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Plant transformation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429856/glycosyltransferase-cascades-for-natural-product-glycosylation-use-of-plant-instead-of-bacterial-sucrose-synthases-improves-the-udp-glucose-recycling-from-sucrose-and-udp
#1
Alexander Gutmann, Alexander Lepak, Margo Diricks, Tom Desmet, Bernd Nidetzky
Natural product glycosylations by Leloir glycosyltransferases (GTs) require expensive nucleotide-activated sugars as substrates. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) converts sucrose and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) into UDP-glucose. Coupling of SuSy and GT reactions in one-pot cascade transformations creates a UDP cycle, which regenerates the UDP-glucose continuously and so makes it an expedient donor for glucoside production. Here we compare SuSys with divergent kinetic characteristics for UDP-glucose recycling in the synthesis of the natural C-glucoside nothofagin...
April 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#2
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428810/recent-achievements-obtained-by-chloroplast-transformation
#3
REVIEW
Muhamed Adem, Dereje Beyene, Tileye Feyissa
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428794/fine-mapping-of-a-novel-defective-glume-1-dg1-mutant-which-affects-vegetative-and-spikelet-development-in-rice
#4
Haiping Yu, Banpu Ruan, Zhongwei Wang, Deyong Ren, Yu Zhang, Yujia Leng, Dali Zeng, Jiang Hu, Guangheng Zhang, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guang Chen, Longbiao Guo, Wenfu Chen, Qian Qian
In cereal crops, vegetative and spikelet development play important roles in grain yield and quality, but the genetic mechanisms that control vegetative and spikelet development remain poorly understood in rice. Here, we identified a new rice mutant, defective glume 1 (dg1) mutant from cultivar Zhonghua11 after ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The dg1 mutant displayed the dwarfism with small, rolled leaves, which resulted from smaller cells and more bulliform cells. The dg1 mutant also had an enlarged leaf angle and defects in brassinosteroid signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427621/engineering-design-and-prototype-development-of-a-full-scale-ultrasound-system-for-virgin-olive-oil-by-means-of-numerical-and-experimental-analysis
#5
Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Vito Moramarco, Antonello Paduano, Raffaele Sacchi, Tiziana Di Palmo, Pasquale Crupi, Filomena Corbo, Vito Pesce, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano, Riccardo Amirante
The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425025/light-induced-formation-of-dimeric-lhcii
#6
Ewa Janik, Joanna Bednarska, Karol Sowinski, Rafal Luchowski, Monika Zubik, Wojciech Grudzinski, Wieslaw I Gruszecki
It emerges from numerous experiments that LHCII, the major photosynthetic antenna complex of plants, can appear not only in the trimeric or monomeric states but also as a dimer. We address the problem whether the dimeric form of the complex is just a simple intermediate element of the trimer-monomer transformation or if it can also be a physiologically relevant molecular organization form? Dimers of LHCII were analyzed with application of native electrophoresis, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
April 19, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424855/analysis-of-multiple-soybean-phytonutrients-by-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
#7
Gaoyang Zhang, Penghui Li, Wenfei Zhang, Jian Zhao
Improvement of the nutritional quality of soybean is usually facilitated by a vast range of soybean germplasm with enough information about their multiple phytonutrients. In order to acquire this essential information from a huge number of soybean samples, a rapid analytic method is urgently required. Here, a nondestructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed for rapid and accurate measurement of 25 nutritional components in soybean simultaneously, including fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, vitamin E (VE), α-VE, γ-VE, δ-VE, saponins, isoflavonoids, and flavonoids...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424754/considerations-of-temperature-in-the-context-of-the-persistence-classification-in-the-eu
#8
Michael Matthies, Sabine Beulke
Simulation degradation studies for industrial chemicals, biocidal products and plant protection products are required in the EU to estimate half-lives in soil, water and sediment for the comparison to persistence criteria for hazard (P/vP) assessment, and for use in exposure assessments. There is a discrepancy between European regulatory approaches regarding the temperature at which degradation half-lives should be (1) measured in simulation degradation testing of environmental compartments, and (2) compared to the P/vP criteria...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424727/host-induced-silencing-of-two-pharyngeal-gland-genes-conferred-transcriptional-alteration-of-cell-wall-modifying-enzymes-of-meloidogyne-incognita-vis-%C3%A3-vis-perturbed-nematode-infectivity-in-eggplant
#9
Tagginahalli N Shivakumara, Sonam Chaudhary, Divya Kamaraju, Tushar K Dutta, Pradeep K Papolu, Prakash Banakar, Rohini Sreevathsa, Bhupinder Singh, K M Manjaiah, Uma Rao
The complex parasitic strategy of Meloidogyne incognita appears to involve simultaneous expression of its pharyngeal gland-specific effector genes in order to colonize the host plants. Research reports related to effector crosstalk in phytonematodes for successful parasitism of the host tissue is yet underexplored. In view of this, we have used in planta effector screening approach to understand the possible interaction of pioneer genes (msp-18 and msp-20, putatively involved in late and early stage of M. incognita parasitism, respectively) with other unrelated effectors such as cell-wall modifying enzymes (CWMEs) in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422432/ja-but-not-ja-ile-is-the-cell-nonautonomous-signal-activating-ja-mediated-systemic-defenses-to-herbivory-in-nicotiana-attenuata
#10
Tohir A Bozorov, Son Truong Dinh, Ian T Baldwin
The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell- nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421718/small-serine-recombination-systems-para-mrs-and-cinh-rs2-perform-precise-excision-of-plastid-dna
#11
Min Shao, Ann Blechl, James G Thomson
Selectable marker genes (SMGs) are necessary for selection of transgenic plants. However, once stable transformants have been identified, the marker gene is no longer needed. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the small serine recombination systems, ParA-MRS and CinH-RS2, to precisely excise a marker gene from the plastid genome of tobacco. Transplastomic plants transformed with the pTCH-MRS and pTCH-RS2 vectors, containing the visual reporter gene DsRed flanked by directly oriented MRS and RS2 recognition sites, respectively, were crossed with nuclear-genome transformed tobacco plants expressing plastid-targeted ParA and CinH recombinases, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421325/plant-microbial-competition-for-nitrogen-increases-microbial-activities-and-carbon-loss-in-invaded-soils
#12
Matthew E Craig, Jennifer M Fraterrigo
Many invasive plant species show high rates of nutrient acquisition relative to their competitors. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, and its implications for ecosystem functioning, are poorly understood, particularly in nutrient-limited systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that an invasive plant species (Microstegium vimineum) enhances its rate of nitrogen (N) acquisition by outcompeting soil organic matter-degrading microbes for N, which in turn accelerates soil N and carbon (C) cycling. We estimated plant cover as an indicator of plant N acquisition rate and quantified plant tissue N, soil C and N content and transformations, and extracellular enzyme activities in invaded and uninvaded plots...
April 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421085/expression-of-arabidopsis-shn1-in-indian-mulberry-morus-indica-l-increases-leaf-surface-wax-content-and-reduces-post-harvest-water-loss
#13
R S Sajeevan, Karaba N Nataraja, K S Shivashankara, N Pallavi, D S Gurumurthy, M B Shivanna
Mulberry (Morus species) leaf is the sole food for monophagous silkworms, Bombyx mori L. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature, significantly decrease mulberry productivity and post-harvest water loss from leaves influence silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Leaf surface properties regulate direct water loss through the cuticular layer. Leaf surface waxes, contribute for cuticular resistance and protect mesophyll cells from desiccation. In this study we attempted to overexpress AtSHN1, a transcription factor associated with epicuticular wax biosynthesis to increase leaf surface wax load in mulberry...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420193/a-quantitative-pcr-electrochemical-genosensor-test-for-the-screening-of-biotech-crops
#14
Suely Moura-Melo, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Arturo J Miranda-Ordieres, José Ribeiro Dos Santos Junior, Rosana A da Silva Fonseca, María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419172/enhanced-disease-resistance-and-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-rice-plants-overexpressing-protein-elicitors-from-magnaporthe-oryzae
#15
Zhenzhen Wang, Qiang Han, Qian Zi, Shun Lv, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng
Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419130/virus-induced-down-regulation-of-gmera1a-and-gmera1b-genes-enhances-the-stomatal-response-to-abscisic-acid-and-drought-resistance-in-soybean
#16
Takuya Ogata, Yukari Nagatoshi, Noriko Yamagishi, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa, Yasunari Fujita
Drought is a major threat to global soybean production. The limited transformation potential and polyploid nature of soybean have hindered functional analysis of soybean genes. Previous research has implicated farnesylation in the plant's response to abscisic acid (ABA) and drought tolerance. We therefore used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to evaluate farnesyltransferase genes, GmERA1A and GmERA1B (Glycine max Enhanced Response to ABA1-A and -B), as potential targets for increasing drought resistance in soybean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418068/recombinant-overexpression-of-dihydroneopterin-aldolase-catalyst-potentially-regulates-folate-biofortification
#17
Dhananjay K Pandey, Atul Kumar, Jitendra S Rathore, Nagendra Singh, Bhupendra Chaudhary
We aim to investigate the prospects of increased production of folate through the overexpression of heterologous dihydroneopterin aldolase catalyst. The gene encoding aldolase catalyst was cloned into an expression vector and the induced recombinant protein was purified through metal-affinity chromatography which appeared at 14 kDa position on polyacrylamide-gel. Remarkably, a periodic increase in the extracellular and intracellular folic acid concentration was observed at 4 h growth of induced recombinant DHNA samples than control in a pH-dependent manner...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417371/analysis-of-complex-carbohydrate-composition-in-plant-cell-wall-using-fourier-transformed-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-ft-ir
#18
Ajay Badhan, Yuxi Wang, Tim A McAllister
Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Acebes et al., Front Plant Sci 5:303, 2014; Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The infrared spectrum generates a fingerprint of a sample with absorption peaks corresponding to the frequency of vibrations between the bonds of the atoms making up the material. Here, we describe a method focused on the use of FTIR in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the composition of the plant cell wall...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417275/rna-silencing-in-the-life-cycle-of-soybean-multiple-restriction-systems-and-spatiotemporal-variation-associated-with-plant-architecture
#19
Ayumi Mori, Hiroshi Sato, Megumi Kasai, Tetsuya Yamada, Akira Kanazawa
The expression of transgenes introduced into a plant genome is sometimes suppressed by RNA silencing. Although local and systemic spread of RNA silencing have been studied, little is known about the mechanisms underlying spatial and temporal variation in transgene silencing between individual plants or between plants of different generations, which occurs seemingly stochastically. Here, we analyzed the occurrence, spread, and transmission of RNA silencing of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene over multiple generations of the progeny of a single soybean transformant...
April 17, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416753/synergistic-effects-of-the-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-ctla-4-combined-with-the-growth-inhibitor-lycorine-in-a-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#20
Xiezhao Li, Peng Xu, Chongshan Wang, Naijin Xu, Abai Xu, Yawen Xu, Takuya Sadahira, Motoo Araki, Koichiro Wada, Eiji Matsuura, Masami Watanabe, Junxia Zheng, Pinghua Sun, Peng Huang, Yasutomo Nasu, Chunxiao Liu
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) management has undergone a major transformation over the past decade; immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials and show promising results. However, the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) is still limited. Lycorine, an alkaloid extracted from plants of the Amaryllidaceae family, is touted as a potential anti-cancer drug because of its demonstrative growth inhibition capacity (induction of cell cycle arrest and inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry formation)...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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