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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#1
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224112/the-role-of-androgen-excess-in-metabolic-dysfunction-in-women-androgen-excess-and-female-metabolic-dysfunction
#2
Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#3
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223957/prognostic-utility-of-morning-blood-pressure-surge-for-20-year-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortalities-results-of-a-community-based-study
#4
Hao-Min Cheng, Chung-Li Wu, Shih-Hsien Sung, Jia-Chun Lee, Kazuomi Kario, Chern-En Chiang, Chi-Jung Huang, Pai-Feng Hsu, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Edward G Lakatta, Frank C P Yin, Pesus Chou, Chen-Huan Chen
BACKGROUND: Morning blood pressure (BP) surge (MS), defined by the MS amplitude, is an independent prognostic factor of cardiovascular outcomes in some, but not all, populations. METHOD AND RESULTS: We enrolled 2020 participants (1029 men; aged 30-79 years) with 24-hour ambulatory BP data. During a median 19.7-year follow-up, 607 deaths (182 by cardiovascular causes) were confirmed from the National Death Registry. The amplitude of sleep-trough MS (STMS) was derived from the difference between morning systolic BP (SBP) and lowest nighttime SBP...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223956/residual-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-events-in-relation-to-reductions-in-very-low-density-lipoproteins
#5
Patrick R Lawler, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paulo Harada, Robert J Glynn, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether pharmacological reductions in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), and their component triglyceride and cholesterol could reduce residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals in whom low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been adequately lowered. We examined whether individuals with greater on-statin reductions in VLDL-related measures-beyond reductions in LDL-C-were at further reduced risk of ASCVD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223817/elevated-inflammatory-lp-pla2-and-il-6-link-e-waste-pb-toxicity-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-preschool-children
#6
Xueling Lu, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhang, Chenyang Wang, Xia Huo
Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223433/contemporary-rates-and-correlates-of-statin-use-and-adherence-in-nondiabetic-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-the-kp-champ-study
#7
Alan S Go, Dongjie Fan, Sue Hee Sung, Alda I Inveiss, Victoria Romo-LeTourneau, Usha G Mallya, Susan Boklage, Joan C Lo
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy is highly efficacious in the prevention of fatal and nonfatal atherosclerotic events in persons at increased cardiovascular risk. However, its long-term effectiveness in practice depends on a high level of medication adherence by patients. METHODS: We identified nondiabetic adults with cardiovascular risk factors between 2008 and 2010 within a large integrated health care delivery system in Northern California. Through 2013, we examined the use and adherence of newly initiated statin therapy based on data from dispensed prescriptions from outpatient pharmacy databases...
December 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#8
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223189/the-evaluation-of-arterial-stiffness-of-essential-hypertension-and-white-coat-hypertension-in-children-a-case-control-study
#9
Semiha Terlemez Tokgöz, Dilek Yılmaz, Yavuz Tokgöz, Bülent Çelik, Yasin Bulut
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine and compare cardiovascular risks by assessing arterial stiffness in children with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. METHODS: Paediatric patients followed up with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension diagnoses and with no established end organ damage were involved in the study. Arterial stiffness in children included in the study was evaluated and compared by using the oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph) method...
December 10, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221483/the-role-of-sleepiness-on-arterial-stiffness-improvement-after-cpap-therapy-in-males-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Maria Alexandra Mineiro, Pedro Marques da Silva, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Maria João Marques Gomes, João Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aim to assess differences in changes in arterial stiffness of two groups of patients, defined as having daytime sleepiness or not, after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. METHODS: A selected cohort of consecutive male patients, under 65 years old, with moderate to severe OSA and without great number of comorbidities was studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by home respiratory poligraphy...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221473/prevalence-of-somatic-and-urogenital-symptoms-as-well-as-psychological-health-in-women-aged-45-to-55-attending-primary-health-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Lena Rindner, Gunilla Strömme, Lena Nordeman, Margareta Wigren, Dominique Hange, Ronny Gunnarsson, Gun Rembeck
BACKGROUND: Women's physical and mental ill-health such as stress-related symptoms, depression, pain, hypertension and urogenital health shows a marked increase around the ages 45-55 years. These women are an important group for Primary Health Care (PHC) due to their prevalent symptoms and illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms in women aged 45-55 attending PHC and evaluate factors associated with severe symptoms...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221436/prevalence-and-related-risk-factors-of-chronic-kidney-disease-among-adults-in-luxembourg-evidence-from-the-observation-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-oriscav-lux-study
#12
Ala'a Alkerwi, Nicolas Sauvageot, Illiasse El Bahi, Charles Delagardelle, Jean Beissel, Stephanie Noppe, Paul J Roderick, Jennifer S Mindell, Saverio Stranges
BACKGROUND: Evidence on stages of renal impairment and related risk factors in Luxembourg is lacking. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify potential correlates among the general population, using the recent definition suggested by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. METHODS: Data analysed from 1361 participants aged 18-69 years, enrolled in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, 2007-08...
December 8, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220641/coronary-vascular-disease-event-risk-and-metabolic-syndrome-prevalence-in-patients-enrolled-in-an-assertive-treatment-community-program
#13
Luis Ramudo Cela, María José Ávila González, Juan Carlos Yáñez Rubal, Lucía María Díaz Platas, María Isabel Martín Herranz, Juan Carlos Díaz Del Valle
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of coronary vascular disease event (CVDE) and the prevalence metabolic syndrome (MS) and its cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in patients with severe mental illnesses enrolled in an assertive treatment community program (ATC) in Spain. METHOD: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study with all of the patients included in an ATC program in 2016 in a health area with 547,328 inhabitants in Galicia, Spain. We identified the CVRF in all the individuals, and calculated MS and 10-year CVDE...
November 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220527/inverse-association-between-neck-pain-and-all-cause-mortality-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#14
Antonio Muscari, Giampaolo Bianchi, Paola Forti, Donatella Magalotti, Paolo Pandolfi, Marco Zoli
Objective: In a previous study, we found an apparent protective effect of neck pain on all-cause mortality in subjects older than age 85 years. The present longitudinal investigation was performed to verify this unexpected finding in a larger sample and to establish its significance. Design: Population follow-up study. Setting: Three towns of Northern Italy. Subjects: We examined 5,253 community-dwelling residents age 65-102 years (55% female)...
December 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220484/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-hypertension-is-there-a-connection
#15
Elias Sanidas, Dimitris P Papadopoulos, Maria Velliou, Kostas Tsioufis, John Barbetseas, Vasilios Papademetriou
Data support that hypertension is prevalent among HIV patients contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Immunodeficiency and prolonged antiretroviral treatment along with common risk factors including older age, male gender and high body mass index might conduce to greater incidence of hypertension. The purpose of this review was to summarize recent evidence of the increased cardiovascular risk in these patents linking HIV infection to hypertension.
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219813/unfavourable-blood-pressure-and-ldl-cholesterol-levels-in-obese-non-diabetic-individuals
#16
B H R Wolffenbuttel, S N Slagter, R P van Waateringe, A P van Beek, J V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, M M van der Klauw
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol is important to reduce cardiovascular risk. We compared BP and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as the quality of treatment between obese subjects and normal weight and overweight individuals. METHODS: 87,648 participants of the Lifelines study were categorised according to obesity (normal weight/ overweight/obesity) and age. Mean systolic BP and LDL-C were calculated depending on treatment, BMI, age and sex...
November 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218790/embolic-strokes-of-undetermined-source-in-young-adults-baseline-characteristics-and-long-term-outcome
#17
Nicolas Martinez-Majander, Karoliina Aarnio, Jani Pirinen, Tuomas Lumikari, Tuomo Nieminen, Mika Lehto, Juha Sinisalo, Markku Kaste, Turgut Tatlisumak, Jukka Putaala
BACKGROUND: Embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) is a recent entity, not yet thoroughly investigated in young stroke patients. We compared clinical characteristics and long-term risks of vascular events and all-cause mortality between young-onset ESUS and other etiological subgroups. METHODS: Among the 1008 patients aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke in Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, we identified ESUS patients, and defined primary endpoints as recurrent stroke, composite vascular events, and all-cause mortality...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218680/cardiovascular-profile-of-valbenazine-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-three-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials
#18
Dao Thai-Cuarto, Christopher F O'Brien, Roland Jimenez, Grace S Liang, Joshua Burke
INTRODUCTION: Valbenazine is a novel vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in adults. OBJECTIVE: Using data from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, analyses were conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of once-daily valbenazine in patients with a psychiatric disorder who developed tardive dyskinesia after exposure to a dopamine-blocking medication. METHODS: Data were pooled from three 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials: KINECT (NCT01688037), KINECT 2 (NCT01733121), and KINECT 3 (NCT02274558)...
December 7, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218644/cardiovascular-complications-of-marijuana-and-related-substances-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Amitoj Singh, Sajeev Saluja, Akshat Kumar, Sahil Agrawal, Munveer Thind, Sudip Nanda, Jamshid Shirani
The recreational use of cannabis has sharply increased in recent years in parallel with its legalization and decriminalization in several countries. Commonly, the traditional cannabis has been replaced by potent synthetic cannabinoids and cannabimimetics in various forms. Despite overwhelming public perception of the safety of these substances, an increasing number of serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported in temporal relation to recreational cannabis use. These have included sudden cardiac death, vascular (coronary, cerebral and peripheral) events, arrhythmias and stress cardiomyopathy among others...
December 7, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217719/can-traditional-risk-factors-explain-the-higher-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-south-asians-compared-to-europeans-in-norway-and-new-zealand-two-cohort-studies
#20
Kjersti S Rabanal, Haakon E Meyer, Grethe S Tell, Jannicke Igland, Romana Pylypchuk, Suneela Mehta, Bernadette Kumar, Anne Karen Jenum, Randi M Selmer, Rod Jackson
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to prospectively examine potential differences in the risk of first cardiovascular disease (CVD) events between South Asians and Europeans living in Norway and New Zealand, and to investigate whether traditional risk factors could explain any differences. METHODS: We included participants (30-74 years) without prior CVD in a Norwegian (n=16 606) and a New Zealand (n=129 449) cohort. Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factor information was linked with hospital registry data and cause of death registries to identify subsequent CVD events...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
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