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ampk regulation of fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819881/resveratrol-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-stimulating-the-sirt1-ampk%C3%AE-foxo1-signalling-pathway-in-bovine-intramuscular-adipocytes
#1
Xiaomu Liu, Hongbo Zhao, Qing Jin, Wei You, Haijian Cheng, Yifan Liu, Enliang Song, Guifen Liu, Xiuwen Tan, Xianglun Zhang, Fachun Wan
Sirtuin type 1 (SIRTl) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) play important roles in regulating energy metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation, ageing, apoptosis, and metabolism. The effect of 100, 200, and 400 μm Resveratrol (RES), an activator of SIRT1, on apoptosis of bovine intramuscular adipocytes was investigated by nuclear staining, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. Results show that RES inhibited adipogenesis, decreased cell viability, and increased apoptotic rates in a dose-dependent way...
August 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811612/coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-metabolism-and-ameliorates-obesity-by-regulating-camkii-mediated-pde4-inhibition
#2
Zhe Xu, Jia Huo, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Lin Li, Jian Dai, Kazunori Hosoe, Hiroshi Kubo, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Jinko Sawashita
Our recent studies revealed that supplementation with the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits oxidative stress and slows the process of aging in senescence-accelerated mice. CoQ10H2 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that dietary supplementation with CoQ10H2 significantly reduced white adipose tissue content and improved the function of brown adipose tissue by regulating expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in KKAy mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765271/sirt6-regulates-metabolic-homeostasis-in-skeletal-muscle-through-activation-of-ampk
#3
Xiaona Cui, Lu Yao, Xiaoying Yang, Yong Gao, Fude Fang, Jun Zhang, Qinghua Wang, Yongsheng Chang
Due to the mass and functions in metabolism, skeletal muscle is one of major organs regulating whole-body metabolic homeostasis. SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, has been shown to regulate metabolism in liver and brain, however, its specific role in skeletal muscle is undetermined. In the present study we explored physiological function of SIRT6 in muscle. We generated a muscle-specific SIRT6 knockout mouse model. The mice with SIRT6 deficiency in muscle displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, attenuated whole-body energy expenditure and weakened exercise performance...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754587/8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-adipocyte-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Joo Young Huh, Inji Jung, Lingjuan Piao, Hunjoo Ha, Myung-Hee Chung
8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, has been recently shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of Rac1. Inflammation in adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the therapeutic potential of 8-OHdG in treatment of metabolic diseases has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenously administered 8-OHdG on adipose tissue and whole body metabolism. In cultured adipocytes, 8-OHdG inhibited adipogenesis and reversed TNFα-induced insulin resistance...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747869/effect-of-dietary-copper-addition-on-lipid-metabolism-in-rabbits
#5
Liu Lei, Sui Xiaoyi, Li Fuchang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on lipid metabolism in rabbits. Our study showed dietary copper addition (5-45 mg/kg) increased body mass gain, but decreased fat and liver weights compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Copper (45 mg/kg) addition significantly increased the skeletal muscle weight, but inhibited cytoplasmic lipid accumulation in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, dietary copper addition (45 mg/kg) significantly increased plasma triglyceride levels but decreased very low density lipoprotein levels (P < 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746875/kmt5a-controls-hepatic-metabolic-pathways-by-facilitating-rna-pol-ii-release-from-promoter-proximal-regions
#6
Kostas C Nikolaou, Panagiotis Moulos, Vangelis Harokopos, George Chalepakis, Iannis Talianidis
H4K20 monomethylation maintains genome integrity by regulating proper mitotic condensation, DNA damage response, and replication licensing. Here, we show that, in non-dividing hepatic cells, H4K20Me1 is specifically enriched in active gene bodies and dynamically regulated by the antagonistic action of Kmt5a methylase and Kdm7b demethylase. In liver-specific Kmt5a-deficient mice, reduced levels of H4K20Me1 correlated with reduced RNA Pol II release from promoter-proximal regions. Genes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism were most sensitive to impairment of RNA Pol II release...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720584/protein-kinase-n2-regulates-amp-kinase-signaling-and-insulin-responsiveness-of-glucose-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
Maxwell A Ruby, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marcus Åhlin, Juleen R Zierath
Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715446/active-subfractions-of-abelmoschus-esculentus-substantially-prevent-free-fatty-acid-induced-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-via-inhibiting-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4
#8
Chien-Ning Huang, Chau-Jong Wang, Yi-Ju Lee, Chiung-Huei Peng
Lipotoxicity plays an important role in exacerbating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and leads to apoptosis of β cells. Recently dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of T2DM. DPP-4 degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling has been shown to protect β cells by modulating AMPK/mTOR, PI3K, and Bax. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) is well known, however its mucilage makes it difficult to further examine this effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710289/nutritional-modulation-of-metabolic-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Anna M Kirwan, Yvonne M Lenighan, Marcella E O'Reilly, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Helen M Roche
Metabolic inflammation is a very topical area of research, wherein aberrations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways probably contribute to atherosclerosis, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic insults arising from obesity promote inflammation, which in turn impedes insulin signalling and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Key cells in the process are metabolically activated macrophages, which up-regulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in response to lipid spillover from adipocytes...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686516/standardized-cirsium-setidens-nakai-ethanolic-extract-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-regulates-lipid-metabolisms-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#10
Bong-Yeon Cho, Mi-Ryeong Park, Jin-Ha Lee, Moon-Jin Ra, Kyoung Chan Han, Il-Jun Kang, Ok-Hwan Lee
Cirsium setidens Nakai, a wild perennial herb, grows mainly in Gangwon province, Korea, and has been reported to contain bioactive ingredients with various medicinal activities, including the treatment of edema, bleeding, and hemoptysis. However, the potential antiobesity effects of C. setidens Nakai have not been fully investigated. This study evaluated the antiobesity effect of standardized C. setidens Nakai ethanolic extract (CNE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in obese C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. CNE suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes and increased the expression of lipolytic genes...
August 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677803/grape-seed-procyanidin-b2-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-disorders-in-db-db-mice
#11
Mei Yin, Pei Zhang, Fei Yu, Zhen Zhang, Qian Cai, Weida Lu, Baoying Li, Weidong Qin, Mei Cheng, Hao Wang, Haiqing Gao
Diabetes is commonly associated with liver lipid metabolism disorders. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a key role in regulating lipid metabolism. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol polymer, ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibits oxidative stress or apoptosis via AMPK pathways. In the present study, the hypothesis that GSPB2 treatment may ameliorate liver lipid metabolic disorders by activating AMPK and downstream pathways was tested in diabetic mice. Db/m mice were used as controls, and diabetic db/db mice were randomly divided into 2 groups for treatment: Vehicle and GSPB2 (30 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks)...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667052/hearts-lacking-plasma-membrane-katp-channels-display-changes-in-basal-aerobic-metabolic-substrate-preference-and-ampk-activity
#12
Nermeen Youssef, Scott Campbell, Amy Barr, Manoj Gandhi, Beth Hunter, Vernon Dolinksy, Jason R B Dyck, Alexander S Clanachan, Peter E Light
Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple changes in cellular metabolism to membrane excitability and are activated during metabolic stress. Although under basal aerobic conditions, KATP channels are thought to be predominately closed. Despite intense research into the roles of KATP channels during metabolic stress, their contribution to aerobic basal cardiac metabolism has not been investigated previously. METHODS: Hearts from Kir6.2+/+ and Kir6.2 -/- mice were perfused in working mode and rates of glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glucose oxidation were measured...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636830/attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-by-purple-sweet-potato-colour-is-associated-with-blocking-src-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-signalling-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#13
Xin Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Gui-Hong Zheng, Ai-Min Wang, Chun-Hui Sun, Su-Ping Qin, Juan Zhuang, Jun Lu, Dai-Fu Ma, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Our previous work showed that purple sweet potato colour (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved hepatic glucose metabolic dysfunction in high-fat-diet (HFD)-treated mice. This study investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the signalling events associated with these effects. Mice were divided into 4 groups: control group, HFD group, HFD+PSPC group, and PSPC group. PSPC was administered daily for 20 weeks at oral doses of 700 mg/(kg·day)(-1)). Our results showed that PSPC significantly improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, as well as liver injury in HFD-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621732/lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-is-attenuated-by-strawberry-extract-through-ampk-activation
#14
Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Luca Mazzoni, Mario D Cordero, Bruno Mezzetti, José L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600551/epe1-contributes-to-activation-of-ampk-by-promoting-phosphorylation-of-ampk-alpha-subunit-ssp2
#15
Yongyi Chen, Xiaoyue Hu, Chao Guo, Yao Yu, Hong Lu
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal cellular energy sensor. It is activated by stresses that cause depletion of energy and initiates adaptive responses by regulating metabolism balance. AMPK forms αβγ heterotrimer. In fission yeast, activation of AMPK mainly depends on the phosphorylation of AMPKα subunit Ssp2 at Thr(189) by upstream kinase Ssp1. However, not much is known about the regulation of this process. In this study, we identified Epe1 as a novel positive regulator of AMPK. Epe1, a jmjC-domain-containing protein, is best-known as a negative regulator of heterochromatin spreading...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579962/the-crosstalk-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-mitochondria-during-exercise
#16
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Many physiological changes occur in response to endurance exercise in order to adapt to the increasing energy needs, mitochondria biogenesis, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and acute inflammatory responses. Mitochondria are organelles within each cell that are crucial for ATP production and are also a major producer of ROS and reactive nitrogen species during intense exercise. Recent evidence shows there is a bidirectional interaction between mitochondria and microbiota. The gut microbiota have been shown to regulate key transcriptional co-activators, transcription factors and enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC-1α, SIRT1, and AMPK genes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578347/consumption-of-a-mango-fruit-powder-protects-mice-from-high-fat-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-fat-accumulation
#17
Agustín G Sabater, Joan Ribot, Teresa Priego, Itxaso Vazquez, Sonja Frank, Andreu Palou, Sybille Buchwald-Werner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the beneficial effects of mango fruit powder on the early metabolic adverse effects of a high-fat diet. METHODS: The progressive dose-response effects of mango fruit powder on body composition, circulating parameters, and the expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity in key tissues were studied in mice fed a moderate (45%) high-fat diet. RESULTS: Findings suggest that mango fruit powder exerts physiological protective effects in the initial steps of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in mice...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554169/neohesperidin-exerts-lipid-regulating-effects-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-via-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-sirtuin-type-1-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator-1%C3%AE-signaling-axis
#18
Haoshu Wu, Yunxi Liu, Xiaobing Chen, Difeng Zhu, Jian Ma, Youyou Yan, Meimei Si, Xian Li, Chongde Sun, Bo Yang, Qiaojun He, Kunsong Chen
The purpose of this study is to prove the lipid-regulating effects of neohesperidin (NHP) and explore the potential mechanisms related to fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced lipid-accumulated HepG2 cells, acutely egg yolk-induced dyslipidemia and chronically diet-induced obese (DIO) model mice were treated with NHP. Biochemical analyses were carried out to determine the lipid profiles. Western blotting and real-time PCR were employed to analyze FGF21, AMPK and the related proteins or mRNA expressions...
2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546536/a-sensitive-mass-spectrometry-platform-identifies-metabolic-changes-of-life-history-traits-in-c-elegans
#19
Arwen W Gao, Iliana A Chatzispyrou, Rashmi Kamble, Yasmine J Liu, Katharina Herzog, Reuben L Smith, Henk van Lenthe, Martin A T Vervaart, Arno van Cruchten, Angela C Luyf, Antoine van Kampen, Mia L Pras-Raves, Frédéric M Vaz, Riekelt H Houtkooper
Abnormal nutrient metabolism is a hallmark of aging, and the underlying genetic and nutritional framework is rapidly being uncovered, particularly using C. elegans as a model. However, the direct metabolic consequences of perturbations in life history of C. elegans remain to be clarified. Based on recent advances in the metabolomics field, we optimized and validated a sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) platform for identification of major metabolite classes in worms and applied it to study age and diet related changes...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534819/ginsenoside-rb2-alleviates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-restoring-autophagy-via-induction-of-sirt1-and-activation-of-ampk
#20
Qi Huang, Ting Wang, Liu Yang, He-Yao Wang
Although Panax ginseng is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used to treat a variety of metabolic diseases including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatosteatosis, the effective mediators and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study we found that ginsenoside Rb2, one of the major ginsenosides in Panax ginseng, was able to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation through autophagy induction both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of male db/db mice with Rb2 significantly improved glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and restored hepatic autophagy...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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