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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471072/neuroreflex-control-of-cardiovascular-function-is-impaired-after-acute-poisoning-with-chlorpyrifos-an-organophosphorus-insecticide-possible-short-and-long-term-clinical-implications
#1
Alexandre F Cunha, Igor S A Felippe, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Leonardo B M Resstel, Daniela A M Guimarães, Vanessa Beijamini, Julian F R Paton, Karla N Sampaio
Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470800/landiolol-a-review-in-tachyarrhythmias
#2
Yahiya Y Syed
Intravenous landiolol [Rapibloc® (EU)], an ultra short-acting highly cardioselective β1 -blocker, is approved in the EU for the rapid short-term control of tachyarrhythmias in the perioperative and intensive care settings. It has long been used in Japan to treat perioperative tachyarrhythmias. The efficacy of landiolol has been demonstrated in a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials. Landiolol significantly reduced heart rate in patients with postoperative or intraoperative supraventricular tachycardia relative to placebo and in those with atrial fibrillation/flutter and left ventricular dysfunction relative to digoxin...
February 22, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470251/clinically-oriented-device-programming-in-bradycardia-patients-part-2-atrioventricular-blocks-and-neurally-mediated-syncope-proposals-from-aiac-italian-association-of-arrhythmology-and-cardiac-pacing
#3
Pietro Palmisano, Matteo Ziacchi, Mauro Biffi, Renato P Ricci, Maurizio Landolina, Massimo Zoni-Berisso, Eraldo Occhetta, Giampiero Maglia, Gianluca Botto, Luigi Padeletti, Giuseppe Boriani
: The purpose of this two-part consensus document is to provide specific suggestions (based on an extensive literature review) on appropriate pacemaker setting in relation to patients' clinical features. In part 2, criteria for pacemaker choice and programming in atrioventricular blocks and neurally mediate syncope are proposed. The atrioventricular blocks can be paroxysmal or persistent, isolated or associated with sinus node disease. Neurally mediated syncope can be related to carotid sinus syndrome or cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470250/clinically-oriented-device-programming-in-bradycardia-patients-part-1-sinus-node-disease-proposals-from-aiac-italian-association-of-arrhythmology-and-cardiac-pacing
#4
Matteo Ziacchi, Pietro Palmisano, Mauro Biffi, Renato P Ricci, Maurizio Landolina, Massimo Zoni-Berisso, Eraldo Occhetta, Giampiero Maglia, Gianluca Botto, Luigi Padeletti, Giuseppe Boriani
: Modern pacemakers have an increasing number of programable parameters and specific algorithms designed to optimize pacing therapy in relation to the individual characteristics of patients. When choosing the most appropriate pacemaker type and programing, the following variables must be taken into account: the type of bradyarrhythmia at the time of pacemaker implantation; the cardiac chamber requiring pacing, and the percentage of pacing actually needed to correct the rhythm disorder; the possible association of multiple rhythm disturbances and conduction diseases; the evolution of conduction disorders during follow-up...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470149/chronic-complete-cervical-6-7-cord-transection-distinct-autonomic-and-cardiac-deficits
#5
Heidi L Lujan, Anne Tonson, Robert W Wiseman, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in tetraplegia is a devastating, life-changing insult causing paralysis and sensory impairment as well as distinct autonomic dysfunction that triggers compromised cardiovascular, bowel, bladder and sexual activity. Life becomes a battle for independence as even routine bodily functions and the smallest activity of daily living become a major challenge. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a chronic pre-clinical model of tetraplegia. This report addresses this critical need by comparing, for the first time, resting, reflex and stress-induced cardiovascular, autonomic and hormonal responses each week for 4 weeks in 12 sham-operated intact rats and 12 rats with chronic, complete C6-7 spinal cord transection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467520/premedication-with-paralysis-improves-intubation-success-and-decreases-adverse-events-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Jeanne Krick, Megan Gray, Rachel Umoren, Gina Lee, Taylor Sawyer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of premedication with and without a paralytic agent on the safety of tracheal intubation (TI) in infants ≤1500 g. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study between February 2015 and June 2017. The primary outcomes were associations between the use of different premedication regimens with number of TI attempts, TI adverse events (TIAEs), and changes in heart rate. RESULTS: Data were collected on 237 TIs...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466684/cardiovascular-response-to-trigeminal-nerve-stimulation-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-humans-does-sex-matter
#7
Eliza Prodel, Thales C Barbosa, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Lauro C Vianna
We sought to investigate the possibility that there are sex differences in the cardiovascular responses to trigeminal nerve stimulation (TGS) with cold exposure to the face, at rest and during dynamic exercise. In nine healthy men (age 28{plus minus}3 yr; height 178{plus minus}1 cm; weight 77{plus minus}8 kg) and thirteen women (age 26{plus minus}5 yr; height 164{plus minus}3 cm; weight 63{plus minus}7 kg) beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were recorded. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI) and total vascular resistance index (TVRI) were calculated...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466210/-elevated-level-of-the-natriuretic-peptide-among-adult-population-in-regions-participating-in-the-esse-rf-study-and-its-association-with-cardiovascular-diseases-and-risk-factors
#8
S A Shalnova, A E Imaeva, A D Deev, V A Metelskaya, G A Muromtseva, A O Konradi, V P Masenko, A Y Efanov, N V Kulakova, O P Rotar, I A Trubacheva, A A Shabunova, E V SHlyakhto, S A Boytsov
AIM: to study associations between elevated blood plasma concentration of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in samples of adult population of Russian Federation (RF) aged 25-64 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data of examination of representative samples of population of 5 regions of RF obtained within the framework of the multicenter ESSE-RF study (2012-2013). Number of examined subjects was 8 077 (3 176 men)...
December 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463611/evidence-for-reduced-susceptibility-to-cardiac-bradycardias-in-south-asians-compared-with-caucasians
#9
Matthew F Yuyun, Iain B Squire, G André Ng, Nilesh J Samani
OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in susceptibility to bradycardias in South Asian and white European patients in the UK by determining rates of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation for sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrioventricular block (AVB) in each ethnic group. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study into new PPM implantation during the period from 1 May 2006 to 31 March 2014, in patients of South Asian and Caucasian ethnicity resident in Leicestershire, UK...
February 20, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458748/does-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-affect-autonomic-nervous-system-in-patients-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#10
Francesca Izzi, Fabio Placidi, Claudio Liguori, Benedetta Lauretti, Girolama A Marfia, Antonio Pisani, Nicola B Mercuri, Camilla Rocchi
OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at evaluating whether Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment (CPAP) may affect autonomic nervous system (ANS) in male patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS). METHODS: We compared autonomic symptoms of de novo severe OSAS patients, OSAS patients on chronic CPAP treatment and healthy controls, using the Scales for Outcome in Parkinson disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) questionnaire. All groups underwent cardiovascular function tests including head-up tilt test (HUTT), Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, hand grip and cold face tests...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454160/vascular-parameters-continue-to-decrease-post-exposure-with-simultaneous-but-not-individual-exposure-to-bpa-and-hypoxia-in-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Alysha D Cypher, Bryce Fetterman, Brian Bagatto
How fish respond to hypoxia, a common stressor, can be altered by simultaneous exposure to pollutants like bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer. BPA is cardiotoxic and interferes with the hypoxia inducible factor pathway (HIF-1α), therefore disrupting the hypoxic response. Co-exposure to hypoxia and BPA also causes severe bradycardia and reduced cardiac output in zebrafish larvae. The purpose of this work was to determine how the cardiovascular effects of co-exposure vary with BPA concentration and persist beyond exposure...
February 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451818/overexpression-of-heart-specific-small-subunit-of-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-results-in-heart-failure-and-conduction-disturbance
#12
Takuro Arimura, Antoine Muchir, Masayoshi Kuwahara, Sachio Morimoto, Taisuke Ishikawa, Cheng-Kun Du, Dong-Yun Zhan, Shu Nakao, Noboru Machida, Ryo Tanaka, Yoshihisa Yamane, Takeharu Hayashi, Akinori Kimura
Mutations in genes encoding components of sarcomere cause cardiomyopathy, which is often associated with abnormal Ca 2+ sensitivity of muscle contraction. We previously showed that a heart-specific myosin light chain phosphatase small subunit, hHS-M 21 , increases the Ca 2+ -sensitivity of muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of hHS-M 21 in vivo and the causative role of abnormal Ca 2+ sensitivity in cardiomyopathy. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of hHS-M 21 ...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450560/-ecg-results-tips-and-tricks-for-the-correct-diagnosis-bradycardia-and-tachycardia-rhythm-disorders
#13
H-J Trappe
The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is of great importance for the diagnostics of cardiac arrhythmias. For the correct and systematic analysis it has a sensitivity and specificity for the correct diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia or ventricular tachycardia of more than 95%. Nevertheless, the assessment of cardiac rhythm disorders is difficult for many physicians. In this way errors can occur, frequently due to a non-systematic analysis of the ECG; therefore, the aim of this article is to present the techniques and the necessary knowledge for assessment of the most frequent bradycardiac and tachycardiac heart rhythm disorders...
February 15, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449664/incidence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-in-guadeloupe-french-west-indies-between-2013-and-2016-a-retrospective-cases-series
#14
Denis Boucaud-Maitre, Jean-Paul Vernoux, Stéphane Pelczar, Elise Daudens-Vaysse, Lyderic Aubert, Sylvie Boa, Serge Ferracci, Robert Garnier
This retrospective case study analysed the incidence and symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016. Cases attending the emergency departments of the two public hospitals and the reports received by the regional health authority in charge of monitoring (ARS) were compiled. Two hundred and thirty-four cases of poisoning were observed, with a mean annual incidence of 1.47/10,000 (95% CI): 1.29-1.66), i.e 5 times higher than the previously reported incidence (1996-2006)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445064/the-validity-of-anesthetic-protocols-for-the-surgical-procedure-of-castration-in-rats
#15
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Natsuko Niino, Mizuho Sakamoto, Risa Ohtani, Tomo Inomata
To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be performed. However, few studies have investigated the validity of anesthetic protocols under surgical conditions in small rodents. The present study aimed to clarify the pharmacological properties of 4 anesthetic protocols during the surgical procedure of castration in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were anesthetized with anesthetics, including the combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X), the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B), and isoflurane, and sevoflurane...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441174/comparison-of-propofol-alone-and-in-combination-with-ketamine-or-fentanyl-for-sedation-in-endoscopic-ultrasonography
#16
Shweta A Singh, Kelika Prakash, Sandeep Sharma, Gaurav Dhakate, Vikram Bhatia
Background: We evaluated whether the addition of a small dose of ketamine or fentanyl would lead to a reduction in the total dose of propofol consumed without compromising the safety and recovery of patients having endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Methods: A total of 210 adult patients undergoing elective EUS under sedation were included in the study. Patients were randomized into three groups. Patients were premedicated intravenously with normal saline in group 1, 50 µg fentanyl in group 2, and 0...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434162/bradycardia-is-a-specific-phenotype-of-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-induced-by-ryr2-mutations
#17
Kazuaki Miyata, Seiko Ohno, Hideki Itoh, Minoru Horie
Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias induced by physical exercise or emotional stress. The major cause of CPVT is mutations in RYR2, which encodes the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel. Recent advances in sequencing technology have yielded incidental findings of RYR2 variants in other cardiac diseases. Analyzing the characteristics of RYR2 variants related to CPVT will be useful for differentiation from those related to other cardiac diseases...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433586/a-case-report-of-clonidine-induced-syncope-a-review-of-central-actions-of-an-old-cardiovascular-drug
#18
Alexander J Sandweiss, Christopher M Morrison, Anne Spichler, John Rozich
BACKGROUND: Clonidine is an imidazoline sympatholytic, acting on both α 2 -adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the brainstem to induce antihypertensive and negative chronotropic effects in the vasculature and heart respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old gentleman with hypertension presented to the emergency department after multiple syncopal episodes over the past 12 months. Electrocardiogram demonstrated sinus bradycardia with a heart rate of 42 beats per minute...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431100/sheehan-s-syndrome-presenting-as-cardiac-tamponade
#19
Ankit Mittal, Animesh Ray, Ram Manohar Talupula, Rita Sood
A 50-year-old woman presented with progressive dyspnoea and oedema with rapid deterioration over the last few days. Clinical examination revealed hypotension with cold clammy skin, raised jugular venous pressure and muffled heart sounds and was diagnosed to have cardiac tamponade, later confirmed on two-dimensional echocardiography. However, patient had bradycardia, and the other striking examination findings were coarse facies with pallor, madarosis, absent axillary and pubic hair and breast atrophy. Her blood sugar level was also low...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428065/ectg-an-automatic-procedure-to-extract-digital-cardiotocographic-signals-from-digital-images
#20
Agnese Sbrollini, Angela Agostinelli, Ilaria Marcantoni, Micaela Morettini, Luca Burattini, Francesco Di Nardo, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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