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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811751/bioactive-potential-of-3d-printed-oleo-gum-resin-disks-b-papyrifera-c-myrrha-and-s-benzoin-loading-nanooxides-tio2-p25-cu2o-and-moo3
#1
Diogo José Horst, Sergio Mazurek Tebcherani, Evaldo Toniolo Kubaski, Rogério de Almeida Vieira
This experimental study investigates the bioactive potential of filaments produced via hot melt extrusion (HME) and intended for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing purposes. The oleo-gum-resins from benzoin, myrrha, and olibanum in pure state and also charged with 10% of metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2, P25, Cu2O, and MoO3, were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
2017: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810231/cr-induced-cellular-injury-and-necrosis-in-glycine-max-l-biochemical-mechanism-of-oxidative-damage-in-chloroplast
#2
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810059/targeted-genome-editing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-crispr-cas9
#3
REVIEW
Behnom Farboud
Utilization of programmable nucleases to generate DNA lesions at precise endogenous sequences has transformed the ability to edit genomes from microbes to plants and animals. This is especially true in organisms that previously lacked the means to engineer precise genomic changes, like Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a 1 mm long free-living, nonparasitic, nematode worm, which is easily cultivated in a laboratory. Its detailed genetic map and relatively compact genome (~100 megabases) helped make it the first metazoan to have its entire genome sequenced...
August 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808914/from-pleistocene-to-holocene-the-prehistory-of-southwest-asia-in-evolutionary-context
#4
Trevor Watkins
In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808798/genetic-engineering-approach-using-early-vinca-alkaloid-biosynthesis-genes-led-to-increased-tryptamine-and-terpenoid-indole-alkaloids-biosynthesis-in-differentiating-cultures-of-catharanthus-roseus
#5
Abhishek Sharma, Priyanka Verma, Archana Mathur, Ajay Kumar Mathur
Catharanthus roseus today occupies the central position in ongoing metabolic engineering efforts in medicinal plants. The entire multi-step biogenetic pathway of its very expensive anticancerous alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine is fairly very well dissected at biochemical and gene levels except the pathway steps leading to biosynthesis of monomeric alkaloid catharanthine and tabersonine. In order to enhance the plant-based productivity of these pharma molecules for the drug industry, cell and tissue cultures of C...
August 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808382/allium-sativum-constituents-exhibit-anti-tubercular-activity-in-vitro-and-in-raw-264-7-mouse-macrophage-cells-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv
#6
Swapna S Nair, Sujay S Gaikwad, Savita P Kulkarni, Alka Pravin Mukne
BACKGROUND: Long duration of treatment, side-effects of currently used anti-tubercular drugs and emergence of drug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) warrants the need to develop new drugs to tackle the scourge of tuberculosis (TB). Garlic is an edible plant reported to have anti-tubercular activity. However, previous researches on anti-tubercular effect of garlic were focused mostly on preliminary in vitro screening. OBJECTIVE: To identify constituents responsible for anti-tubercular activity of thiosulfinate-derivative rich extract of garlic (GE) and to evaluate activity of the most active constituent in RAW 264...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808128/conjugative-plasmid-transfer-in-xylella-fastidiosa-is-dependent-on-tra-and-trb-operon-functions
#7
Lindsey P Burbank, Christopher R Van Horn
The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa, but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb, putatively encoding a conjugative Type IV secretion system are found in some but not all X...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808101/increased-sbpase-activity-improves-photosynthesis-and-grain-yield-in-wheat-grown-in-greenhouse-conditions
#8
Steven M Driever, Andrew J Simkin, Saqer Alotaibi, Stuart J Fisk, Pippa J Madgwick, Caroline A Sparks, Huw D Jones, Tracy Lawson, Martin A J Parry, Christine A Raines
To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807931/identification-of-novel-growth-regulators-in-plant-populations-expressing-random-peptides
#9
Zhilong Bao, Maureen A Clancy, Raquel F Carvalho, Kiona Elliott, Kevin M Folta
The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical-genomics and synthetic biology. Here each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core, flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences...
August 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807374/design-and-application-of-discrete-wavelet-packet-transform-based-multiresolution-controller-for-liquid-level-system
#10
Rimi Paul, Anindita Sengupta
A new controller based on discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) for liquid level system (LLS) has been presented here. This controller generates control signal using node coefficients of the error signal which interprets many implicit phenomena such as process dynamics, measurement noise and effect of external disturbances. Through simulation results on LLS problem, this controller is shown to perform faster than both the discrete wavelet transform based controller and conventional proportional integral controller...
August 11, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805962/medicago-truncatula-molybdate-transporter-type-1-mtmot1-3-is-a-plasma-membrane-molybdenum-transporter-required-for-nitrogenase-activity-in-root-nodules-under-molybdenum-deficiency
#11
Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Patricia Gil-Díez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Molybdenum, as a component of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase, is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant through molybdate transporters. Members of the molybdate transporter family Molybdate Transporter type 1 (MOT1) were identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula and their expression in nodules was determined. Yeast toxicity assays, confocal microscopy, and phenotypical characterization of a Transposable Element from Nicotiana tabacum (Tnt1) insertional mutant line were carried out in the one M...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804808/enhanced-phosphorus-removal-in-intermittently-aerated-constructed-wetlands-filled-with-various-construction-wastes
#12
Xia Shi, Jinlin Fan, Jian Zhang, Youhao Shen
Phosphorus (P) loss by various pathways in constructed wetlands (CWs) is often variable. The effects of intermittent aeration and different construction waste substrates (gravel, red brick, fly-ash brick) on P processing using six batch-operated vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were studied for decentralized domestic wastewater treatment. Average removal of total phosphorus (TP) in three aerated CWs was markedly higher (21.06, 24.83, and 27.02 mg m(-2) day(-1), respectively) than non-aerated CWs (10...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804491/phylloremediation-of-air-pollutants-exploiting-the-potential-of-plant-leaves-and-leaf-associated-microbes
#13
REVIEW
Xiangying Wei, Shiheng Lyu, Ying Yu, Zonghua Wang, Hong Liu, Dongming Pan, Jianjun Chen
Air pollution is air contaminated by anthropogenic or naturally occurring substances in high concentrations for a prolonged time, resulting in adverse effects on human comfort and health as well as on ecosystems. Major air pollutants include particulate matters (PMs), ground-level ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During the last three decades, air has become increasingly polluted in countries like China and India due to rapid economic growth accompanied by increased energy consumption...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802023/the-agrobacterium-vire2-effector-interacts-with-multiple-members-of-the-arabidopsis-vip1-protein-family
#14
Luyao Wang, Benoît Lacroix, Jianhua Guo, Vitaly Citovsky
T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium to its host plant genome relies on multiple interactions between plant proteins and bacterial effectors. One of such plant proteins is the Arabidopsis VirE2 interacting protein (AtVIP1), a transcription factor that binds A. tumefaciens C58 VirE2, potentially acting as an adaptor between VirE2 and several other host factors. It remains unknown, however, whether the same VirE2 protein has evolved to interact with multiple VIP1 homologs in the same host, and whether VirE2 homologs encoded by different bacterial strains/species recognize AtVIP1 or its homologs...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801830/cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-human-amelogenin-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-by-means-of-a-transient-expression-system
#15
Mattia Pegoraro, Slavica Matić, Barbara Pergolizzi, Luca Iannarelli, Andrea M Rossi, Marco Morra, Emanuela Noris
Enamel is the covering tissue of teeth, made of regularly arranged hydroxyapatite crystals deposited on an organic matrix composed of 90% amelogenin that is completely degraded at the end of the enamel formation process. Amelogenin has a biomineralizing activity, forming nanoparticles or nanoribbons that guide hydroxyapatite deposit, and regenerative functions in bone and vascular tissue and in wound healing. Biotechnological products containing amelogenin seem to facilitate these processes. Here, we describe the production of human amelogenin in plants by transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with constructs carrying synthetic genes with optimized human or plant codons...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801625/the-tomato-histone-deacetylase-slhda1-contributes-to-the-repression-of-fruit-ripening-and-carotenoid-accumulation
#16
Jun-E Guo, Zongli Hu, Mingku Zhu, Fenfen Li, Zhiguo Zhu, Yu Lu, Guoping Chen
Histone deacetylation is one of the well characterized post-translational modifications related to transcriptional repression in eukaryotes. The process of histone deacetylation is achieved by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Over the last decade, substantial advances in our understanding of the mechanism of fruit ripening have been achieved, but the role of HDACs in this process has not been elucidated. In our study, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlHDA1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801565/dual-gene-expression-cassette-is-superior-than-single-gene-cassette-for-enhancing-sheath-blight-tolerance-in-transgenic-rice
#17
Subhasis Karmakar, Kutubuddin A Molla, Kaushik Das, Sailendra Nath Sarkar, Swapan K Datta, Karabi Datta
Sheath blight, caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, is a serious and destructive disease of the rice. In order to improve sheath blight resistance, we developed three different kinds of transgenic rice lines. The first transgenic line overexpresses the rice chitinase gene (OsCHI11); the second contains the Arabidopsis NPR1 (AtNPR1) gene and, the third has pyramided constructs with both the genes (OsCHI11 and AtNPR1). This is a comparative study between the single-gene transgenic lines and the double gene transgenic in terms of their ability to activate the plant defense system...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800849/rnai-mediated-silencing-of-map-kinase-signalling-genes-fmk1-hog1-and-pbs2-in-fusarium-oxysporum-reduces-pathogenesis-on-tomato-plants
#18
Manish Pareek, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam
Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne plant fungal pathogen, and causes colossal losses in several crop plants including tomato. Effective control measures include the use of harmful fungicides and resistant cultivars, but these methods have shown limited success. Conventional methods to validate fungal pathogenic genes are labour intensive. Therefore, an alternative strategy is required to efficiently characterize unknown pathogenic genes. RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential tool to functionally characterize novel fungal pathogenic genes and also to control fungal diseases...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800419/genome-editing-and-plant-transformation-of-solanaceous-food-crops
#19
REVIEW
Joyce Van Eck
During the past decade, the ability to alter plant genomes in a DNA site-specific manner was realized through availability of sequenced genomes and emergence of editing technologies based on complexes that guide endonucleases. Generation of targeted DNA breaks by ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9, then mending by repair mechanisms, provides a valuable foundation for studies of gene function and trait modification. Genome editing has been successful in several food crops, including those belonging to the Solanaceae, which contains some of the most widely used, economically important ones such as tomato and potato...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800167/a-functional-imaging-study-of-germinating-oilseed-rape-seed
#20
Eberhard Munz, Hardy Rolletschek, Steffen Oeltze-Jafra, Johannes Fuchs, André Guendel, Thomas Neuberger, Stefan Ortleb, Peter M Jakob, Ljudmilla Borisjuk
Germination, the process whereby a dry, quiescent seed springs to life, has been a focus of plant biologist for many years, yet the early events following water uptake, during which metabolism of the embryo is restarted, remain enigmatic. Here, the nature of the cues required for this restarting in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed has been investigated. A holistic in vivo approach was designed to display the link between the entry and allocation of water, metabolic events and structural changes occurring during germination...
August 11, 2017: New Phytologist
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