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Wen Tan, Lin Chen, Ya-Xin Wang, Li-Sha Hu, Wei Xiong, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao
Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Protectin DX (PDX), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, exhibits protective effects in ALI. Our experiment aimed to explore the effects and related mechanisms of PDX in mice with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham, LPS, LPS plus 1 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-1 ng), LPS plus 10 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-10 ng), and LPS plus 100 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-100 ng)...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
João Gabriel Silva Souza, Thamara Beline, Adaias Oliveira Matos, Bárbara Emanoele Costa Oliveira, Antônio Pedro Ricomini-Filho, Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barão
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Biofilms can reduce the corrosion resistance of titanium because of the bacterial metabolism of fermentable carbohydrates, including sucrose. However, studies evaluating whether biofilms exposed to higher sucrose concentrations can affect the electrochemical behavior of titanium are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test the electrochemical behavior of titanium previously exposed to biofilm supplemented with different sucrose concentrations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Fayin Tang, Kefeng Fan, Kunli Wang, Chuanzhou Bian
Acute lung injury (ALI) arises from uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation with high mortality rates. Atractylodin (Atr) is a polyethylene alkynes and has been reported to possess anti-inflammation effect. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of Atr on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses ALI. The results indicated that Atr treatment not only significantly attenuated LPS-stimulated histopathological changes but also lessened the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, the wet-to-dry weight ratio of the lungs, protein leakage and infiltration of inflammatory cells...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Badrul Haidar, Mahbuba Ferdous, Babry Fatema, Ahlan Sabah Ferdous, Mohammad Riazul Islam, Haseena Khan
Endophytes are bacterial or fungal organisms associated with plants in an obligate or facultative manner. In order to maintain a stable symbiosis, many of the endophytes produce compounds that promote plant growth and help them adapt better to the environment. This study was conducted to explore the potential of jute bacterial endophytes for their growth promotion ability in direct and indirect ways. A total of 27 different bacterial species were identified from different varieties of a jute plant (Corchorus olitorius) and different parts of the plant (leaf, root, seed, and seedling) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Xuezhi Bi, Lijuan Ye, Ally Lau, Yee Jiun Kok, Lu Zheng, Daniel Ng, Kelly Tan, Dave Ow, Edwin Ananta, Christina Vafiadi, Jeroen Muller
Within the brewing industry, malted barley is being increasingly replaced by raw barley supplemented with exogenous enzymes to lessen reliance on the time-consuming, high water and energy cost of malting. Regardless of the initial grain of choice, malted or raw, the resultant bulk spent grains are rich in proteins (up to 25% dry weight). Efficient enzymatic solubilization of these proteins requires knowledge of the protein composition within the spent grains. Therefore, a comprehensive proteomic profiling was performed on spent grains derived from (i) malted barley (spent grain A, SGA) and (ii) enzymatically treated raw barley (spent grain B, SGB); data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008090...
March 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Erik Schmude, Hannah M H Ertl, Robert J Taylor, Miguel A Mora
Northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) have been declining across the range of the species primarily due to habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. There is increasing concern regarding effects related to elevated environmental contaminants, including pesticides and metals. Elevated concentrations of some metals are known to have adverse effects on reproduction, development, and survival in birds; however, little research has been conducted on metal exposure in wild bobwhites. We analyzed metal concentrations in the feathers of 60 bobwhites from 3 ecoregions in Texas and evaluated differences between age-class, gender, and location with the objective of determining if bobwhites in Texas are at increased risk of exposure to elevated metal concentrations...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sérgio Dos Anjos Garnes, Adriana Bottoni, Fernanda Lasakosvitsch, Andrea Bottoni
OBJECTIVE: This study developed an instrument in table format to help determine the energy requirements of patients in adverse situations. The instrument allows for the weekly adjustment of nutrition therapy and energy intake, advocating a new approach to treatment based on clinical observation performed by staff specialized in individualized nutrition therapy. METHODS: The table was elaborated by grouping patients according to the following criteria: criticality, chronicity, and stability of the clinical status...
February 3, 2018: Nutrition
E A Horst, S K Kvidera, E J Mayorga, C S Shouse, M Al-Qaisi, M J Dickson, J Ydstie, H A Ramirez Ramirez, A F Keating, D J Dickson, K E Griswold, L H Baumgard
Activated immune cells are insulin sensitive and utilize copious amounts of glucose. Because chromium (Cr) increases insulin sensitivity and may be immunomodulatory, our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplemental Cr (KemTrace Cr propionate, 20 g/d; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) on immune system glucose utilization and immune system dynamics following an intravenous endotoxin challenge in lactating Holstein cows. Twenty cows (320 ± 18 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) pair-fed (PF) control (PF-CON; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (2) PF and Cr supplemented (PF-Cr; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (3) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-euglycemic clamp and control supplemented (LPS-CON; 0...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Judith Stiefelmaier, Benjamin Ledermann, Michael Sorg, Angela Banek, Doris Geib, Roland Ulber, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Phycoerythrobilin (PEB) is an open-chain tetrapyrrole derived from heme and plays an important role as light-harvesting pigment in the phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria and red algae. Furthermore, PEB can also function as an antioxidant with potential use as a natural acid stable food colorant. PEB is not commercially available and large, pure quantities can only be obtained by laborious methanolysis of red algae followed by liquid chromatography. Here we describe an improved method for high yield production and purification of PEB in Escherichia coli via heterologous expression where the two required enzymes heme oxygenase and PEB synthase subsequently convert the substrate heme provided by the host cell...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Ying Jiang, Michela Schiavon, Leonardo W Lima, Tripti, Rachel R Jones, Ali F El Mehdawi, Suzanne Royer, Zhaohai Zeng, Yuegao Hu, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits, Marinus Pilon
BACKGROUND: The plant Stanleya pinnata hyperaccumulates Se up to 0.5% of its dry weight in organic forms, whereas the closely related Stanleya elata does not hyperaccumulate Se. ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) can catalyze the formation of adenosine 5'-phosphoselenate (APSe) from ATP and selenate. We investigated the S. pinnata ATPS2 isoform (SpATPS2) to assess its possible role in Se hyperaccumulation. METHODS: ATPS expression and activity was compared in the two Stanleya species...
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michael Y Roleda, Jorunn Skjermo, Hélène Marfaing, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Céline Rebours, Anna Gietl, Dagmar B Stengel, Udo Nitschke
This study represents a large-scale investigation into iodine contents in three commercially important and edible seaweed species from the North Atlantic: the brown algae Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the red alga Palmaria palmata. Variability among and within species were explored in terms of temporal and spatial variations in addition to biomass source. Mean iodine concentration in bulk seaweed biomass was species-specific: Saccharina > Alaria > Palmaria. Iodine contents of Saccharina biomass were similar between years and seasons, but varied significantly between sampling locations and biomass sources...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Zhen-Zhen Cao, Mei-Ling Qin, Xiao-Yan Lin, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Sulfur (S) fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is crucial in determining rice grain productivity and quality. However, little information is available concerning the effect of S supply on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in rice. In this study, both hydroponic and soil experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on Cd accumulation in rice under two Cd levels (0 and 50 μM), combined with three S concentrations (0, 2.64 and 5.28 mM). The moderate and excessive S supply (2...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dengfeng Ding, Shiyuan Xu, Hongfei Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xueping Zhang, Yuanxu Jiang, Ping Wang, Zhongliang Dai, Junzhi Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the potential mechanism underlying the effects. LPS was instilled into the trachea of BALB/c mice to induce the ALI model. Solutions of 3-MA or DEX were intravenously injected into the mice 1 h later to establish the 3-MA and DEX groups. On days 1, 3 and 5 after the injections, arterial blood gas analysis was conducted, and the lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) was determined...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Shujun Zhou, Gui Wang, Wenbin Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)4/myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD)88 signaling pathway on sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in rats, and the involvement of macrophage activation and the inflammatory response. A total of 36 specific pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected to establish the rat model of sepsis-associated ARDS using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were assigned into the Ab (anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody)-CLP, CLP and Sham groups...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Amir Bostani
The solubility of iron (Fe), as an important micronutrient for plant growth, is not high in the calcareous soils, and hence efficient methods must be used to increase its availability for plant use. Accordingly, a two-year research work was conducted to investigate the effects of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) on Fe accumulation and fractionation in a calcareous soil. Treatments including MSW levels at (0 (control), 15 (MSW1), 30 (MSW2) and 60 (MSW3) t ha-1 dry weight) and usage time (yearly (T1) or biyearly usage (T2)) were tested in a factorial experiment on the basis of a completely randomized block design with three replications...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Qingfei Zeng, Erik Jeppesen, Xiaohong Gu, Zhigang Mao, Huihui Chen
The spatial-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their source, and potential health risks were determined in overlying water and surface sediments from Chinese Lake Guchenghu, adjacent commercial mitten crab ponds and the connected Wushen Canal to assess the contamination profile of the area. The total PAHs concentrations in sediment and water were 86.7-1790 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and 184-365 ng L-1 in summer and 184-3140 ng g-1 dw and 410-1160 ng L-1 in winter. Two- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant compounds in water, while PAHs with 4-6 rings dominated in the sediment at both upstream and downstream sites...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Anna Koziróg, Bogumił Brycki, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska
This study investigates the biological activity of two cationic gemini surfactants, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) C6 and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecyla,.mmonium bromide) C5, and their two neutral analogs, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A6) and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A5). Experiments were performed with Aspergillus brasiliensis , which is used in the standard tests for biocides. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for conidia and mycelium were determined using the dilution method...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zequn Li, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Zhiqiang Jiang, Yanan Hu, Zhuoan Bai, Lianshun Wang, Jingyun Ding
Triplicate groups of sea cucumbers (4.83 ± 0.15 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary mercury [0 (control), 67.6, 338, and 676 mg/kg dry weight, and actually total mercury were 17.55, 87.00, 275.50, 468.50 mg/kg, respectively; Table 3] for 21 days. Mercury accumulation in the intestine showed the greatest mercury burden (77.96 ± 1.20 mg Hg/kg tissue wet weight basis). However, survival rate (SR) was not affected. Body weight gain after the 676 mg Hg/kg treatment was significantly lower than the control group...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jia Wu, Adam Elliston, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Ian J Colquhoun, Samuel R A Collins, Ian P Wood, Jo Dicks, Ian N Roberts, Keith W Waldron
Background: Rice straw and husk are globally significant sources of cellulose-rich biomass and there is great interest in converting them to bioethanol. However, rice husk is reportedly much more recalcitrant than rice straw and produces larger quantities of fermentation inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying differences between rice straw and rice husk with reference to the composition of the pre-treatment liquors and their impacts on saccharification and fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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