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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547322/metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-production-of-germacrene-a-a-precursor-of-beta-elemene
#1
Yating Hu, Yongjin J Zhou, Jichen Bao, Luqi Huang, Jens Nielsen, Anastasia Krivoruchko
Beta-elemene, a sesquiterpene and the major component of the medicinal herb Curcuma wenyujin, has antitumor activity against various types of cancer and could potentially serve as a potent antineoplastic drug. However, its current mode of production through extraction from plants has been inefficient and suffers from limited natural resources. Here, we engineered a yeast cell factory for the sustainable production of germacrene A, which can be transformed to beta-elemene by a one-step chemical reaction in vitro...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545205/organic-composition-and-multiphase-stable-isotope-analysis-of-active-degrading-and-restored-blanket-bog
#2
Laura McAnallen, Rory Doherty, Neil Ogle
Here we used organic composition and stable isotopic analysis to evaluate the effects of drainage and restoration at an ombrotrophic peatland, to assess whether rewetting of blanket bogs will reverse degradation. The organic composition of the peat and the isotopic fractionation between the solid (peat), liquid (pore water) and gas (soil gas) phases on actively accumulating, degrading and restored locations are compared. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the organic material has shown a high level of humification (low decomposition) in the active peat...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544184/did-some-red-alga-derived-plastids-evolve-via-kleptoplastidy-a-hypothesis
#3
Andrzej Bodył
The evolution of plastids has a complex and still unresolved history. These organelles originated from a cyanobacterium via primary endosymbiosis, resulting in three eukaryotic lineages: glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants. The red and green algal plastids then spread via eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbioses, known as secondary and tertiary symbioses, to numerous heterotrophic protist lineages. The number of these horizontal plastid transfers, especially in the case of red alga-derived plastids, remains controversial...
May 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543910/wheatgrass-derived-polysaccharide-has-antiinflammatory-anti-oxidative-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-on-lps-induced-hepatic-injury-in-mice
#4
Sarmila Nepali, Hyeon-Hui Ki, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hoon-Yeon Lee, Dae-Ki Kim, Young-Mi Lee
Hepatic injury occurs frequently during sepsis, and polysaccharides isolated from plants have been reported to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in various models. However, the effect of wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide (WGP) has not been previously studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of WGP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in mice. Mice were pre-treated with WGP (100 or 200 mg/kg daily for 2 days) and then challenged with LPS (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and sacrificed after 12 h...
May 24, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542349/crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-in-grape
#5
Ikuko Nakajima, Yusuke Ban, Akifumi Azuma, Noriyuki Onoue, Takaya Moriguchi, Toshiya Yamamoto, Seiichi Toki, Masaki Endo
RNA-guided genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system has been applied successfully in several plant species. However, to date, there are few reports on the use of any of the current genome editing approaches in grape-an important fruit crop with a large market not only for table grapes but also for wine. Here, we report successful targeted mutagenesis in grape (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Neo Muscat) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541833/novel-hybrid-composite-discharge-electrode-for-electrostatic-precipitator
#6
M Ali, K Alam, Y T A Al-Majali, M Kennedy
Over the last few decades, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) have emerged as effective air pollution control devices for treating Coal-fired power plant exhausts. Among the components of the ESP, the discharge electrodes are extremely important in determining the collection efficiency of the ESP. Typically, in wet electrostatic precipitators, the discharge electrodes used must be made of corrosion resistant alloys, which makes them extremely expensive and heavy. Hybrid composite discharge electrodes have the potential to be lightweight and corrosion resistant substitute for traditional metal alloy electrodes used in wet electrostatic precipitators (WESP)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540550/simultaneous-enhancement-of-sludge-dewaterability-and-removal-of-sludge-borne-heavy-metals-through-a-novel-oxidative-leaching-induced-by-nano-cao2
#7
Boran Wu, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
The production of sewage sludge with the presence of various contaminants has been a serious issue for the operation of wastewater treatment plants on both the economical and environmental sides. To minimize the sludge volume to be handled and limit the potential environmental risk, this study developed a novel oxidative leaching process for enhanced sewage sludge dewatering and simultaneous removal of heavy metals based on nano-CaO2. Response surface methodology determined the following optimal conditioning parameters in terms of capillary suction time reduction: 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539916/endophytic-fungi-piriformospora-indica-mediated-protection-of-host-from-arsenic-toxicity
#8
Shayan Mohd, Jagriti Shukla, Aparna S Kushwaha, Kapil Mandrah, Jai Shankar, Nidhi Arjaria, Prem N Saxena, Ram Narayan, Somendu K Roy, Manoj Kumar
Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539745/effect-of-tamarindus-indica-l-and-manihot-esculenta-extracts-on-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#9
Zenon Machado Lima, Lenilson Santos da Trindade, Genelane Cruz Santana, Francine Ferreira Padilha, Marcelo da Costa Mendonça, Luiz Pereira da Costa, Jorge A López, Maria Lucila Hernández Macedo
BACKGROUND: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535595/enhancement-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-removal-by-helophytes-along-subsurface-water-flowpaths-receiving-treated-wastewater
#10
Miquel Ribot, Susana Bernal, Myrto Nikolakopoulou, Timothy N Vaessen, Joaquín Cochero, Esperança Gacia, Albert Sorolla, Alba Argerich, Francesc Sabater, Manel Isnard, Eugènia Martí
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to receiving streams, which can eventually become saturated by excess of DIN. Aquatic plants (i.e., helophytes) can modify subsurface water flowpaths as well as assimilate nutrients and enhance microbial activity in the rhizosphere, yet their ability to increase DIN transformation and removal in WWTP-influenced streams is poorly understood. We examined the influence of helophytes on DIN removal along subsurface water flowpaths and how this was associated with DOC removal and labile C availability...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534845/enhanced-production-of-gypenoside-lxxv-using-a-novel-ginsenoside-transforming-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-ginseng-cultivating-soil-bacteria-and-its-anti-cancer-property
#11
Chang-Hao Cui, Da Jung Kim, Suk-Chae Jung, Sun-Chang Kim, Wan-Taek Im
Minor ginsenosides, such as compound K, Rg₃(S), which can be produced by deglycosylation of ginsenosides Rb₁, showed strong anti-cancer effects. However, the anticancer effects of gypenoside LXXV, which is one of the deglycosylated shapes of ginsenoside Rb₁, is still unknown due to the rarity of its content in plants. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase (BglG167b) derived from Microbacterium sp. Gsoil 167 which can efficiently hydrolyze gypenoside XVII into gypenoside LXXV, and applied it to the production of gypenoside LXXV at the gram-scale with high specificity...
May 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533790/aapdr3-a-pdr-transporter-3-is-involved-in-sesquiterpene-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-transport-in-artemisia-annua
#12
Xueqing Fu, Pu Shi, Qian He, Qian Shen, Yueli Tang, Qifang Pan, Yanan Ma, Tingxiang Yan, Minghui Chen, Xiaolong Hao, Pin Liu, Ling Li, Yuliang Wang, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide, isolated from the plant Artemisia annua L., is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Another sesquiterpenoid, β-caryophyllene having antibiotic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and local anesthetic activities, is also presented in A. annua. The role played by sesquiterpene transporters in trichomes and accumulation of these metabolites is poorly understood in A. annua and in trichomes of other plant species. We identified AaPDR3, encoding a pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporter located to the plasma membrane from A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531950/modelling-pesticides-volatilisation-in-greenhouses-sensitivity-analysis-of-a-modified-pearl-model
#13
Michael Houbraken, Kim Doan Ngoc, Frederik van den Berg, Pieter Spanoghe
BACKGROUND: The application of the existing PEARL model was extended to include estimations of the concentration of crop protection products in greenhouse (indoor) air due to volatilisation from the plant surface. The model was modified to include the processes of ventilation of the greenhouse air to the outside atmosphere and transformation in the air. RESULTS: A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed by varying selected input parameters on a one-by-one basis and comparing the model outputs with the outputs of the reference scenarios...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530197/green-fabricated-cuo-nanobullets-via-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-shows-auspicious-antimicrobial-potential
#14
Qaisar Maqbool, Sidra Iftikhar, Mudassar Nazar, Fazal Abbas, Asif Saleem, Talib Hussain, Rizwan Kausar, Sadaf Anwaar, Nyla Jabeen
In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530184/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-mentha-pulegium-and-investigation-of-their-antibacterial-antifungal-and-anticancer-activity
#15
Ali Hamad Abd Kelkawi, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
A simple and eco-friendly method for efficient synthesis of stable colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Mentha pulegium extracts is described. A series of reactions was conducted using different types and concentrations of plant extract as well as metal ions to optimize the reaction conditions. AgNPs were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zetasizer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529299/a-study-on-the-jejungwon-hospital-building-in-jaedong-and-gurigae-and-uses-of-the-hospital-after-its-relocation
#16
Yeonkyung Lee
Jejungwon hospital, the first modern healthcare facility to be built in Korea, was built at Jaedong in 1885 and moved to Gurigae in 1887. Finally, it was moved to Dodong, outside the Namdaemun Gate, and its name was changed to Severance Hospital. The Jaedong Jejungwon hospital was located at a former house of HONG Youngsik, and it was expanded by renovating existing buildings and constructing new buildings in 2 years. The Gurigae Jejungwon hospital, which was located near Myeongdong Cathedral, was bigger than the Jaedong Jejungwon one and even provided residence to doctors...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525316/er-assembly-of-snare-complexes-mediating-formation-of-partitioning-membrane-in-arabidopsis-cytokinesis
#17
Matthias Karnahl, Misoon Park, Ulrike Mayer, Ulrike Hiller, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion mediates diverse processes including cell growth, division and communication. Fusion involves complex formation between SNARE proteins anchored to adjacent membranes. How and in what form interacting SNARE proteins reach their sites of action is virtually unknown. We have addressed this problem in the context of plant cell division in which a large number of TGN-derived membrane vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Blocking vesicle formation at the TGN revealed cis-SNARE complexes...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523913/expression-and-characterization-of-windmill-palm-tree-trachycarpus-fortunei-peroxidase-by-pichia-pastoris
#18
Boting Wen, Margaret R Baker, Hongwei Zhao, Zongjun Cui, Qing X Li
Currently, commercial plant peroxidases are all native and are isolated from plants such as horseradish and soybean. No recombinant plant peroxidase products have been available on the commercial market. The gene encoding peroxidase was cloned from windmill palm tree leaves. The codon-optimized gene was transformed into Pichia pastoris for expression. The recombinant windmill palm tree peroxidase (rWPTP) expressed by P. pastoris showed high stability under pH 2-10 and temperatures up to 70 °C to many metallic salts and organic solvents...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523073/improved-axenic-hydroponic-whole-plant-propagation-for-rapid-production-of-roots-as-transformation-target-tissue
#19
Kyle Benzle, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Plant roots are used as an efficient target tissue for plant transformation assays. In root propagable species transformed roots are able to regenerate into whole plants without the addition of exogenous hormones, thus avoiding somaclonal variation associated with many plant transformation protocols. Plants grown in soil or soilless solid medium have roots that tend to be extremely delicate and are difficult to sterilize in advance of plant transformation experiments. Axenic tissue culture plants grown on semi-solid media are slow to produce large amounts of biomass compared to plants grown in solution-based media...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520767/ms26-cyp704b-is-required-for-anther-and-pollen-wall-development-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-combining-mutations-in-all-three-homeologs-causes-male-sterility
#20
Manjit Singh, Manish Kumar, Katherine Thilges, Myeong-Je Cho, A Mark Cigan
Development of anthers and pollen represents an important aspect of the life cycle in flowering plants. Genes contributing to anther and pollen development have been widely studied in many plant species. Ms26/CYP704B genes play an important role in pollen development through biosynthesis of sporopollenin for pollen exine formation. To investigate the role of Ms26/CYP704B genes in anther and pollen development of bread wheat, mutations in the A-, B-, and D-homeologs of the putative Ms26/CYP704B gene were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
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