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Plant hormone

Weiyang Zhang, Zhuanqin Cao, Qun Zhou, Jing Chen, Gengwen Xu, Junfei Gu, Lijun Liu, Zhiqin Wang, Jianchang Yang, Hao Zhang
This study determined if the variation in grain filling parameters between two different spikelet types of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is regulated by the hormonal levels in the grains. Two rice mutants, namely, a large-grain mutant (AZU-M) and a small-grain mutant (ZF802-M), and their respective wild types (AZU-WT and ZF802-WT) were grown in the field. The endosperm cell division rate, filling rate, and hormonal levels: zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z+ZR), indo-3-acetic acid (IAA), polyamines (PAs), and abscisic acid (ABA) were determined...
2016: PloS One
Edgar Teddy Quispe-Soto, Gloria M Calaf
Global cancer burden increased to 14.1 million new cases in 2012; and breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012. Curcumin is the major bioactive ingredient extracted from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric). Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing agent originally isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia. Curcumin and paclitaxel were evaluated with two human breast cancer cell lines as the luminal MCF-7 and the basal-like MDA-MB-231 that are either positive or negative for hormonal receptors estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, respectively...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Björn Weström, Caroline Linninge, Peter Bonn, Mary Farrell, Jens F Rehfeld, Caroline Montelius
Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Antonella Vitti, Elisa Pellegrini, Cristina Nali, Stella Lovelli, Adriano Sofo, Maria Valerio, Antonio Scopa, Maria Nuzzaci
Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
E Saplaoura, F Kragler
Phloem serves as a highway for mobile signals in plants. Apart from sugars and hormones, proteins and RNAs are transported via the phloem and contribute to the intercellular communication coordinating growth and development. Different classes of RNAs have been found mobile and in the phloem exudate such as viral RNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs, transfer RNAs, and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Their transport is considered to be mediated via ribonucleoprotein complexes formed between phloem RNA-binding proteins and mobile RNA molecules...
2016: Enzymes
Jungmook Kim
CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTORs (CRFs) encode transcription factors belonging to a small family within the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) superfamily. Recent studies have revealed the biological functions of some arabidopsis CRFs, providing insight into the role of these plant transcription factors in integrating environmental and hormonal signals for plant adaptation.
October 20, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Justyna Fidler, Edyta Zdunek-Zastocka, Beata Prabucka, Wiesław Bielawski
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a predominant role in the onset and maintenance of primary dormancy. Peak ABA accumulation in embryos of triticale grains was observed before any significant loss of water and was higher in Fredro, a cultivar less susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), than in Leontino, a cultivar more sensitive to PHS. At full maturity, embryonic ABA content in Fredro was twice as high as in Leontino. Two full-length cDNAs of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TsNCED1, TsNCED2), an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis, and two full-length cDNAs of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2), an enzyme involved in ABA catabolism, were identified in triticale grains and characterized...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Pierre Pétriacq, Guillaume Tcherkez, Bertrand Gakière
NAD is a pyridine nucleotide that is involved in cell metabolism and signaling of plant growth and stress. Recently, we reported on the multifaceted nature of NAD-inducible immunity in Arabidopsis. We identified NAD as an integral regulator of multiple defense layers such as production of ROS, deposition of callose, stimulation of cell death and modulation of defense metabolism including the defense hormones SA, JA and ABA, and other defense-associated metabolites. Altogether, NAD-induced immune effects confer resistance to diverse pathogenic microbes...
October 21, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
Bin Cai, Xiangxiong Kong, Chao Zhong, Suli Sun, Xiao Feng Zhou, Yin Hua Jin, Youning Wang, Xia Li, Zhendong Zhu, Jing Bo Jin
SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, the role of SUMO E3 ligases in crop plants is largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized two Glycine max (soybean) SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b. Expression of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b was induced in response to salicylic acid (SA), heat, and dehydration treatment, but not in response to cold, ABA, and NaCl treatment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Asmaa I Owis, Nada S Abdelwahab, Adel A Abul-Soad
BACKGROUND: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L'Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. OBJECTIVES: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Tijs Ketelaar, Gilles Vismans, Tom van der Meer, Olivier Langevoort, Marielle Schreuder, Harro J Bouwmeester, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörmann, Alexander R van der Krol
Stromules are highly dynamic protrusions of the plastids in plants. Several factors, such as drought and light conditions influence the stromule frequency in a positive or negative way. A relatively recent discovered class of plant hormones are the strigolactones, strigolactones inhibit branching of the shoots and promote beneficial interactions between roots and arbuscular mycorrizal fungi. Here we investigate the link between the formation of stromules and strigolactones. This research shows a strong link between strigolactones and the formation of stromules: stromule frequency (SF) correlates with strigolactone levels in wild type and strigolactone mutants (max2-1 max3-9), SF is stimulated by strigolactone GR24 and reduced by strigolactone inhibitor D2...
October 19, 2016: Plant Physiology
Renata Kurtyka, Wojciech Pokora, Zbigniew Tukaj, Waldemar Karcz
Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling, or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA)...
October 19, 2016: AoB Plants
Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Takaya Oikawa, Takeshi Suzuki, Syohei Takeishi, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi, Shin Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Takafumi Shimizu, Mitsunori Seo, Hiroyuki Ohta, Minoru Ueda
Jasmonates are major plant hormones involved in wounding responses. Systemic wounding responses are induced by an electrical signal derived from damaged leaves. After the signaling, jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are translocated from wounded to undamaged leaves, but the molecular mechanism of the transport remains unclear. Here, we found that a JA-Ile transporter, GTR1, contributed to these translocations in Arabidopsis thaliana. GTR1 was expressed in and surrounding the leaf veins both of wounded and undamaged leaves...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Junting Pan, Weidong Wang, Dongqin Li, Zaifa Shu, Xiaoli Ye, Pinpin Chang, Yuhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a critical signaling molecule in the low-temperature stress responses in plants, including polarized pollen tube growth in Camellia sinensis. Despite this, the potential mechanisms underlying the participation of NO in pollen tube responses to low temperature remain unclear. Here, we investigate alterations to gene expression in C. sinensis pollen tubes exposed to low-temperature stress and NO using RNA-Seq technology, in order to find the potential candidate genes related to the regulation of pollen tube elongation by NO under low-temperature stress...
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
Yan-Lun Ju, Min Liu, Hui Zhao, Jiang-Fei Meng, Yu-Lin Fang
The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qiongshan Wang, Nian Liu, Xiyan Yang, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bruno Guillotin, Mohammad Etemadi, Corinne Audran, Mondher Bouzayen, Guillaume Bécard, Jean-Philippe Combier
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a complex and finely tuned process. Previous studies have shown that, among other plant hormones, auxin plays a role in this process but the specific involvement of Aux/IAAs, the key regulators of auxin responses, is still unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of the tomato Sl-IAA27 during AM symbiosis by using Sl-IAA27-RNAi and pSL-IAA27::GUS stable tomato lines. The data show that Sl-IAA27 expression is up-regulated by the AM fungus and that silencing of Sl-IAA27 has a negative impact on AM colonization...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
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