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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723218/aluminum-chloride-mediated-dieckmann-cyclization-for-the-synthesis-of-cyclic-2-alkyl-1-3-alkanediones-one-step-synthesis-of-the-chiloglottones
#1
Ahlam M Armaly, Sukanta Bar, Corinna S Schindler
Cyclic 2-alkyl-1,3-alkanediones are ubiquitous structural motifs in many natural products of biological importance. Reported herein is an AlCl3·MeNO2-mediated Dieckmann cyclization reaction of general synthetic utility that enables direct access to complex 2-alkyl-1,3-dione building blocks from readily available dicarboxylic acid and acid chloride substrates. This new strategy enables direct synthetic access to the chiloglottone plant pheromones from commercial material in a single synthetic transformation...
July 19, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721831/transient-production-of-recombinant-pharmaceutical-proteins-in-plants-evolution-and-perspectives
#2
Lilya Kopertekh, Joachim Schiemann
During the last two decades the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants evolved from proof of concept to established technology adopted by several biotechnological companies. This progress is particularly based on intensive research starting stable genetic transformation and moving to transient expression. Due to its advantages in yield and speed of protein production transient expression platforms became leading plant-based manufacturing technology. Current transient expression methods rely on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of expression vectors into plant cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720131/anti-arthritic-activity-of-aqueous-methanolic-extract-and-various-fractions-of-berberis-orthobotrys-bien-ex-aitch
#3
Alamgeer, Ambreen Malik Uttra, Umme Habiba Hasan
BACKGROUND: The roots and stem bark of Berberis orthobotrys (Berberidaceae) have long been used traditionally to treat joint pain. Though, it has not been pharmacologically assessed for rheumatoid arthritis. The current study explores anti-arthritic activity and phytochemical analysis of aqueous-methanolic extract (30:70) and fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) of Berberis orthobotrys roots. METHODS: Anti-arthritic potential was evaluated in vitro using protein denaturation (bovine serum albumin and egg albumin) and membrane stabilization methods at 12...
July 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#4
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719862/green-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-leaves-extract-of-artemisia-vulgaris-and-their-potential-biomedical-applications
#5
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Chuanlong Li
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts is receiving enormous interest due to their abundant availability and a broad spectrum of bioactive reducing metabolites. In this study, the reducing potential of Artemisia vulgaris leaves extract (AVLE) was investigated for synthesizing silver nanoparticles without the addition of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of blackish brown color evidenced the complete synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis...
July 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718508/development-of-ifox-hunting-as-a-functional-genomics-tool-and-demonstration-of-its-use-to-identify-early-senescence-related-genes-in-the-polyploid-brassica-napus
#6
Juan Ling, Renjie Li, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Junluo Cheng, Maoteng Li, Qing Xu, Jian Wu, Lu Gan, Qingyong Yang, Chao Liu, Ming Chen, Yongming Zhou, Edgar B Cahoon, Chunyu Zhang
Functional genomics studies of many polyploid crops, including rapeseed (Brassica napus) are constrained by limited tool sets. Here we report development of a gain-of-function platform, termed "iFOX (inducible Full-length cDNA OvereXpressor gene)-Hunting", for inducible expression of B. napus seed cDNAs in Arabidopsis. A Gateway-compatible plant gene expression vector containing a methoxyfenozide-inducible constitutive promoter for transgene expression was developed. This vector was used for cloning of random cDNAs from developing B...
July 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717249/spectral-characteristics-of-cotton-seeds-treated-by-a-dielectric-barrier-discharge-plasma
#7
Xing-Quan Wang, Ren-Wu Zhou, Gerard de Groot, Kateryna Bazaka, Anthony B Murphy, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Cold atmospheric plasma has recently emerged as a simple, low-cost and efficient physical method for inducing significant biological responses in seeds and plants without the use of traditional, potentially environmentally-hazardous chemicals, fungicides or hormones. While the beneficial effects of plasma treatment on seed germination, disease resistance and agricultural output have been reported, the mechanisms that underpin the observed biological responses are yet to be fully described. This study employs Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy to capture chemical interactions between plasmas and seed surfaces with the aim to provide a more comprehensive account of plasma-seed interactions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716421/dual-functioning-of-plant-arginases-provides-a-third-route-for-putrescine-synthesis
#8
Jigar Patel, Menaka Ariyaratne, Sheaza Ahmed, Lingxiao Ge, Vipaporn Phuntumart, Andrea Kalinoski, Paul F Morris
Two biosynthetic routes are known for putrescine, an essential plant metabolite. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) converts ornithine directly to putrescine, while a second route for putrescine biosynthesis utilizes arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to convert arginine to agmatine, and two additional enzymes, agmatine iminohydrolase (AIH) and N-carbamoyl putrescine aminohydrolase (NLP1) to complete this pathway. Here we show that plants can use ADC and arginase/agmatinase (ARGAH) as a third route for putrescine synthesis...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716411/genetic-mitigation-strategies-to-tackle-agricultural-ghg-emissions-the-case-for-biological-nitrification-inhibition-technology
#9
REVIEW
G V Subbarao, J Arango, K Masahiro, A M Hooper, T Yoshihashi, Y Ando, K Nakahara, S Deshpande, I Ortiz-Monasterio, M Ishitani, M Peters, N Chirinda, L Wollenberg, J C Lata, B Gerard, S Tobita, I M Rao, H J Braun, V Kommerell, J Tohme, M Iwanaga
Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715654/generation-of-stable-infectious-clones-of-plant-viruses-by-using-rhizobium-radiobacter-for-both-cloning-and-inoculation
#10
Decai Tuo, Lanlan Fu, Wentao Shen, Xiaoying Li, Peng Zhou, Pu Yan
A novel Rhizobium radiobacter (synonym Agrobacterium tumefaciens)-mediated approach was developed to generate stable infectious clones of plant viruses. This method uses R. radiobacter for both cloning and inoculation of infectious clones, bypassing the requirement of cloning in E. coli to avoid the instability. Only three steps are included in this method: (i) construct viral genome-encoding plasmids in vitro by one-step Gibson assembly; (ii) transform the assembled DNA products into R. radiobacter; (iii) inoculate plants with the R...
July 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715326/joint-multi-leaf-segmentation-alignment-and-tracking-from-fluorescence-plant-videos
#11
Xi Yin, Xiaoming Liu, Jin Chen, David M Kramer
This paper proposes a novel framework for fluorescence plant video processing. The plant research community is interested in the leaf-level photosynthetic analysis within a plant. A prerequisite for such analysis is to segment all leaves, estimate their structures, and track them over time. We identify this as a joint multi-leaf segmentation, alignment, and tracking problem. First, leaf segmentation and alignment are applied on the last frame of a plant video to find a number of well-aligned leaf candidates...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713946/ginkgo-biloba-extract-prevents-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-suppresses-the-inflammation%C3%A2-and-apoptosis%C3%A2-regulating-p38-mitogen%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinases-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-b%C3%A2-cell-lymphoma-2-signaling-pathways
#12
Yanping Li, Ya Zhang, Min Wen, Ju Zhang, Xia Zhao, Yuan Zhao, Jiagang Deng
Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713920/low%C3%A2-dose-halofuginone-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-type-i-collagen-without-influencing-type-ii-collagen-in-the-extracellular-matrix-of-chondrocytes
#13
Zeng Li, Hao Fei, Zhen Wang, Tianyi Zhu
Full‑thickness and large area defects of articular cartilage are unable to completely repair themselves and require surgical intervention, including microfracture, autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. A large proportion of regenerative cartilage exists as fibrocartilage, which is unable to withstand impacts in the same way as native hyaline cartilage, owing to excess synthesis of type I collagen in the matrix. The present study demonstrated that low‑dose halofuginone (HF), a plant alkaloid isolated from Dichroa febrifuga, may inhibit the synthesis of type I collagen without influencing type II collagen in the extracellular matrix of chondrocytes...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713400/overexpression-of-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-gene-adbil-contributes-to-resistance-against-chilling-stress-and-leaf-mold-disease-in-tomato
#14
Shuangchen Chen, Hongjiao Zhao, Mengmeng Wang, Jidi Li, Zhonghong Wang, Fenghua Wang, Airong Liu, Golam J Ahammed
Ubiquitination is a common regulatory mechanism, playing a critical role in diverse cellular and developmental processes in eukaryotes. However, a few reports on the functional correlation between E3 ubiquitin ligases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) metabolism in response to stress are currently available in plants. In the present study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase gene AdBiL (Adi3 Binding E3 Ligase) was introduced into tomato line Ailsa Craig via Agrobacterium-mediated method...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710982/occurrence-fate-and-mass-balance-of-different-classes-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-an-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-xiamen-china
#15
Muhammad Ashfaq, Yan Li, Yuwen Wang, Wenjie Chen, Han Wang, Xiangqiang Chen, Wei Wu, Zhenyi Huang, Chang-Ping Yu, Qian Sun
In this study, the occurrence and fate of 49 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for seven consecutive days using 24-h composite sampling technique. Special emphasis was placed to understand the distribution of PPCPs in dissolved and adsorbed phase, and to evaluate PPCP fate in different treatment units. Among the 49 PPCPs, 40 PPCPs in influent, 36 in effluent, 29 in sludge and 23 in suspended solids were detected at least once during sampling...
July 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710879/the-transcription-factor-pstste12-is-required-for-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#16
Xiaoguo Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiuling Chu, Qixiong Sun, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Min Jiao, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an obligate biotrophic fungus that causes extensive damage in wheat. The pathogen is now known to be a heteroecious fungus with an intricate life cycle containing sexual and asexual stages. Orthologs of the STE12 transcription factor that regulate mating and filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as virulence in other fungi has been extensively described. Because reliable transformation and gene disruption methods are lacking for Pst, knowledge about the function of its STE12 ortholog is limited...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709614/generation-of-recombinant-protein-shells-of-johnson-grass-chlorotic-stripe-mosaic-virus-in-tobacco-plants-and-their-use-as-drug-carrier
#17
E Alemzadeh, K Izadpanah, F Ahmadi
The development and use of virus-like particles (VLPs) is a growing field with a powerful potential in generation of nanoparticles. In the present study we have attempted to generate and use empty shells of Johnson grass chlorotic stripe mosaic virus (JgCSMV, a member of the genus Aureusvirus, family Tombusviridae) as VLP nanoparticles for drug loading. In order to successfully produce recombinant JgCSMV-derived VLPs, we followed an approach based on cloning of the JgCSMV CP gene into pBI121 vectorand introduction of the latter into Agrobacterium rhizogenes and transformation of tobacco cells for coat protein expression...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708390/softwood-lignin-self-assembly-for-nanomaterial-design
#18
Stefan Salentinig, Mark Schubert
Lignin is a natural, renewable biopolymer synthesized by plants. It is a macromolecule consisting of aromatic structures with high density of functional groups making it an ideal precursor for the design of sustainable biomaterials for applications such as drug delivery. The rational design of these materials requires an in-depth understanding of the underlying lignin self-assembly in solution. Colloidal transformations from nano-sized lignin assemblies to sub-micron sized spherical particles upon solvent exchange were studied using small angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy...
July 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703352/atpds-over-expression-in-tomato-exposing-unique-patterns-of-carotenoid-self-regulation-and-an-alternative-strategy-for-the-enhancement-of-fruit-carotenoid-content
#19
Ryan P McQuinn, Breanna Wong, James J Giovannoni
The regulation of plant carotenogenesis is an active research area for both biological discovery and practical implementation. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) we demonstrate additional bottlenecks exist in the poly-cis-transformation of phytoene to lycopene in the context of ripening-induced PSY1 expression and activity, and reveal phytoene desaturase (PDS), as a target for manipulation toward elevated lycopene content in maturing tomato fruit. Over-expression of Arabidopsis PDS, AtPDS, elevated PDS transcript abundance in all aerial tissues resulting in both altered carotenoid accumulation and associated pathway gene expression in a tissue-specific manner...
July 13, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701886/overexpression-of-ginseng-ugt72al1-causes-organ-fusion-in-the-axillary-leaf-branch-of-arabidopsis
#20
Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Ok Ran Lee
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation of natural compounds increases the diversity of secondary metabolites. Glycosylation steps are implicated not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant defense responses. Although the activities of uridine-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have long been recognized, and genes encoding them in several higher plants have been identified, the specific functions of UGTs in planta remain largely unknown. METHODS: Spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and GUS histochemical assay...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
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