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Charlotte F Inman, Suzy A Eldershaw, Joanne E Croudace, Nathaniel J Davies, Archana Sharma-Oates, Tanuja Rai, Hayden Pearce, Mirjana Sirovica, Y L Tracey Chan, Kriti Verma, Jianmin Zuo, Sandeep Nagra, Francesca Kinsella, Jane Nunnick, Rasoul Amel-Kashipaz, Charles Craddock, Ram Malladi, Paul Moss
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can cure some patients with hematopoietic malignancy, but this relies on the development of a donor T cell alloreactive immune response. T cell activity in the first 2 weeks after allo-SCT is crucial in determining outcome, despite the clinical effects of the early alloreactive immune response often not appearing until later. However, the effect of the allogeneic environment on T cells is difficult to study at this time point due to the effects of profound lymphopenia...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
Min Huang, Kun Song, Xinyi Liu, Shaoyong Lu, Qiancheng Shen, Renxiao Wang, Jingze Gao, Yuanyuan Hong, Qian Li, Duan Ni, Jianrong Xu, Guoqiang Chen, Jian Zhang
Allostery tweaks innumerable biological processes and plays a fundamental role in human disease and drug discovery. Exploration of allostery has thus been regarded as a crucial requirement for research on biological mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutics. Here, based on our previously developed allosteric data and methods, we present an interactive platform called AlloFinder that identifies potential endogenous or exogenous allosteric modulators and their involvement in human allosterome. AlloFinder automatically amalgamates allosteric site identification, allosteric screening and allosteric scoring evaluation of modulator-protein complexes to identify allosteric modulators, followed by allosterome mapping analyses of predicted allosteric sites and modulators in human proteome...
May 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jennifer Skillen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jennifer M Gilbert, Barak Blum
Immature β cells secrete insulin at a lower glucose threshold compared to mature β cells. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Huang et al. (2018) show that the increase in glucose threshold during β cell maturation is achieved through balance between the Ca2+ -sensitive synaptotagmin 7 and the Ca2+ -insensitive synaptotagmin 4.
May 7, 2018: Developmental Cell
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Liang-Saw Wen, Chih-Ping Lee, Wen-Huei Lee, Alan Chuang
The distributions of many trace elements in the ocean are strongly associated with the growth, death, and re-mineralization of marine plankton and those of suspended/sinking particles. Here, we present an all plastic (Polypropylene and Polycarbonate), multi-layer filtration system for collection of suspended particulate matter (SPM) at sea. This ultra-clean sampling device has been designed and developed specifically for trace element studies. Meticulous selection of all non-metallic materials and utilization of an in-line flow-through procedure minimizes any possible metal contamination during sampling...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anton Kichev, Ana A Baburamani, Regina Vontell, Pierre Gressens, Linda Burkly, Claire Thornton, Henrik Hagberg
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a multifunctional cytokine member of the TNF family. TWEAK binds to its only known receptor, Fn14, enabling it to activate downstream signaling processes in response to tissue injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TWEAK signaling in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We found that after neonatal HI, both TWEAK and Fn14 expression were increased to a greater extent in male compared with female mice. To assess the role of TWEAK signaling after HI, the size of the injury was measured in neonatal mice genetically deficient in Fn14 and compared with their wild-type and heterozygote littermates...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Erica Sedlander, Rajiv N Rimal, Sameera A Talegawkar, Hagere Yilma, Wolfgang Munar
Background: More than half of women of reproductive age in India are anemic. Anemia is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, higher maternal mortality and contributes to fatigue, which affects women's work productivity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends daily oral iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements during pregnancy and weekly supplements for women of reproductive age. Government programs and global donors have distributed and promoted IFA supplements in India for over four decades...
March 20, 2018: Gates open research
Bruce C Gibb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature Chemistry
Xiwen Dong, Zhaohui Zheng, Xing Luo, Jin Ding, Ying Li, Zhiqin Li, Sijia Li, Mengyao Rong, Yalu Fu, Zhenbiao Wu, Ping Zhu
The aim of this study was to determine whether combined utilization of untimed single urine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (uMCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (uTWEAK) could serve as a screening test for proteinuria in patients with lupus nephritis (LN).A case-control study that contained 39 biopsy-proven LN patients, 20 non-LN systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were carried out. Correlations between uMCP-1, uTWEAK, and traditional clinical markers were analyzed by Spearman correlation test...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nathalie Lédée, Laura Prat-Ellenberg, Marie Petitbarat, Lucie Chevrier, Cynthia Simon, Elie El Irani, Dominique Vitoux, Armand Bensussan, Gérard Chaouat
INTRODUCTION: Corticotherapy is the leading medication worldwide for patients with history of repeated implantation failures (RIF) after IVF/ICSI. Nevertheless, we still do not know its local mechanism of action, hence its precise indication. Our objective is to document the impact of prednisone on the endometrial expression of immune biomarkers (CD56 cells count, IL-18/TWEAK, IL-15/Fn-14 mRNA ratio) at the time of uterine receptivity in a RIF population. MATERIALS AND METHOD: An endometrial biopsy was realized in the mid luteal phase for immune profiling: IL-15/Fn-14 and IL-18/TWEAK mRNA ratios were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and CD56 mobilization per IHC...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Diego Martin-Sanchez, Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Susana Carrasco, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Anne von Mässenhausen, Andreas Linkermann, Pablo Cannata-Ortiz, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Jesus Egido, Alberto Ortiz, Ana Belen Sanz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by necrotic tubular cell death and inflammation. The TWEAK/Fn14 axis is a mediator of renal injury. Diverse pathways of regulated necrosis have recently been reported to contribute to AKI, but there are ongoing discussions on the timing or molecular regulators involved. We have now explored the cell death pathways induced by TWEAK/Fn14 activation and their relevance during AKI. In cultured tubular cells, the inflammatory cytokine TWEAK induces apoptosis in a proinflammatory environment...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi, Min Ouyang, Marzieh Keshtkarjahromi, Samah Almed, Huifen Li, Jeremy D Walston, Rebeca Rios, Sean X Leng
Influenza immunization is recommended for older adults annually, and has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effects. TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), an inflammatory mediator implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases, could be a mechanism for such effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of influenza vaccine on TWEAK levels. Older persons over 70 years of age were recruited during 2007-2008 influenza season and immunized with the standard dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Baris Zulfikaroglu, Ferruh Kemal Isman, Gul Bora, Ozgur Akgul, Necdet Ozalp
INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a severe disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The overall outcome has improved, but specific treatment(s) remains elusive. The challenge is the early identification and treatment of patients who will develop severe acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) in the initial phase of predicted severe acute pancreatitis...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Roberta Magliozzi, Owain W Howell, Richard Nicholas, Carolina Cruciani, Marco Castellaro, Chiara Romualdi, Stefania Rossi, Marco Pitteri, Maria Donata Benedetti, Alberto Gajofatto, Francesca B Pizzini, Stefania Montemezzi, Sarah Rasia, Ruggero Capra, Alessandra Bertoldo, Francesco Facchiano, Salvatore Monaco, Richard Reynolds, Massimiliano Calabrese
OBJECTIVE: Gray matter (GM) damage and meningeal inflammation have been associated with early disease onset and a more aggressive disease course in multiple sclerosis (MS), but can these changes be identified in the patient early in the disease course? METHODS: To identify possible biomarkers linking meningeal inflammation, GM damage, and disease severity, gene and protein expression were analyzed in meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 27 postmortem secondary progressive MS and 14 control cases...
April 2018: Annals of Neurology
George M Whitesides
This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics...
April 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Mohanraj Thirumalai, William B Kirkland, Samuel R Misko, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Laurie A Malone
BACKGROUND: Active video game (AVG) playing, also known as "exergaming," is increasingly employed to promote physical activity across all age groups. The Wii Fit Balance Board is a popular gaming controller for AVGs and is used in a variety of settings. However, the commercial off-the-shelf (OTS) design poses several limitations. It is inaccessible to wheelchair users, does not support the use of stabilization assistive devices, and requires the ability to shift the center of balance (COB) in all directions to fully engage in game play...
March 6, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Il-Yeong Hwang, Yoon-Seok Youm, Sung-Do Cho, Seung-Won Choi, Mun-Hee Bae, Seon-Jae Park, Han-Wook Kim
PURPOSE: This study assessed the levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) in the synovial fluid from osteoarthritic knees to determine their role as well as the relationship between these levels and the severity of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Synovial fluid was obtained from 44 knees of 40 patients. The Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade was measured using radiograph. The concentration of TWEAK and MMP-1 in the synovial fluid was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Gary C Packard
Studies performed over the last 20 years have repeatedly documented a slight convex curvature (relative to the x-axis) in double-logarithmic plots of basal metabolic rate (BMR) versus body mass in mammals. This curvilinear pattern has usually been interpreted in the context of a simple, two-parameter power function on the arithmetic scale, y  =  a  ×  xb , with the exponent in the equation supposedly increasing systematically with body size. An equation of this form has caused concern among ecologists because a variable exponent is inconsistent with an assumption underlying the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE)...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Gopinath Prakasam, Mohammad Askandar Iqbal, Rameshwar N K Bamezai, Sybille Mazurek
Cancer cells rewire metabolism to meet biosynthetic and energetic demands. The characteristic increase in glycolysis, i.e., Warburg effect, now considered as a hallmark, supports cancer in various ways. To attain such metabolic reshuffle, cancer cells preferentially re-express the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2, M2-PK) and alter its quaternary structure to generate less-active PKM2 dimers. The relatively inactive dimers cause the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates that are redirected into anabolic pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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