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Giselle Gomes Monteiro Fracetto, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Marcio Rodrigues Lambais
Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA...
March 11, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Sasikiran Sangireddy, Ikenna Okekeogbu, Zhujia Ye, Suping Zhou, Kevin J Howe, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening process from mature green (MG) to turning and then to red stages is accompanied by the occurrences of physiological and biochemical reactions, which ultimately result in the formation of the flavor, color and texture of ripe fruits. The two trivalent metal ions Al(3+) and La(3+) are known to induce different levels of phytotoxicity in suppressing root growth. This paper aims to understand the impacts of these two metal ions on tomato fruit proteomes. Tomato 'Micro-Tom' plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 μM aluminum sulfate (Al₂ (SO4)₃...
February 11, 2017: Proteomes
Shuhei Yasumoto, Hikaru Seki, Yuko Shimizu, Ery O Fukushima, Toshiya Muranaka
Triterpenoids are a group of structurally diverse specialized metabolites that frequently show useful bioactivities. These chemicals are biosynthesized from the common precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene in plants. The carbon skeletons produced by oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) are usually modified by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) and UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases. These biosynthetic enzymes contribute to the structural diversification of plant triterpenoids. Until now, many P450 enzymes have been characterized as triterpenoid oxidases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Toru Kudo, Masaaki Kobayashi, Shin Terashima, Minami Katayama, Soichi Ozaki, Maasa Kanno, Misa Saito, Koji Yokoyama, Hajime Ohyanagi, Koh Aoki, Yasutaka Kubo, Kentaro Yano
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and a major model fruit-producing plant. To facilitate basic and applied research, comprehensive experimental resources and omics information on tomato are available following their development. Mutant lines and cDNA clones from a dwarf cultivar, Micro-Tom, are two of these genetic resources. Large-scale sequencing data for ESTs and full-length cDNAs from Micro-Tom continue to be gathered. In conjunction with information on the reference genome sequence of another cultivar, Heinz 1706, the Micro-Tom experimental resources have facilitated comprehensive functional analyses...
January 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Roberto A Camargo, Guilherme O Barbosa, Isabella Presotto Possignolo, Lazaro E P Peres, Eric Lam, Joni E Lima, Antonio Figueira, Henrique Marques-Souza
RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing mechanism that involves providing double-stranded RNA molecules that match a specific target gene sequence, is now widely used in functional genetic studies. The potential application of RNAi-mediated control of agricultural insect pests has rapidly become evident. The production of transgenic plants expressing dsRNA molecules that target essential insect genes could provide a means of specific gene silencing in larvae that feed on these plants, resulting in larval phenotypes that range from loss of appetite to death...
2016: PeerJ
Zhenxin Ren, Xiaomin Wang
TIR1 and its homologs act as auxin receptors and play important roles in plant growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. An auxin receptor homolog Solanum lycopersicum TIR1 (SlTIR1) has been isolated from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom, and SlTIR1 over-expression results in parthenocarpic fruit formation. In this study, the promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression vector was constructed and stably transformed into Micro-Tom seedlings. The SlTIR1 promoter driving GUS expression accumulated predominantly in the leaf and vasculature in transgenic seedlings...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ying Zhou, Lanting Zeng, Xiumin Fu, Xin Mei, Sihua Cheng, Yinyin Liao, Rufang Deng, Xinlan Xu, Yueming Jiang, Xuewu Duan, Susanne Baldermann, Ziyin Yang
The physiological functions of sphingolipids in animals have been intensively studied, while less attention has been paid to their roles in plants. Here, we reveal the involvement of sphingolipid delta8 desaturase (SlSLD) in the chilling resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). We used the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to knock-down SlSLD expression in tomato leaves, and then evaluated chilling resistance. Changes in leaf cell structure under a chilling treatment were observed by transmission electron microscopy...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Virginie Garcia, Cécile Bres, Daniel Just, Lucie Fernandez, Fabienne Wong Jun Tai, Jean-Philippe Mauxion, Marie-Christine Le Paslier, Aurélie Bérard, Dominique Brunel, Koh Aoki, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R Fernie, Paul D Fraser, Christophe Rothan
The tomato is the model species of choice for fleshy fruit development and for the Solanaceae family. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutants of tomato have already proven their utility for analysis of gene function in plants, leading to improved breeding stocks and superior tomato varieties. However, until recently, the identification of causal mutations that underlie particular phenotypes has been a very lengthy task that many laboratories could not afford because of spatial and technical limitations. Here, we describe a simple protocol for identifying causal mutations in tomato using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy...
December 2016: Nature Protocols
Areli Herrera Diaz, Izabella Kovacs, Christian Lindermayr
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small peptides with less than 50 amino acids and are part of the innate immune response in almost all organisms, including bacteria, vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. AMPs are active against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. The inducible expression of AMPs in plants is a promising approach to combat plant pathogens with minimal negative side effects, such as phytotoxicity or infertility. In this study, inducible expression of the de-novo designed AMP SP1-1 in Micro Tom tomato protected tomato fruits against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv...
2016: PloS One
Karla L González-Aguilera, Carolina F Saad, Ricardo A Chávez Montes, Marcio Alves-Ferreira, Stefan de Folter
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for accurate quantification of gene expression. Since there are no universal reference genes for normalization, the optimal strategy to normalize raw qRT-PCR data is to perform an initial comparison of a set of independent reference genes to assess the most stable ones in each biological model. Normalization of a qRT-PCR experiment helps to ensure that the results are both statistically significant and biologically meaningful...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chu-Ning Huang, Chan-Pin Lin, Feng-Chia Hsieh, Sook-Kuan Lee, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Chi-Te Liu
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain WF02, isolated from soil collected at Wufeng Mountain, Taiwan, has siderophore-producing ability and in vitro antagonistic activity against bacterial wilt pathogen. To determine the impact of plant genotype on biocontrol effectiveness, we treated soil with this strain before infecting susceptible (L390) and moderately resistant (Micro-Tom) tomato cultivars with Ralstonia solanacearum strain Pss4. We also compared the efficacy of this strain with that of commercial Bacillus subtilis strain Y1336...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Martín D Ré, Carla Gonzalez, Mariela R Escobar, María Laura Sossi, Estela M Valle, Silvana B Boggio
Plants have the largest number of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) (15-42 kDa) among eukaryotes, but little is known about their function in vivo. They accumulate in response to different stresses, and specific sHsps are also expressed during developmental processes such as seed development, germination, and ripening. The presence of organelle-specific sHsps appears to be unique to plants. The sHsps expression is regulated by heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). In this work, it was explored the role of sHsps in the chilling injury of tomato fruit...
February 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Danielle Camargo Scotton, Mariana da Silva Azevedo, Ivan Sestari, Jamille Santos da Silva, Lucas Anjos Souza, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Gildemberg Amorim Leal, Antonio Figueira
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in plant responses to pathogens, determining the success of infection depending on the pathogen lifestyle and on which participant of the interaction triggers cell death. The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of the witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao L (cacao), a serious constraint for production in South America and Caribbean. It has been hypothesized that M. perniciosa pathogenesis involves PCD, initially as a plant defense mechanism, which is diverted by the fungus to induce necrosis during the dikaryotic phase of the mycelia...
July 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
C M Hüther, E G Martinazzo, C V Rombaldi, M A Bacarin
Soil flooding is an environmental stressor for crops that can affect physiological performance and reduce crop yields. Abiotic stressors cause changes in protein synthesis, modifying the levels of a series of proteins, especially the heat shock proteins (HSP), and these proteins can help protect the plants against abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to verify if tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom from different genotypes with varying expression levels of MT-sHSP23.6 (mitochondrial small heat shock proteins) have different responses physiological to flooding...
July 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Ke Li, Jian-jun Xu, Lu-yao Wang, Chu-nan Wang, Chen Yu, Jian-hua Guo
In the present study, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) strain Acaulospora spinosa XJ27, previously isolated from tomato root rhizosphere in Xinjiang' s suburbs, was used to inoculate root systems of tomato cultivar "Micro-Tom". The biomass, contents of chlorophyll in leaves and lycopene in fruits of plants between the treatments with and without XJ27 were analyzed, and the expression level of lycopene biosynthesis relevant genes (psyl and.psy2) investigated by semi quantitative-PCR and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the application of XJ27 to the rhizosphere of tomato increased the biomass and yield of the treated plants, the expression of psyl and psy2 was improved, and the amount of lycopene accumulation in tomato...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Georgia B Pompeu, Milca B Vilhena, Priscila L Gratão, Rogério F Carvalho, Mônica L Rossi, Adriana P Martinelli, Ricardo A Azevedo
There is a very effective cross-talk between signals triggered by reactive oxygen species and hormonal responses in plants, activating proteins/enzymes likely to be involved in stress tolerance. Abscisic acid (ABA) is known as a stress hormone that takes part in the integration of signals. This work aimed to characterize the biochemical response and ultrastructural changes induced by cadmium (Cd) in the Micro-Tom (MT) sitiens ABA-deficient mutant (sit) and its wild-type (MT) counterpart. MT and sit plants were grown over a 96-h period in the presence of Cd (0, 10, and 100 μM CdCl2)...
March 2017: Protoplasma
Johann Petit, Cécile Bres, Jean-Philippe Mauxion, Fabienne Wong Jun Tai, Laetitia B B Martin, Eric A Fich, Jérôme Joubès, Jocelyn K C Rose, Frédéric Domergue, Christophe Rothan
The thick cuticle covering and embedding the epidermal cells of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit acts not only as a protective barrier against pathogens and water loss but also influences quality traits such as brightness and postharvest shelf-life. In a recent study, we screened a mutant collection of the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom and isolated several glossy fruit mutants in which the abundance of cutin, the polyester component of the cuticle, was strongly reduced. We employed a newly developed mapping-by-sequencing strategy to identify the causal mutation underlying the cutin deficiency in a mutant thereafter named gpat6-a (for glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase6)...
June 2016: Plant Physiology
Suping Zhou, Ikenna Okekeogbu, Sasikiran Sangireddy, Zhujia Ye, Hui Li, Sarabjit Bhatti, Dafeng Hui, Daniel W McDonald, Yong Yang, Shree Giri, Kevin J Howe, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
This study aimed to identify the aluminum (Al)-induced proteomes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, "Micro-Tom") after long-term exposure to the stress factor. Plants were treated in Magnavaca's solution (pH 4.5) supplemented with 7.5 μM Al(3+) ion activity over a 4 month period beginning at the emergence of flower buds and ending when the lower mature leaves started to turn yellow. Proteomes were identified using a 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling strategy followed by a two-dimensional (high- and low-pH) chromatographic separation and final generation of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra of tryptic peptides on an LTQ-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
J P Graças, R Ruiz-Romero, L D Figueiredo, L Mattiello, L E P Peres, V A Vitorello
Low pH (<5.0) can significantly decrease root growth but whether this is a direct effect of H(+) or an active plant response is examined here. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom) roots were exposed directly or gradually to low pH through step-wise changes in pH over periods ranging from 4 to 24 h. Roots exposed gradually to pH 4.5 grew even less than those exposed directly, indicating a plant-coordinated response. Direct exposure to pH 4.0 suppressed root growth and caused high cell mortality, in contrast to roots exposed gradually, in which growth remained inhibited but cell viability was maintained...
July 2016: Plant Biology
Ángela Perdones, Núria Tur, Amparo Chiralt, Maria Vargas
BACKGROUND: Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. RESULTS: The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers...
October 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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