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Plant hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914250/chitosan-nanoparticles-as-carrier-systems-for-the-plant-growth-hormone-gibberellic-acid
#1
Anderson Espirito Santo Pereira, Paula Mayara Silva, Jhones Luis Oliveira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
This work concerns the development of nanocarriers composed of alginate/chitosan (ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) for the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3). ALG/CS nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 450±10nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.3, zeta potential of -29±0.5mV, concentrations of 1.52×10(11) and 1.92×10(11) nanoparticles mL(-1), respectively, and 100% encapsulation efficiency. CS/TPP nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 195±1nm, PDI of 0...
November 23, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912109/characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-a-novel-premature-leaf-senescence-mutant-yellow-leaf-and-dwarf-1-in-rice
#2
Luchang Deng, Peng Qin, Zhi Liu, Geling Wang, Weilan Chen, Jianhua Tong, Langtao Xiao, Bin Tu, Yuantao Sun, Wei Yan, Hang He, Jun Tan, Xuewei Chen, Yuping Wang, Shigui Li, Bingtian Ma
Leaves are the main organs in which photosynthates are produced. Leaf senescence facilitates the translocation of photosynthates and nutrients from source to sink, which is important for plant development and especially for crop yield. However, the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence is unknown. Here, we identified a mutant, yellow leaf and dwarf 1 (yld1), which exhibited decreased plant height and premature leaf senescence. Nitroblue tetrazolium and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the concentrations of reactive oxygen species were higher in yld1 leaves than in wild type leaves...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#3
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909790/strigolactones-affect-tomato-hormone-profile-and-somatic-embryogenesis
#4
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909441/apple-f-box-protein-mdmax2-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response
#5
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907207/optimized-jasmonic-acid-production-by-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-reveals-formation-of-valuable-plant-secondary-metabolites
#6
Felipe Eng, Sven Haroth, Kirstin Feussner, Dorothea Meldau, Dmitrij Rekhter, Till Ischebeck, Florian Brodhun, Ivo Feussner
Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899534/substituted-pthalimide-ac94377-is-a-selective-agonist-of-the-gibberellin-receptor-gid1
#7
Kai Jiang, Masato Otani, Hiroaki Shimotakahara, Jung-Min Yoon, Seung-Hyun Park, Tomoko Miyaji, Takeshi Nakano, Hidemitsu Nakamura, Masatoshi Nakajima, Tadao Asami
Gibberellin (GA) is a major plant hormone that regulates plant growth and development, and is widely used as a plant growth regulator in agricultural production. There is an increasing demand for function-limited GA mimics due to the limitations on the agronomical application of GA to crops, including GA's high cost of producing and its leading to the crops' lodging. AC94377, a substituted phthalimide, is a chemical that mimics the growth-regulating activity of GAs in various plants, despite its structural difference...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898768/transcriptome-and-small-rnaome-dynamics-during-a-resistant-and-susceptible-interaction-between-cucumber-and-downy-mildew
#8
Alyssa Burkhardt, Brad Day
Cucumber ( L.) downy mildew, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen (Berk. and Curt.) Rostov., is the primary factor limiting cucumber production. Although sources of resistance have been identified, such as plant introduction line PI 197088, the genes and processes involved in mediating resistance are still unknown. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome and small RNAome analysis of a resistant (PI 197088) and susceptible ('Vlaspik') cucumber during a time course of infection using Illumina sequencing...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898393/a-noncanonical-auxin-sensing-mechanism-is-required-for-organ-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#9
Sara Simonini, Joyita Deb, Laila Moubayidin, Pauline Stephenson, Manoj Valluru, Alejandra Freire-Rios, Karim Sorefan, Dolf Weijers, Jiří Friml, Lars Østergaard
Tissue patterning in multicellular organisms is the output of precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression coupled with changes in hormone dynamics. In plants, the hormone auxin regulates growth and development at every stage of a plant's life cycle. Auxin signaling occurs through binding of the auxin molecule to a TIR1/AFB F-box ubiquitin ligase, allowing interaction with Aux/IAA transcriptional repressor proteins. These are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded via the 26S proteasome, leading to derepression of auxin response factors (ARFs)...
October 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892506/negative-feedback-regulation-of-aba-biosynthesis-in-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-a-transcription-factor-complex-inhibits-ahnced1-expression-during-water-stress
#10
Shuai Liu, Meijuan Li, Liangchen Su, Kui Ge, Limei Li, Xiaoyun Li, Xu Liu, Ling Li
Abscisic acid (ABA), a key plant stress-signaling hormone, is produced in response to drought and counteracts the effects of this stress. The accumulation of ABA is controlled by the enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). In Arabidopsis, NCED3 is regulated by a positive feedback mechanism by ABA. In this study in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), we demonstrate that ABA biosynthesis is also controlled by negative feedback regulation, mediated by the inhibitory effect on AhNCED1 transcription of a protein complex between transcription factors AhNAC2 and AhAREB1...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892476/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-between-an-evolved-abscisic-acid-overproducing-mutant-botrytis-cinerea-tbc-a-and-its-ancestral-strain-botrytis-cinerea-tbc-6
#11
Zhongtao Ding, Zhi Zhang, Juan Zhong, Di Luo, Jinyan Zhou, Jie Yang, Liang Xiao, Dan Shu, Hong Tan
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical phytohormone which plays an important role in plant stress resistance. Moreover, ABA is also found to regulate the activation of innate immune cells and glucose homeostasis in mammals. Therefore, this 'stress hormone' is of great importance to theoretical research and agricultural and medical applications. Botrytis cinerea is a well-known phytopathogenic ascomycete that synthesizes ABA via a pathway substantially different from higher plants. Identification of the functional genes involved in ABA biosynthesis in B...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891144/a-developmental-and-molecular-view-of-formation-of-auxin-induced-nodule-like-structures-in-land-plants
#12
Ryan Hiltenbrand, Jacklyn Thomas, Hannah McCarthy, Karl J Dykema, Ashley Spurr, Hamilton Newhart, Mary E Winn, Arijit Mukherjee
Several studies have shown that plant hormones play important roles during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. For instance, auxins induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLSs) on legume roots in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, these NLS can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which favor nitrogen fixation compared to regular roots and subsequently increase plant yield. Interestingly, auxin also induces similar NLS in cereal roots. While several genetic studies have identified plant genes controlling NLS formation in legumes, no studies have investigated the genes involved in NLS formation in cereals...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886559/ectopic-expression-of-ga-2-oxidase-6-from-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l-causes-dwarfism-late-flowering-and-enhanced-chlorophyll-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Jindong Yan, Xiaoying Liao, Reqing He, Ming Zhong, Panpan Feng, Xinmei Li, Dongying Tang, Xuanming Liu, Xiaoying Zhao
Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884717/activity-based-evaluation-of-a-traditional-ayurvedic-medicinal-plant-saraca-asoca-roxb-de-wilde-flowers-as-estrogenic-agents-using-ovariectomized-rat-model
#14
Gauri Swar, Sunita Shailajan, Sasikumar Menon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde, Ashok, is a popular traditional plant used for gynecological disorders. In India, the juice of Ashok flowers is traditionally consumed as a tonic by women in case of uterine disorders. But despite the use, its estrogenic potency is not yet evaluated and thus lacks the scientific recognition and acclaim. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to investigate the estrogenic potential of standardized ethanolic extract of Saraca asoca flowers (SAF) using ovariectomized (OVX) female albino Wistar rat model...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883040/effects-of-meja-on-arabidopsis-metabolome-under-endogenous-ja-deficiency
#15
Jingjing Cao, Mengya Li, Jian Chen, Pei Liu, Zhen Li
Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882409/the-pivotal-role-of-abscisic-acid-signaling-during-transition-from-seed-maturation-to-germination
#16
REVIEW
An Yan, Zhong Chen
Seed maturation and germination are two continuous developmental processes that link two distinct generations in spermatophytes; the precise genetic control of these two processes is, therefore, crucially important for the survival of the next generation. Pieces of experimental evidence accumulated so far indicate that a concerted action of endogenous signals and environmental cues is required to govern these processes. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a predominant role in directing seed maturation and maintaining seed dormancy under unfavorable environmental conditions until antagonized by gibberellins (GA) and certain environmental cues to allow the commencement of seed germination when environmental conditions are favorable; therefore, the balance of ABA and GA is a major determinant of the timing of seed germination...
November 23, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879393/natural-variation-of-molecular-and-morphological-gibberellin-responses
#17
Youn-Jeong Nam, Dorota Herman, Jonas Blomme, Eunyoung Chae, Mikiko Kojima, Frederik Coppens, Véronique Storme, Twiggy Van Daele, Stijn Dhondt, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Detlef Weigel, Dirk Inzé, Nathalie Gonzalez
Although phytohormones such as gibberellins are essential for many conserved aspects of plant physiology and development, plants vary greatly in their responses to these regulatory compounds. Here, we use genetic perturbation of endogenous gibberellin levels to probe the extent of intraspecific variation in gibberellin responses in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We find that these accessions vary greatly in their ability to buffer the effects of overexpression of GA20ox1, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme for gibberellin biosynthesis, with substantial differences in bioactive gibberellin concentrations as well as transcriptomes and growth trajectories...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879388/an-ethylene-induced-regulatory-module-delays-flower-senescence-by-regulating-cytokinin-content
#18
Lin Wu, Nan Ma, Yangchao Jia, Yi Zhang, Ming Feng, Cai-Zhong Jiang, Chao Ma, Junping Gao
In many plant species, including rose (Rosa hybrida), flower senescence is promoted by the gaseous hormone, ethylene, and inhibited by cytokinin (CTK) class of hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these antagonistic effects are not well understood. In this current study, we characterized the association between a pathogenesis related PR-10 family gene from rose (RhPR10.1) and the hormonal regulation of flower senescence. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the RhPR10.1 was expressed at high levels during senescence in different floral organs, including petal, sepal, receptacle, stamen, and pistil, and that expression was induced by ethylene treatment...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876055/methanolic-extract-of-agerantum-conyzoides-exhibited-toxicity-and-growth-disruption-activities-against-anopheles-gambiae-sensu-stricto-and-anopheles-arabiensis-larvae
#19
Jackson Mbithi Muema, Sospeter Ngoci Njeru, Céline Colombier, Rose Muthoni Marubu
BACKGROUND: Vector control remains the mainstay to effective malaria management. The negative implications following persistent application of synthetic insecticides geared towards regulation of mosquito populations have necessitated prospection for ecofriendly effective chemistries. Plant-derived compounds have the potential to control malaria-transmitting mosquito populations. Previously, Agerantum conyzoides extracts have demonstrated toxicity effects on disease-transmitting mosquitoes...
November 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875986/the-retardant-effect-of-2-tridecanone-mediated-by-cytochrome-p450-on-the-development-of-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#20
Lei Zhang, Yao Lu, Min Xiang, Qingli Shang, Xiwu Gao
BACKGROUND: Plant allelochemicals act as toxins, inhibitors of digestion, and deterrents that affect the fecundity of insects. These compounds have attracted significant research attention in recent decades, and much is known about the effects of these xenobiotic plant secondary metabolites on insect development. To date, although ecological interactions between xenobiotic plant secondary chemicals that retard insect growth have been observed in many species, it remains unclear how particular allelochemicals influence insect development in a life stage-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
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