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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088020/sulphur-alters-chromium-vi-toxicity-in-solanum-melongena-seedlings-role-of-sulphur-assimilation-and-sulphur-containing-antioxidants
#1
Madhulika Singh, Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha, Samiksha Singh, Vipin Kumar, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The present study investigates modulation in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) 25 μM] toxicity by sulphur (S; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM S as low (LS), medium (MS) and high sulphur (HS), respectively) in Solanum melongena (eggplant) seedlings. Biomass accumulation (fresh and dry weights), photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic oxygen evolution and S content were declined by Cr(VI) toxicity. Furthermore, fluorescence characteristics (JIP-test) were also affected by Cr(VI), but Cr(VI) toxicity on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by HS treatment via reducing damaging effect on PS II reaction centre and its reduction side...
December 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088019/melatonin-and-resveratrol-reverse-the-toxic-effect-of-high-boron-b-and-modulate-biochemical-parameters-in-pepper-plants-capsicum-annuum-l
#2
Eleana Sarafi, Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Christos Chatzissavvidis, Anastasios Siomos, Ioannis Therios
The objectives of this research were to test a possible involvement of melatonin (MEL) and resveratrol (RES) in restoring growth and to control boron (B) toxicity in peppers. The plants were subjected to four different nutrient solution treatments as following: 1) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Control), 2) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B (100 μMB), 3) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM boron+100 μMresveratrol (100 μMRES), and 4) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B+1 μMmelatonin (1 μM MEL)...
December 23, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087923/enhanced-aerobic-sludge-granulation-by-seeding-concentrated-activated-sludge-with-ca-alginate-gel
#3
Can Sun
The present study focuses on the effect of Ca-alginate gel on aerobic sludge granulation. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) seeded with different mixtures of Ca-alginate gel and activated sludge with the fraction (weight/weight of dry biomass) of 0%, 5.5% and 15.5% respectively. The granulation time of 14 days was obtained with 5.5% additive, whilst 32 days were needed to adapt aerobic granules developed with 0% Ca-alginate gel. Full granulation was achieved in the trial with 15.5% additive from the 20th day...
December 9, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#4
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078675/overexpression-of-a-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-gene-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-directs-carbon-towards-lipid-biosynthesis
#5
Jorge Dinamarca, Orly Levitan, G K Kumaraswamy, Desmond S Lun, Paul Falkowski
Under nutrient deplete conditions, diatoms accumulate between 15 to 25% of their dry weight as lipids, primarily as triacylglycerols (TAGs). As in most eukaryotes, these organisms produce TAGs via the acyl-CoA dependent Kennedy pathway. The last step in this pathway is catalyzed by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that acylates diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce TAG. To test our hypothesis that DGAT plays a major role in controlling the flux of carbon towards lipids, we overexpressed a specific type II DGAT gene, DGAT2D, in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077924/temperature-during-pregnancy-influences-the-fetal-growth-and-birth-size
#6
Harunor Rashid, Miki Kagami, Farzana Ferdous, Enbo Ma, Toru Terao, Taiichi Hayashi, Yukiko Wagatsuma
BACKGROUND: Birth weight and length have seasonal fluctuations. However, it is uncertain which meteorological element has an effect on birth outcomes and which timing of pregnancy would explain such effect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine temperature effects during pregnancy and which timing of pregnancy has effects on size at birth. METHODS: A large, randomized, controlled trial of food and micronutrient supplementation for pregnant women was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh (MINIMat Study), where women were enrolled from November 2001 to October 2003...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077541/the-role-of-bicarbonate-precursors-in-balanced-fluids-during-haemorrhagic-shock-with-and-without-compromised-liver-function
#7
B Ergin, A Kapucu, P Guerci, C Ince
BACKGROUND: Lactate, acetate, and gluconate are anions used in balanced resuscitation fluids, of which lactate and acetate are considered bicarbonate precursors. This study investigated the role of the liver in the ability of balanced and unbalanced solutions to correct acid-base alterations and renal haemodynamics and microvascular oxygenation in a rat model of resuscitated haemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Ringer's lactate, Ringer's acetate, PlasmaLyte, or normal saline were administered following haemorrhagic shock in the presence or absence of a 70% partial liver resection...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076504/the-role-of-bradykinin-in-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-rat-lung-transplantation-model
#8
Zheng Tang, Zhiwei Wang, Zhipeng Hu, Min Zhang, Luocheng Li, Bowen Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of bradykinin in a rat lung transplantation (LTx) model and preliminarily discuss the relationship between bradykinin and CD26/DPP-4. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CON), Sham, low potassium dextranglucose (LPD), and AB192 (n=15/group). Orthotopic single LTx was performed in the LPD and AB192 groups. The donor lungs were flush-perfused and preserved with low potassium dextranglucose (LPD) or LPD+CD26/DPP-4 catalytic inhibitor (AB192)...
December 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075384/monitoring-lead-pb-pollution-and-identifying-pb-pollution-sources-in-japan-using-stable-pb-isotope-analysis-with-kidneys-of-wild-rats
#9
Hokuto Nakata, Shouta M M Nakayama, Balazs Oroszlany, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Hazuki Mizukawa, Kazuyuki Tanaka, Tsunehito Harunari, Tsutomu Tanikawa, Wageh Sobhy Darwish, Yared B Yohannes, Aksorn Saengtienchai, Mayumi Ishizuka
Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074912/influences-of-calcium-silicate-on-chemical-forms-and-subcellular-distribution-of-cadmium-in-amaranthus-hypochondriacus-l
#10
Huanping Lu, Zhian Li, Jingtao Wu, Yong Shen, Yingwen Li, Bi Zou, Yetao Tang, Ping Zhuang
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (CS) on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in grain amaranths (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cv. 'K112') grown in a Cd contaminated soil. Results showed that the dry weight and the photosynthetic pigments contents in grain amaranths increased significantly with the increasing doses of CS treatments, with the highest value found for the treatment of CS3 (1.65 g/kg). Compared with the control, application of CS4 (3...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073559/characterization-of-total-retinoid-like-activity-of-compounds-produced-by-three-common-phytoplankton-species
#11
Eliška Sychrová, Jana Priebojová, Marie Smutná, Kateřina Nováková, Jiří Kohoutek, Klára Hilscherová
Phytoplankton can produce various bioactive metabolites, which may affect other organisms in the aquatic environment. This study provides the first information on the total retinoid-like activity associated with both intracellular and extracellular metabolites produced by selected phytoplankton species that could play a role in teratogenic effects and developmental disruption in exposed organisms. The studied species included a coccoid cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), a filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) and a green alga (Desmodesmus quadricauda), all of which commonly occur in freshwater bodies in Europe...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070813/cr-vi-reduction-and-cr-iii-immobilization-by-resting-cells-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cctcc-ab93066-spectroscopic-microscopic-and-mass-balance-analysis
#12
Chunxi Kang, Pingxiao Wu, Liping Li, Langfeng Yu, Bo Ruan, Beini Gong, Nengwu Zhu
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) immobilization by resting cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using batch experiments and analysis techniques. Data showed that resting cells of this strain (3.2 g/L dry weight) reduced 10 mg/L of Cr(VI) by 86% in Tris-HCl buffer solution under optimized conditions of 5 g/L of sodium acetate as an electron donor, pH of 7.0 and temperature of 37 °C within 24 h. Cr(VI) was largely converted to nontoxic Cr(III), and both soluble crude cell-free extracts and membrane-associated fractions were responsible for Cr(VI) reduction...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070319/development-of-a-nutrient-dense-complementary-food-using-amaranth-sorghum-grains
#13
Judith Kanensi Okoth, Sophie Atieno Ochola, Nicholas K Gikonyo, Anselimo Makokha
Thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in Sub Saharan Africa. It may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. Consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. Therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. The study was aimed at developing a nutrient-dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070046/-dose-effect-relationship-between-vitamin-c-and%C3%A2-paraquat-poisoning-rats
#14
Baoling Wen, Lei Yu, Yan Fang, Xiaolong Wang
To explore the dose-effect relationship between vitamin C and paraquat (PQ) poisoning rats.
 Methods: A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group, a PQ poisoning group, a vitamin C group 1 and a vitamin C group 2 (n=10 in each group). 150 mg/kg PQ was perfused into rat stomach to establish PQ poisoning rat model. In PQ poisoning group, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone and 2.5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide were injected peritoneally on the basis of PQ poisoning rat model...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069369/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-in-the-vicinity-of-an-expanded-polystyrene-material-manufacturing-plant-in-tianjin-china
#15
Hongkai Zhu, Kai Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Fei Wang, Yiming Yao
To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068646/sclareol-ameliorate-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibition-of-mapk-and-induction-of-ho-1-signaling
#16
Yung-Hung Hsieh, Jeng-Shyan Deng, Hsin-Pao Pan, Jung-Chun Liao, Shyh-Shyun Huang, Guan-Jhong Huang
Sclareol is a natural fragrance compound that is used widely in the cosmetic and food industries. This study examined the effect of sclareol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with sclareol 1h before an intratracheal (I.T.) LPS challenge to induce an ALI model. The effects on lung tissue and lung injury were evaluated 6h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with sclareol noticeably improved the LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissue. Sclareol also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators...
January 6, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066937/effect-of-dietary-dry-matter-intake-on-endogenous-nitrogen-flows-in-growing-lambs
#17
W Gao, X Gao, A Chen, F Zhang, D Chen, C Liu
The effect of dietary dry matter intake (DMI) on endogenous nitrogen (N) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing lambs was determined using a (15) N isotope dilution technique. Three Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg of body weights and 4 months old, average daily gain 200 g/day) were fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and raised in metabolic cage individually. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three lambs, three DMI levels (1100, 920 and 736 g/day respectively) and three periods...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066105/antifertility-activity-of-thevetia-peruviana-pers-k-schum-leaf-in-female-sprague-dawley-rat
#18
Jhuma Samanta, Snehendu Bhattacharya, Avtar C Rana
OBJECTIVES: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. (Apocynaceae) is known to possess cardioactive glycoside such as thevetin A, thevetin B, neriifolin, peruvoside, thevetoxin, and ruvoside. Traditionally, T. peruviana leaves are used as abortifacient. The aim of the present study is to evaluate antifertility potential of T. peruviana leaves. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cardiac glycoside freed leaves of T. peruviana were extracted with methanol using maceration method. The dried cardiac glycoside-free methanolic extract of T...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065550/nitrogen-extraction-potential-of-wild-and-cultured-bivalves-harvested-from-nearshore-waters-of-cape-cod-usa
#19
Joshua Reitsma, Diane C Murphy, Abigail F Archer, Richard H York
As nitrogen entering coastal waters continues to be an issue, much attention has been generated to identify potential options that may help alleviate this stressor to estuaries, including the propagation of bivalves to remove excess nitrogen. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and quahogs (Mercenaria mercenaria) from numerous Cape Cod, MA, (USA) sources were analyzed for nitrogen content stored in tissues that would represent a net removal of nitrogen from a water body if harvested. Results showed local oysters average 0...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064439/eugenol-specialty-chemical-production-in-transgenic-poplar-populus-tremula-%C3%A3-p-alba-field-trials
#20
Da Lu, Xianghe Yuan, Sung-Jin Kim, Joaquim V Marques, P Pawan Chakravarthy, Syed G A Moinuddin, Randi Luchterhand, Barri Herman, Laurence B Davin, Norman G Lewis
A foundational study assessed effects of biochemical pathway introduction into poplar to produce eugenol, chavicol, p-anol, isoeugenol, and their sequestered storage products, from potentially available substrates, coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols. At the onset, it was unknown whether significant carbon flux to monolignols vs other phenylpropanoid (acetate) pathway metabolites would be kinetically favored. Various transgenic poplar lines generated eugenol and chavicol glucosides in ca. 0.45% (~0.35 and ~0...
January 8, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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