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ampk regulation of fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902927/antidiabetic-activity-of-ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharides-f31-down-regulated-hepatic-glucose-regulatory-enzymes-in-diabetic-mice
#1
Chun Xiao, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Yizhen Xie, Wen Cai, Jianbin Tan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Lin Zhi) has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese folk for centuries. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) had hypoglycemic effects in diabetic mice. Our aim was to identify the main bioactives in GLPs and corresponding mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four polysaccharide-enriched fraction were isolated from GLPs and the antidiabetic activities were evaluated by type 2 diabetic mice...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#2
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#3
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882945/adiponectin-reduces-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-through-ppar%C3%AE-transcriptional-regulation-of-atf2-in-mouse-adipose
#4
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Dan Luo, Huihui Gu, Shimin Liu, Chao Sun
Adiponectin is a cytokine produced predominantly by adipose tissue and correlates with glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the effects of adiponectin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of adipose tissue remain elusive. In this study, we found that tunicamycin-induced ER stress increased serum free fatty acid (FFA) and impaired glucose tolerance, elevated the mRNA levels of GRP78, Chop, ATF2 and caspase 3, but reduced adiponectin mRNA level in white adipose tissue. Moreover, ER stress-triggered adipocyte apoptosis by increasing cellular FFA level and Ca(2+) level...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881420/elongation-of-long-chain-fatty-acid-family-member-6-elovl6-driven-fatty-acid-metabolism-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-ampk-klf4-signaling
#5
Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Saki Anjo, Mas Risky A A Syamsunarno, Norimichi Koitabashi, Tatsuya Iso, Takashi Matsuzaka, Hitoshi Shimano, Tomoyuki Yokoyama, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids constitute the critical components of cell structure and function, and dysregulation of fatty acid composition may exert diverging vascular effects including proliferation, migration, and differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, direct evidence for this hypothesis has been lacking. We investigated the role of elongation of long-chain fatty acid member 6 (Elovl6), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid, in the regulation of phenotypic switching of VSMC...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865350/the-fruit-of-acanthopanax-senticosus-rupr-et-maxim-harms-improves-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-modulation-of-liver-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-high-fat-diet-fed-obese-mice
#6
Tetsuo Saito, Miyako Nishida, Masafumi Saito, Akari Tanabe, Takahiro Eitsuka, Shi-Hua Yuan, Nobuo Ikekawa, Hiroshi Nishida
Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major risk factor for most metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (Goka) root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of diabetes and other conditions; however, little is known about the effects of Goka fruit (GF). Goka fruit is rich in anthocyanin, which has beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847435/evaluation-of-fish-oil-rich-in-mufas-for-anti-diabetic-and-anti-inflammation-potential-in-experimental-type-2-diabetic-rats
#7
Waranya Keapai, Sopida Apichai, Doungporn Amornlerdpison, Narissara Lailerd
The advantages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been well established. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-diabetic action of MUFAs remain unclear. This study examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect and explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of fish oil- rich in MUFAs that had been acquired from hybrid catfish (Pangasius larnaudii×Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) among experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats that were fed with fish oil (500 and 1,000 mg/kg BW) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose levels without increasing the plasma insulin levels...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825556/metabolic-pathways-in-t-cell-activation-and-lineage-differentiation
#8
REVIEW
Luís Almeida, Matthias Lochner, Luciana Berod, Tim Sparwasser
Recent advances in the field of immunometabolism support the concept that fundamental processes in T cell biology, such as TCR-mediated activation and T helper lineage differentiation, are closely linked to changes in the cellular metabolic programs. Although the major task of the intermediate metabolism is to provide the cell with a constant supply of energy and molecular precursors for the production of biomolecules, the dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways also plays an active role in shaping T cell responses...
November 4, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824080/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-by-up-regulating-sirt1-expression-and-deacetylase-activity
#9
Li Jia, Wang Li, Jianning Li, Yan Li, Hui Song, Yansong Luan, Hui Qi, Lirong Ma, Xiaohong Lu, Yi Yang
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on high-fat-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of hepatocellular lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrated that LBP up-regulates SIRT1 deacetylase activity and protein expression by enhancing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Subsequently, LBP promoted LKB1 deacetylation and AMPK phosphorylation via SIRT1-dependent signalling...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812975/regulation-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-lipid-metabolism-and-protein-metabolism-by-ampk
#10
Yeliz Angin, Christophe Beauloye, Sandrine Horman, Luc Bertrand
This chapter summarizes AMPK function in the regulation of substrate and energy metabolism with the main emphasis on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, protein turnover, mitochondrial biogenesis, and whole-body energy homeostasis. AMPK acts as whole-body energy sensor and integrates different signaling pathway to meet both cellular and body energy requirements while inhibiting energy-consuming processes but also activating energy-producing ones. AMPK mainly promotes glucose and fatty acid catabolism, whereas it prevents protein, glycogen, and fatty acid synthesis...
2016: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806984/dietary-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-supplementation-alters-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-lipid-composition-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-abundance-and-palmitate-transport-rates
#11
Zane Chorner, Pierre-Andre Barbeau, Laura Castellani, David C Wright, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
The cellular processes influenced by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids remains poorly defined. Within skeletal muscle, a rate-limiting step in fatty acid oxidation is the of movement lipids across the sarcolemmal membrane, and therefore we aimed to determine the effects of consuming Flaxseed oil high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), on plasma membrane lipid composition and the capacity to transport palmitate. Rats fed a diet supplemented with ALA (10%) displayed marked increases in n-3 PUFAs within whole muscle and sarcolemmal membranes (~5-fold), at the apparent expense of arachidonic acid (-50%)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773823/short-chain-fatty-acids-induce-ucp2-mediated-autophagy-in-hepatic-cells
#12
Liliana F Iannucci, Jingfeng Sun, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Vincent A Kaddai, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial fermentation products derived from dietary fiber sources. Although depletion of gut microflora has been linked to the development of liver disease, the direct effects of SCFAs on intracellular hepatic processes are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the SCFAs, propionate and butyrate, regulated autophagic flux in hepatic cells in a cell-autonomous manner. Induction of autophagy by SCFAs required PPARγ stimulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) expression that was associated with reduced intracellular ATP levels and activation of PRKAA1/AMPK (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit)...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765658/occupational-exposures-at-a-polyvinyl-chloride-production-facility-are-associated-with-significant-changes-to-the-plasma-metabolome
#13
John J Guardiola, Juliane I Beier, K Cameron Falkner, Benjamin Wheeler, Craig James McClain, Matt Cave
BACKGROUND: Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. METHODS: Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS(2) analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761944/maternal-dietary-linoleic-acid-supplementation-promotes-muscle-fibre-type-transformation-in-suckling-piglets
#14
Z Q Lu, Y Ren, X H Zhou, X F Yu, J Huang, D Y Yu, X X Wang, Y Z Wang
As meat quality is basically dependent on muscle fibre characteristics, it is important to know how muscle fibres are regulated and transformed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation on muscle fibre types using 3% saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid, PA) or 3% unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid, LA) from 80 days of gestation to the weaning of offspring (25 days post-natal). The results indicated that higher mRNA levels of MyHCI type genes were found in the soleus muscles of piglets that suckled from LA-supplemented sows than from PA-supplemented sows...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740628/hedgehog-signaling-in-bone-regulates-whole-body-energy-metabolism-through-a-bone-adipose-endocrine-relay-mediated-by-pthrp-and-adiponectin
#15
Xu Zhang, Qianni Cheng, Yixiang Wang, Po Sing Leung, Kinglun Kingston Mak
Bone plays a role in energy metabolism, but the interplay between bone and other organs in this process is not completely understood. Here, we show that upregulated Hh signaling in bones results in increased whole-body energy expenditure, white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, hypoglycemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that Hh signaling induces PTHrP secretion from bones and causes WAT browning. Injection of PTHrP-neutralizing antibody attenuates WAT browning and improves the circulating blood glucose level while high-fat diet treatment only rescues hypoglycemia...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733682/activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-by-metformin-induces-protein-acetylation-in-prostate-and-ovarian-cancer-cells
#16
Luciano Galdieri, Himavanth Gatla, Ivana Vancurova, Ales Vancura
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and master regulator of metabolism. AMPK functions as a fuel gauge monitoring systemic and cellular energy status. Activation of AMPK occurs when the intracellular AMP/ATP ratio increases and leads to a metabolic switch from anabolism to catabolism. AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in de novo synthesis of fatty acids. AMPK thus regulates homeostasis of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728904/hypothalamic-lipids-key-regulators-of-whole-body-energy-balance
#17
Ismael González-García, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues non suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis...
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689001/adiponectin-potentiates-the-acute-effects-of-leptin-in-arcuate-pomc-neurons
#18
Jia Sun, Yong Gao, Ting Yao, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Xingxing Kong, Kai-Jiang Yu, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Jianqun Yan, Yongsheng Chang, Hong Chen, Philipp E Scherer, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) are located on neurons of the hypothalamus involved in metabolic regulation - including arcuate proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons. AdipoRs play a critical role in regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism by initiating several signaling cascades overlapping with Leptin receptors (LepRs). However, the mechanism by which adiponectin regulates cellular activity in the brain remains undefined...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647415/long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-6-regulates-lipid-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-in-human-and-rat-skeletal-muscle
#19
Bruno G Teodoro, Igor H Sampaio, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Leonardo R Silveira, Anderson O Souza, Anna M A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, P Darrell Neufer, Ronald N Cortright, Luciane C Alberici
Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSL 1 to 6) are key enzymes regulating partitioning of acyl-CoA species toward different metabolic fates such as lipid synthesis or β-oxidation. Despite the understanding that ecotopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with metabolic diseases like obesity and Type II Diabetes, the role of specific ACSL isoforms in lipid synthesis remains unclear. Herein we describe for the first time the presence of ACSL6 mRNA in human skeletal muscle and the role that ACSL6 plays in lipid synthesis in both rodent and human skeletal muscle...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639899/the-anticancer-agent-di-2-pyridylketone-4-4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone-dp44mt-up-regulates-the-ampk-dependent-energy-homeostasis-pathway-in-cancer-cells
#20
Sukriti Krishan, Des R Richardson, Sumit Sahni
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that monitors ATP levels. There is also evidence that AMPK has onco-suppressive properties. Iron plays a crucial role in cellular energy transducing pathways and tumor cell proliferation. Therefore, metals (e.g., iron) could play an important role in the regulation of AMPK-dependent pathways. Hence, this investigation examined the effect of the iron and copper chelator and potent anti-cancer agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), on the AMPK-mediated pathway...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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