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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668111/efficient-in-planta-gene-targeting-in-tomato-using-geminiviral-replicons-and-the-crispr-cas9-system
#1
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223878/constitutive-gibberellin-response-in-grafted-tomato-modulates-root-to-shoot-signaling-under-drought-stress
#2
Lucas Aparecido Gaion, Carolina Cristina Monteiro, Flávio José Rodrigues Cruz, Davi Rodrigo Rossatto, Isabel López-Díaz, Esther Carrera, Joni Esrom Lima, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Rogério Falleiros Carvalho
Plants are sessile organisms that must perceive and respond to various environmental constraints throughout their life cycle. Among these constraints, drought stress has become the main limiting factor to crop production around the world. Water deprivation is perceived primarily by the roots, which efficiently signal the shoot to trigger drought responses in order to maximize a plant's ability to survive. In this study, the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutant procera (pro), with a constitutive response to gibberellin (GA), and its near isogenic line cv...
February 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096602/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-micrornas-involved-in-the-stigma-exsertion-under-high-temperature-stress-in-tomato
#3
Changtian Pan, Lei Ye, Yi Zheng, Yan Wang, Dandan Yang, Xue Liu, Lifei Chen, Youwei Zhang, Zhangjun Fei, Gang Lu
BACKGROUND: Autogamy in cultivated tomato varieties is a derived trait from wild type tomato plants, which are mostly allogamous. However, environmental stresses can cause morphological defects in tomato flowers and hinder autogamy. Under elevated temperatures, tomato plants usually exhibit the phenotype of stigma exsertion, with severely hindered self-pollination and fruit setting, whereas the inherent mechanism of stigma exsertion have been hitherto unknown. Numerous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to play significant roles in plant development and stress responses, however, none of them have been studied with respect to stamen and pistil development under high-temperature conditions...
November 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902164/slbir3-negatively-regulates-pamp-responses-and-cell-death-in-tomato
#4
Shuhua Huang, Shuming Nie, Shufen Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang
Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1)-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR) proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715118/microrna159-targeted-slgamyb-transcription-factors-are-required-for-fruit-set-in-tomato
#5
Eder Marques da Silva, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira E Silva, Débora Brussolo Bidoia, Mariana da Silva Azevedo, Frederico Almeida de Jesus, Lilian Ellen Pino, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Esther Carrera, Isabel López-Díaz, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira
The transition from flowering to fruit production, namely fruit set, is crucial to ensure successful sexual plant reproduction. Although studies have described the importance of hormones (i.e. auxin and gibberellins) in controlling fruit set after pollination and fertilization, the role of microRNA-based regulation during ovary development and fruit set is still poorly understood. Here we show that the microRNA159/GAMYB1 and -2 pathway (the miR159/GAMYB1/2 module) is crucial for tomato ovule development and fruit set...
July 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649260/tomato-udp-glucose-sterol-glycosyltransferases-a-family-of-developmental-and-stress-regulated-genes-that-encode-cytosolic-and-membrane-associated-forms-of-the-enzyme
#6
Karla Ramirez-Estrada, Nídia Castillo, Juan A Lara, Monserrat Arró, Albert Boronat, Albert Ferrer, Teresa Altabella
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyze the glycosylation of the free hydroxyl group at C-3 position of sterols to produce sterol glycosides. Glycosylated sterols and free sterols are primarily located in cell membranes where in combination with other membrane-bound lipids play a key role in modulating their properties and functioning. In contrast to most plant species, those of the genus Solanum contain very high levels of glycosylated sterols, which in the case of tomato may account for more than 85% of the total sterol content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283681/gene-expression-analyses-in-tomato-near-isogenic-lines-provide-evidence-for-ethylene-and-abscisic-acid-biosynthesis-fine-tuning-during-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-development
#7
Giselle Gomes Monteiro Fracetto, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Marcio Rodrigues Lambais
Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA...
July 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248258/effects-of-al-3-and-la-3-trivalent-metal-ions-on-tomato-fruit-proteomes
#8
Sasikiran Sangireddy, Ikenna Okekeogbu, Zhujia Ye, Suping Zhou, Kevin J Howe, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening process from mature green (MG) to turning and then to red stages is accompanied by the occurrences of physiological and biochemical reactions, which ultimately result in the formation of the flavor, color and texture of ripe fruits. The two trivalent metal ions Al(3+) and La(3+) are known to induce different levels of phytotoxicity in suppressing root growth. This paper aims to understand the impacts of these two metal ions on tomato fruit proteomes. Tomato 'Micro-Tom' plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 μM aluminum sulfate (Al₂ (SO4)₃...
February 11, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194155/functional-characterization-of-cyp716-family-p450-enzymes-in-triterpenoid-biosynthesis-in-tomato
#9
Shuhei Yasumoto, Hikaru Seki, Yuko Shimizu, Ery O Fukushima, Toshiya Muranaka
Triterpenoids are a group of structurally diverse specialized metabolites that frequently show useful bioactivities. These chemicals are biosynthesized from the common precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene in plants. The carbon skeletons produced by oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) are usually modified by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) and UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases. These biosynthetic enzymes contribute to the structural diversification of plant triterpenoids. Until now, many P450 enzymes have been characterized as triterpenoid oxidases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111364/tomatomics-a-web-database-for-integrated-omics-information-in-tomato
#10
Toru Kudo, Masaaki Kobayashi, Shin Terashima, Minami Katayama, Soichi Ozaki, Maasa Kanno, Misa Saito, Koji Yokoyama, Hajime Ohyanagi, Koh Aoki, Yasutaka Kubo, Kentaro Yano
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and a major model fruit-producing plant. To facilitate basic and applied research, comprehensive experimental resources and omics information on tomato are available following their development. Mutant lines and cDNA clones from a dwarf cultivar, Micro-Tom, are two of these genetic resources. Large-scale sequencing data for ESTs and full-length cDNAs from Micro-Tom continue to be gathered. In conjunction with information on the reference genome sequence of another cultivar, Heinz 1706, the Micro-Tom experimental resources have facilitated comprehensive functional analyses...
January 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994959/rna-interference-as-a-gene-silencing-tool-to-control-tuta-absoluta-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#11
Roberto A Camargo, Guilherme O Barbosa, Isabella Presotto Possignolo, Lazaro E P Peres, Eric Lam, Joni E Lima, Antonio Figueira, Henrique Marques-Souza
RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing mechanism that involves providing double-stranded RNA molecules that match a specific target gene sequence, is now widely used in functional genetic studies. The potential application of RNAi-mediated control of agricultural insect pests has rapidly become evident. The production of transgenic plants expressing dsRNA molecules that target essential insect genes could provide a means of specific gene silencing in larvae that feed on these plants, resulting in larval phenotypes that range from loss of appetite to death...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968981/sltir1-is-involved-in-crosstalk-of-phytohormones-regulates-auxin-induced-root-growth-and-stimulates-stenospermocarpic-fruit-formation-in-tomato
#12
Zhenxin Ren, Xiaomin Wang
TIR1 and its homologs act as auxin receptors and play important roles in plant growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. An auxin receptor homolog Solanum lycopersicum TIR1 (SlTIR1) has been isolated from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom, and SlTIR1 over-expression results in parthenocarpic fruit formation. In this study, the promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression vector was constructed and stably transformed into Micro-Tom seedlings. The SlTIR1 promoter driving GUS expression accumulated predominantly in the leaf and vasculature in transgenic seedlings...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929095/the-sphingolipid-biosynthetic-enzyme-sphingolipid-delta8-desaturase-is-important-for-chilling-resistance-of-tomato
#13
Ying Zhou, Lanting Zeng, Xiumin Fu, Xin Mei, Sihua Cheng, Yinyin Liao, Rufang Deng, Xinlan Xu, Yueming Jiang, Xuewu Duan, Susanne Baldermann, Ziyin Yang
The physiological functions of sphingolipids in animals have been intensively studied, while less attention has been paid to their roles in plants. Here, we reveal the involvement of sphingolipid delta8 desaturase (SlSLD) in the chilling resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). We used the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to knock-down SlSLD expression in tomato leaves, and then evaluated chilling resistance. Changes in leaf cell structure under a chilling treatment were observed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809315/rapid-identification-of-causal-mutations-in-tomato-ems-populations-via-mapping-by-sequencing
#14
Virginie Garcia, Cécile Bres, Daniel Just, Lucie Fernandez, Fabienne Wong Jun Tai, Jean-Philippe Mauxion, Marie-Christine Le Paslier, Aurélie Bérard, Dominique Brunel, Koh Aoki, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R Fernie, Paul D Fraser, Christophe Rothan
The tomato is the model species of choice for fleshy fruit development and for the Solanaceae family. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutants of tomato have already proven their utility for analysis of gene function in plants, leading to improved breeding stocks and superior tomato varieties. However, until recently, the identification of causal mutations that underlie particular phenotypes has been a very lengthy task that many laboratories could not afford because of spatial and technical limitations. Here, we describe a simple protocol for identifying causal mutations in tomato using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy...
December 2016: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706237/inducible-expression-of-the-de-novo-designed-antimicrobial-peptide-sp1-1-in-tomato-confers-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria
#15
Areli Herrera Diaz, Izabella Kovacs, Christian Lindermayr
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679646/selection-of-reference-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-rt-pcr-studies-in-tomato-fruit-of-the-genotype-mt-rg1
#16
Karla L González-Aguilera, Carolina F Saad, Ricardo A Chávez Montes, Marcio Alves-Ferreira, Stefan de Folter
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646210/characterization-and-evaluation-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-strain-wf02-regarding-its-biocontrol-activities-and-genetic-responses-against-bacterial-wilt-in-two-different-resistant-tomato-cultivars
#17
Chu-Ning Huang, Chan-Pin Lin, Feng-Chia Hsieh, Sook-Kuan Lee, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Chi-Te Liu
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WF02, isolated from soil collected at Wufeng Mountain, Taiwan, has siderophore-producing ability and in vitro antagonistic activity against bacterial wilt pathogen. To determine the impact of plant genotype on biocontrol effectiveness, we treated soil with this strain before infecting susceptible (L390) and moderately resistant (Micro-Tom) tomato cultivars with Ralstonia solanacearum strain Pss4. We also compared the efficacy of this strain with that of commercial Bacillus subtilis strain Y1336...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545651/small-heat-shock-proteins-and-the-postharvest-chilling-tolerance-of-tomato-fruit
#18
Martín D Ré, Carla Gonzalez, Mariela R Escobar, María Laura Sossi, Estela M Valle, Silvana B Boggio
Plants have the largest number of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) (15-42 kDa) among eukaryotes, but little is known about their function in vivo. They accumulate in response to different stresses, and specific sHsps are also expressed during developmental processes such as seed development, germination, and ripening. The presence of organelle-specific sHsps appears to be unique to plants. The sHsps expression is regulated by heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). In this work, it was explored the role of sHsps in the chilling injury of tomato fruit...
February 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454588/expression-of-the-theobroma-cacao-bax-inhibitor-1-gene-in-tomato-reduces-infection-by-the-hemibiotrophic-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#19
Danielle Camargo Scotton, Mariana Da Silva Azevedo, Ivan Sestari, Jamille Santos Da Silva, Lucas Anjos Souza, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Gildemberg Amorim Leal, Antonio Figueira
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in plant responses to pathogens, determining the success of infection depending on the pathogen lifestyle and on which participant of the interaction triggers cell death. The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao), a serious constraint for production in South America and the Caribbean. It has been hypothesized that M. perniciosa pathogenesis involves PCD, initially as a plant defence mechanism, which is diverted by the fungus to induce necrosis during the dikaryotic phase of the mycelia...
October 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409224/effects-of-flooding-stress-in-micro-tom-tomato-plants-transformed-with-different-levels-of-mitochondrial-shsp23-6
#20
C M Hüther, E G Martinazzo, C V Rombaldi, M A Bacarin
Soil flooding is an environmental stressor for crops that can affect physiological performance and reduce crop yields. Abiotic stressors cause changes in protein synthesis, modifying the levels of a series of proteins, especially the heat shock proteins (HSP), and these proteins can help protect the plants against abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to verify if tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom from different genotypes with varying expression levels of MT-sHSP23.6 (mitochondrial small heat shock proteins) have different responses physiological to flooding...
July 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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