in-shade-avoidance
#7
REVIEW
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927022/salt-stress-response-mechanisms-using-de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-of-salt-tolerant-and-sensitive-corchorus-spp-genotypes
#8
Zemao Yang, Ruike Lu, Zhigang Dai, An Yan, Qing Tang, Chaohua Cheng, Ying Xu, Wenting Yang, Jianguang Su
High salinity is a major environmental stressor for crops. To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes in leaf and root tissues under salt stress and control conditions. In total, 68,961 unigenes were identified. Additionally, 11,100 unigenes (including 385 transcription factors (TFs)) exhibited significant differential expression in salt-tolerant or salt-sensitive genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927013/transcription-factors-responding-to-pb-stress-in-maize
#9
Yanling Zhang, Fei Ge, Fengxia Hou, Wenting Sun, Qi Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Langlang Ma, Jun Fu, Xiujing He, Huanwei Peng, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
Pb can damage the physiological function of human organs by entering the human body via food-chain enrichment. Revealing the mechanisms of maize tolerance to Pb is critical for preventing this. In this study, a Pb-tolerant maize inbred line, 178, was used to analyse transcription factors (TFs) expressed under Pb stress based on RNA sequencing data. A total of 464 genes expressed in control check (CK) or Pb treatment samples were annotated as TFs. Among them, 262 differentially expressed transcription factors (DETs) were identified that responded to Pb treatment...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926933/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-cold-responsive-proteins-involved-in-leaf-senescence-in-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#10
Xuewei Zheng, Shuli Fan, Hengling Wei, Chengcheng Tao, Qiang Ma, Qifeng Ma, Siping Zhang, Hongbin Li, Chaoyou Pang, Shuxun Yu
Premature leaf senescence occurs in the ultimate phase of the plant, and it occurs through a complex series of actions regulated by stress, hormones and genes. In this study, a proteomic analysis was performed to analyze the factors that could induce premature leaf senescence in two cotton cultivars. We successfully identified 443 differential abundant proteins (DAPs) from 7388 high-confidence proteins at four stages between non-premature senescence (NS) and premature senescence (PS), among which 158 proteins were over-accumulated, 238 proteins were down-accumulated at four stages, and 47 proteins displayed overlapped accumulation...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925404/ing5-activity-in-self-renewal-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-calcium-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-pathways
#11
F Wang, A Y Wang, C Chesnelong, Y Yang, A Nabbi, S Thalappilly, V Alekseev, K Riabowol
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924217/global-transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-genes-involved-in-nutrients-accumulation-during-seed-development-of-rice-tartary-buckwheat-fagopyrum-tararicum
#12
Juan Huang, Jiao Deng, Taoxiong Shi, Qijiao Chen, Chenggang Liang, Ziye Meng, Liwei Zhu, Yan Wang, Fengli Zhao, Shizhou Yu, Qingfu Chen
Tartary buckwheat seeds are rich in various nutrients, such as storage proteins, starch, and flavonoids. To get a good knowledge of the transcriptome dynamics and gene regulatory mechanism during the process of seed development and nutrients accumulation, we performed a comprehensive global transcriptome analysis using rice tartary buckwheat seeds at different development stages, namely pre-filling stage, filling stage, and mature stage. 24 819 expressed genes, including 108 specifically expressed genes, and 11 676 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922768/accerbatin-a-small-molecule-at-the-intersection-of-auxin-and-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-with-herbicidal-properties
#13
Yuming Hu, Thomas Depaepe, Dajo Smet, Klara Hoyerova, Petr Klíma, Ann Cuypers, Sean Cutler, Dieter Buyst, Kris Morreel, Wout Boerjan, José Martins, Jan Petrášek, Filip Vandenbussche, Dominique Van Der Straeten
The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922755/root-transcriptomic-responses-of-grafted-grapevines-to-heterogeneous-nitrogen-availability-depend-on-rootstock-genotype
#14
Noé Cochetel, Frédéric Escudié, Sarah Jane Cookson, Zhanwu Dai, Philippe Vivin, Pierre-François Bert, Mindy Stephania Muñoz, Serge Delrot, Christophe Klopp, Nathalie Ollat, Virginie Lauvergeat
In many fruit species, including grapevine, grafting is used to improve scion productivity and quality and to adapt the plant to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the rootstock control of scion development are still poorly understood. The ability of rootstocks to regulate nitrogen uptake and assimilation may contribute to this control. A split-root system was used to grow heterografted grapevines and to investigate the molecular responses to changes in nitrate availability of two rootstocks known to affect scion growth differently...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#15
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921771/iron-deficiency-stress-can-induce-mxnas1-protein-expression-to-facilitate-iron-redistribution-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#16
Chaohua Sun, Mudan Yuan, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q-PCR to determine the level of expression of MxNas1 and western blot to measure protein levels...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917143/glutathione-induced-alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-zea-mays
#17
Mei Li, Pengfei Hao, Fangbin Cao
Glutathione (GSH) is known to alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in many plant species. However, the comprehensive mechanisms responsible for this effect in maize are still need more investigation. Here, a combination of physiological and molecular approaches was utilized in GSH-Cd treated maize seedlings, which revealed that GSH reversed the adverse effects of Cd, as reflected by plant growth, plant hormones, vacuole, stoma development, gene expression, etc. Plant growth, root cell viability, photosynthetic capacity, redox equilibrium, and cell ultrastructure recovery following GSH treatment, coupled with the strong up-regulation of Cd tolerance-related genes (e...
September 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916592/cytological-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-important-roles-of-cle19-in-pollen-exine-formation
#18
Shuangshuang Wang, Jianan Lu, Xiufen Song, Shi-Chao Ren, Chenjiang You, Jie Xu, Chun-Ming Liu, Hong Ma, Fang Chang
The CLAVATA3/ESR-RELATED (CLE) peptide signals are required for cell-cell communication in several plant growth and developmental processes. However, little is known regarding possible functions of the CLEs in the anther. Here, we show that a T-DNA insertional mutant, and dominant-negative (DN) and overexpression (OX) transgenic plants of the CLE19 gene exhibited significantly reduced anther size and pollen grain number, and abnormal pollen wall formation. Interestingly, the DN-CLE19 pollen grains showed a more extensively covered surface but CLE19-OX pollen exine exhibited clearly missing connections in the network and lacked separation between areas that normally form the lacunae...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916041/polydopamine-functionalized-poly-ether-ether-ketone-tube-for-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#19
Wei Zhou, Wenpeng Zhang, Yikun Liu, Xinhong Yu, Zilin Chen
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a hyphenated technique that combines the advantages like low sample consumption, high separation efficiency, short analytical time in CE and high sensitivity, powerful molecular structure elucidation in MS. Polyimide-coated fused silica capillary has become the most dominant capillary for CE, but it suffers from swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating when treated with organic solvents and alkaline buffer in the CE-MS interface in which the polyimide coating at the end of the capillary is exposed to the solution, and this phenomenon can result in current instability, irregular electrospray and clogging at outlet after prolonged use...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915789/rapid-transcriptional-and-metabolic-regulation-of-the-deacclimation-process-in-cold-acclimated-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Majken Pagter, Jessica Alpers, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Ellen Zuther, Dirk K Hincha
BACKGROUND: During low temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. This is accompanied by dampened oscillations of circadian clock genes and disrupted oscillations of output genes and metabolites. During deacclimation in response to warm temperatures, cold acclimated plants lose freezing tolerance and resume growth and development. While considerable effort has been directed toward understanding the molecular and metabolic basis of cold acclimation, much less information is available about the regulation of deacclimation...
September 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
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