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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935982/a-cost-effective-method-to-assemble-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-platforms
#1
Sabreen Khalil, Nagwa El-Badri, Mohamed El-Mokhtaar, Saif Al-Mofty, Mohamed Farghaly, Radwa Ayman, Dina Habib, Noha Mousa
METHODS: We utilized the hAM to provide the biological and the three dimensional (3D) topographic components of the prototype. The 3D nano-roughness of the hAM was characterized using surface electron microscopy and surface image analysis (ImageJ and SurfaceJ). We developed additional macro-scale and micro-scale versions of the platform which provided additional shear stress factors to simulate the fluid dynamics of the in vivo extracellular fluids. RESULTS: Three models of varying complexities of the prototype were assembled...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935857/potentiation-of-the-anticancer-effects-of-everolimus-using-a-dual-mtorc1-2-inhibitor-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#2
Jong-Ok Kim, Kee-Hwan Kim, In Sang Song, Kwang-Sik Cheon, Ok-Hee Kim, Sang Chul Lee, Sang Kuon Lee, Say-June Kim
There is lots of evidence to support the critical involvement of mTOR signaling in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it has not been determined how the roles of individual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitors played in the HCC therapeutics. We thus compared the effects of everolimus, Ku0063794, and a combination of the two therapies on HCC cells, using various in vitro studies (HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells), ex vivo culturing of HCC tissues obtained from patients, and the in vivo mouse xenograft model of HCC cells...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935782/wet-or-dry-a-review-of-intravenous-fluid-administration-in-anesthesia-practice
#3
Matthew D'Angelo, R Kyle Hodgen
Fluid therapy has dramatically changed since its early inception nearly 200 years ago. Administration of intravenous fluid (IVF) has evolved from a "drip" technique to the algorithmic approach of the anesthetic fluid plan, and is now moving toward Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy. As the science and culture of fluid management evolves, anesthetists must remain focused on "why" anesthetic fluid matters. The purpose of IVF administration is to support tissue perfusion and maintain euvolemia. As the evidence underlying perioperative practice matures and the science of anesthesia races to meet the evolving demands of surgery, anesthetists must align knowledge generation with the individualized needs of the patient...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935551/organotypic-soft-tissue-co-cultures-morphological-changes-in-microvascular-endothelial-tubes-after-incubation-with%C3%A2-iodinated-contrast-media
#4
S Kaessmeyer, J Sehl, M Khiao In, B Hiebl, R Merle, F Jung, R P Franke, J Plendl
INTRODUCTION: Clinical complications like thrombosis or anaphylaxis have been described to go along with the intra-venous or intra-arterial injection of iodinated contrast media (CM). It has been suggested that the administration of CM affects rheological parameters and thereby causes reduced blood velocity in microvessels. In vitro studies revealed significant buckling of endothelial cells after exposure to CM reducing the lumen of vessels. The aim of this study was to test the influence of CM on three-dimensional microvascular tubules with open lumina within an organotypic soft-tissue co-culture assay in vitro...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935208/antioxidant-properties-of-coenzyme-q10-pretreated-mouse-pre-antral-follicles-derived-from-vitrified-ovaries
#5
Elmira Hosseinzadeh, Saeed Zavareh, Taghi Lashkarbolouki
AIM: This study evaluated the antioxidant status of pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries pretreated with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). METHODS: Mouse pre-antral follicles derived from fresh and vitrified warmed ovarian tissue were cultured with or without CoQ10 (50 μmol/L). Follicular growth, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) activity during cultivation were assessed...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935109/transplantation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-derived-progenitor-cells-ameliorates-knee-osteoarthritis-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#6
Ding-Cheng Chan, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Te-I Weng, Rong-Sen Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu
The epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that diabetes can be an independent risk factor for osteoarthritis. The osteoarthritis-like cartilage damage has been shown in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The therapeutic effects of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells (HSMPCs) on diabetic osteoarthritis still remain unclear. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of HSMPCs on diabetic knee osteoarthritis. The in vitro chondrogenic ability of HSMPCs was determined by pellet culture assay...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935105/identifying-the-optimum-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-use-in-knee-surgery
#7
Benjamin M Davies, Sarah Jb Snelling, Lynn Quek, Osnat Hakimi, Hua Ye, Andrew Carr, Andrew J Price
Single sitting procedures where the mononuclear cell fraction is extracted from bone marrow and implanted directly into cartilage and bone defects are becoming more popular as novel treatments for cartilage defects which have, until now had few treatment options. This is on the basis that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contained within will repair the damaged tissue. This study sought to determine if the femur and tibia could provide equivalent amounts of mesenchymal stem cells, with equivalent viability and proliferative capacity, to that obtained from the gold standard of the pelvis in order to potentially reduce the morbidity associated with these procedures...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935045/patient-derived-xenografts-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-are-susceptible-to-rapid-and-delayed-b-lymphoproliferation
#8
Sebastian M Dieter, Klara M Giessler, Mark Kriegsmann, Taronish D Dubash, Lino Möhrmann, Erik R Schulz, Christine Siegl, Sarah Weber, Hendrik Strakerjahn, Ava Oberlack, Ulrike Heger, Jianpeng Gao, Eva-Maria Hartinger, Felix Oppel, Christopher M Hoffmann, Nati Ha, Benedikt Brors, Felix Lasitschka, Alexis Ulrich, Oliver Strobel, Manfred Schmidt, Christof von Kalle, Martin Schneider, Wilko Weichert, K Roland Ehrenberg, Hanno Glimm, Claudia R Ball
Patient-derived cancer xenografts (PDX) are widely used to identify and evaluate novel therapeutic targets, and to test therapeutic approaches in preclinical mouse avatar trials. Despite their widespread use, potential caveats of PDX models remain considerably underappreciated. Here, we demonstrate that EBV-associated B-lymphoproliferations frequently develop following xenotransplantation of human colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in highly immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl) /SzJ (NSG) mice (18/47 and 4/37 mice, respectively), and in derived cell cultures in vitro...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934786/electrospun-polycaprolactone-chitosan-scaffolds-for-nerve-tissue-engineering-physicochemical-characterization-and-schwann-cell-biocompatibility
#9
Ena Bolaina-Lorenzo, Cristina Martínez-Ramos, Manuel Monleón-Pradas, Wilberth Herrera-Kao, Juan V Cauich-Rodríguez, José M Cervantes-Uc
Electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CH) blend scaffolds with different CH weight ratios were prepared to study the effect of scaffold composition on its physicochemical and biological properties. Scanning electron microscopy showed bead-free homogeneous randomly arranged nanofibers whose average diameter decreased from 240 to 110 nm with increasing CH content. The infrared spectra of the PCL/CH blends were very similar to the neat PCL scaffold. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in the scaffolds, although fluorine-from chemicals used as solvent-was also detected...
December 9, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934689/differentiating-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-embryoid-bodies-by-hanging-drop-cultures
#10
Richard Behringer, Marina Gertsenstein, Kristina Vintersten Nagy, Andras Nagy
Embryonic stem (ES) cells can develop into many types of differentiated tissues if they are placed into a differentiating environment. This can occur in vivo when the ES cells are injected into or aggregated with an embryo, or in vitro if their culture conditions are modified to induce differentiation. There are an increasing number of differentiating culture conditions that can bias the differentiation of ES cells into desired cell types. Determining the mechanisms that control ES cell differentiation into therapeutically important cell types is a quickly growing area of research...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933261/efficient-regeneration-system-from-rye-leaf-base-segments
#11
Kamil Haliloglu, Murat Aydin
Rye is second only to wheat among grains most widely used in the making of bread and is also a very important gene resource for breeding and improvement of wheat and other cereal crops owing to tolerance to abiotic stress factors such as low temperatures, drought and poor soil conditions. However, application of biotechnologies has been limited in rye breeding since it is one of the most recalcitrant species in tissue culture. A simple and fast regeneration system from leaf-base segment explant of rye was developed in this study...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933184/coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-expression-is-enhanced-in-pancreas-from-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#12
M Hodik, M Anagandula, J Fuxe, L Krogvold, K Dahl-Jørgensen, H Hyöty, L Sarmiento, G Frisk
OBJECTIVES: One of the theories connecting enterovirus (EV) infection of human islets with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the development of a fertile field in the islets. This implies induction of appropriate proteins for the viral replication such as the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent CAR is expressed in human islets of Langerhans, and what conditions that would change the expression. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for CAR was performed on paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue from patients with T1D (n=9 recent onset T1D, n=4 long-standing T1D), islet autoantibody-positive individuals (n=14) and non-diabetic controls (n=24) individuals...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933059/formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-under-low-oxygen-level
#13
Katja Branitzki-Heinemann, Helene Möllerherm, Lena Völlger, Diab M Husein, Nicole de Buhr, Stefanie Blodkamp, Friederike Reuner, Graham Brogden, Hassan Y Naim, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
Since their discovery, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been characterized as a fundamental host innate immune defense mechanism. Conversely, excessive NET-release may have a variety of detrimental consequences for the host. A fine balance between NET formation and elimination is necessary to sustain a protective effect during an infectious challenge. Our own recently published data revealed that stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) by the iron chelating HIF-1α-agonist desferoxamine or AKB-4924 enhanced the release of phagocyte extracellular traps...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932422/significance-of-low-mtorc1-activity-in-defining-the-characteristics-of-brain-tumor-stem-cells
#14
Yi-Peng Han, Atsushi Enomoto, Yukihiro Shiraki, Shen-Qi Wang, Xiaoze Wang, Shinya Toyokuni, Naoya Asai, Kaori Ushida, Hosne Ara, Fumiharu Ohka, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Jie Ma, Atsushi Natsume, Masahide Takahashi
BACKGROUND: The significance of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains controversial. Previous findings showed that mTORC1 activation depleted the population of leukemia stem cells in leukemia, while maintaining the stemness in pancreatic CSCs. The purpose of this study was to examine the currently unknown role and significance of mTORC1 activity in brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). METHODS: Basal mTORC1 activity and its kinetics were investigated in BTSC clones isolated from patients with glioblastoma and their differentiated progenies (DIFFs)...
December 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932350/role-of-noncanonical-wnts-signaling-pathway-in-human-aortic-valve-calcification
#15
Isabella Albanese, Bin Yu, Hamood Al-Kindi, Bianca Barratt, Leah Ott, Mohammad Al-Refai, Benoit de Varennes, Dominique Shum-Tim, Marta Cerruti, Ophélie Gourgas, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Adel Schwertani
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of aortic valve calcification remain unclear. With accumulating evidence demonstrating that valve calcification recapitulates bone development, the crucial roles of noncanonical Wnt ligands WNT5a, WNT5b, and WNT11 in osteogenesis make them critical targets in the study of aortic valve calcification. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and tissue culture, we examined the tissue distribution of WNT5a, WNT5b, and WNT11 in noncalcified and calcified aortic valves and their effects on human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs)...
December 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932058/tnap-stimulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-trans-differentiation-into-chondrocytes-through-calcium-deposition-and-bmp-2-activation-possible-implication-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability
#16
Maya Fakhry, Monika Roszkowska, Anne Briolay, Carole Bougault, Alain Guignandon, Juan Ignacio Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel Diaz-Hernandez, Slawomir Pikula, René Buchet, Eva Hamade, Bassam Badran, Laurence Bessueille, David Magne
Atherosclerotic plaque calcification varies from early, diffuse microcalcifications to a bone-like tissue formed by endochondral ossification. Recently, a paradigm has emerged suggesting that if the bone metaplasia stabilizes the plaques, microcalcifications are harmful. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an ectoenzyme necessary for mineralization by its ability to hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), is stimulated by inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Our objective was to determine the role of TNAP in trans-differentiation of VSMCs and calcification...
December 5, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932033/cellular-analysis-of-trophoblast-and-placenta
#17
Frances Wong, Brian J Cox
The placenta is composed of two lineages: the trophoblast and mesoderm. While morphological assessment of the placenta has highlighted major cell types and developmental structures, the human placenta is relatively unexplained on a molecular level. Current molecular analysis of the placenta has largely been confined to assessing whole organs that include both cell lineages and their differentiated progeny. This has confounded our understanding of the processes of placental development and function for two reasons...
November 30, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931516/expansion-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-sticking-to-isolated-sebaceous-glands-to-generate-in-vivo-epidermal-structures
#18
Huishan Zhang, Huashan Zhao, Jingqiao Qiao, Shoubing Zhang, Shuang Liu, Na Li, Xiaohua Lei, Lina Ning, Yujing Cao, Enkui Duan
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are considered one of the useful donor cell types for skin regenerative medicine owing to their robust proliferative capacity and multipotency. However, methods for easily and effectively obtaining HFSCs from a limited skin biopsy are still lacking. Here we report a novel approach for obtaining a subpopulation of HFSCs from a small skin sample from the rat tail, which uses the sebaceous glands (SGs) to capture the adjacent HFSCs. By means of organ culture, keratinocytes were expanded from the detached SGs, which also included adherent HFSCs from the hair follicle that could be passaged at the single-cell level...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931512/xenotransplanted-pig-sertoli-cells-inhibit-both-the-alternative-and-classical-pathways-of-complement-mediated-cell-lysis-while-pig-islets-are-killed
#19
Kandis Wright, Rachel Dziuk, Payal Mital, Gurvinder Kaur, Jannette M Dufour
Xenotransplantation has vast clinical potential but is limited by the potent immune responses generated against xenogeneic tissue. Immune-privileged Sertoli cells (SCs) survive xenotransplantation long term (90 days) without immunosuppression, making SCs an ideal model to identify xenograft survival mechanisms. Xenograft rejection includes the binding of natural and induced antibodies and the activation of the complement cascade. Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, wherein cells were cultured with human serum and complement, we demonstrated that neonatal pig SCs (NPSCs) are resistant to complement-mediated cell lysis and express complement inhibitory factors, membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), and decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) at significantly higher levels than neonatal pig islets (NPIs), which served as non-immune-privileged controls...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931511/myod-overexpressed-equine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhanced-myogenic-differentiation-potential
#20
Soo-Eun Sung, Meeyul Hwang, Ah-Young Kim, Eun-Mi Lee, Eun-Joo Lee, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Shin-Yoon Kim, Hong-Kyun Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Mesenchymal stem cells could potentially be used in the clinical treatment of muscle disorders and muscle regeneration. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be easily isolated from adipose tissue, as opposed to stem cells of other tissues. We believe that cell therapy using ADSCs could be applied to muscle disorders in horses and other species. We sought to improve the myogenic differentiation potential of equine ADSCs (eqADSCs) using a MyoD lentiviral vector. MyoD lentiviruses were transduced into eqADSCs and selected using puromycin...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
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