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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324946/characterization-of-motor-cortex-activity-of-the-lower-limb-region
#1
Fadi Mikhail, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Matthew D Best, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Understanding the functional properties of the motor cortex is a key step to developing effective neuroprosthetic and computer interfaces for amputees and patients with spinal cord injury. Most efforts have been directed towards studying the upper limb region of the motor cortex. Little has been done in the way of addressing lower limb motor cortical physiology. In this study, we implanted multiple microelectrode arrays along the central sulcus in the primary motor cortex of a macaque monkey. Using intracortical microstimulation, we identified neurons that evoked leg movements, either exclusively or mostly, and we studied their firing activity during a center-out arm movement task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324204/tibial-nerve-neuropathy-following-medial-opening-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-case-report-of-a-rare-technical-complication
#2
Young-Soo Shin, Hyun-Bo Sim, Jung-Ro Yoon
A 63-year-old woman developed tibial nerve injury caused by an overlong K wire and 4.5-mm cortical lag screw through the first distal hole below the osteotomy during medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), leading to a lack of sensation on the sole of the foot with no disturbances in motor functions. The temporary lag screw in the first distal hole below the osteotomy is often inserted by an excessive length in order to compress the potentially fractured opposite cortex. By doing so, posterior neurovascular structures including the tibial nerve and the popliteal vessels can be injured...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319872/intrathecal-baclofen-bolus-reduces-exaggerated-extensor-coactivation-during-pre-swing-and-early-swing-of-gait-after-acquired-brain-injury
#3
John W Chow, Stuart A Yablon, Dobrivoje S Stokic
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the concurrent activation of rectus femoris (RF) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (extensor coactivation) during gait in subjects with pronounced resting hypertonia after acquired brain injury (ABI) and examine changes after intrathecal baclofen (ITB) bolus injection. METHODS: Magnitude and duration of extensor coactivation during different phases of gait were assessed by recording gait kinematics and activity in bilateral RF and MG muscles in 18 controls and 18 ABI subjects before and at 2, 4, and 6h after a 50-μg ITB injection...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319440/markers-of-blood-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-patients-with-early-and-delayed-microsurgical-reconstructions-in-the-lower-extremities
#4
Oliver Kloeters, Dalibor Vasilic, Pieter Hupkens, Dietmar Ulrich
BACKGROUND: In this study, markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were assessed during early and delayed microsurgical reconstruction in patients with traumatic defects of their lower legs to analyse whether an imbalance of the hemostasis after trauma might predispose the development of vascular complications. METHODS: The prospective study included 70 patients. In 35 patients, surgery was performed within 72 hours after injury. In 35 other patients, delayed free flap transfer was performed between 14-21 days after trauma...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316166/-analgesic-effect-and-related-mechanism-of-peripheral-acupoints-electroacupuncture-on-superficial-partial-thickness-burn-rats
#5
X Sun, Z R Wei, Z Xiao
Objective: To observe the analgesic effect and related mechanism of peripheral acupoints electroacupuncture on superficial partial-thickness burn rats. Methods: Eighty SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI), pure burn group (PB), electroacupuncture group (E), and sham electroacupuncture group (SE) according to the random number table, with 20 rats in each group. Right posterior leg of rats in group SI were sham injured, while superficial partial-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) model was reproduced on the right posterior leg of rats in the latter three groups...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314214/gait-biomechanics-following-lower-extremity-trauma-amputation-vs-reconstruction
#6
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Daniel J Stinner, John R Fergason, Jason M Wilken
BACKGROUND: Surgical advances have substantially improved outcomes for individuals sustaining traumatic lower extremity injury. Injuries once requiring lower limb amputation are now routinely managed with limb reconstruction surgery. However, comparisons of functional outcomes between the procedures are inconclusive. PURPOSE: To compare gait biomechanics after lower limb reconstruction and transtibial amputation. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with unilateral lower limb reconstruction wearing a custom ankle-foot orthosis (Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis), 24 with unilateral, transtibial amputation, and 24 able-bodied control subjects underwent gait analysis at a standardized Froude speed based on leg length...
February 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306643/accuracy-and-reliability-of-assessing-lateral-compartmental-leg-composition-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#7
Christiana J Raymond, Tyler A Bosch, Foster K Bush, Lisa S Chow, Donald R Dengel
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the accuracy and reliability of a novel dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning method in the frontal plane for total, fat, and lean mass quantification of the anterior and posterior upper leg compartments. METHODS: Twenty-one (11 females; X¯age = 20.3 ± 1.3 yr) college athletes were assessed for total and regional body composition using DXA. The segmentation of anterior/posterior thigh compartments was measured with participants lying on their right and left sides and the scanned leg elevated with two foam pads...
April 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301433/a-comparison-of-bilateral-muscular-imbalance-ratio-calculations-using-functional-tests
#8
Theodoros M Bampouras, Susan Dewhurst
Bilateral muscular imbalance can increase the risk of injury and negatively impact sporting performance. Bilateral muscular imbalances are typically calculated as ((side 1-side 2)/reference value) x 100, to provide a percentage value of the difference between limbs. Using different numerator (right-left or strong-weak) or reference values (left, right, strong, weak, average of the two) could mask or inflate the true difference value. The present study aimed to compare the bilateral muscular imbalance ratio calculations, using the absolute difference between limbs as the numerator and the five different options as reference values...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298308/the-neural-control-of-interlimb-coordination-during-mammalian-locomotion
#9
Alain Frigon
Neuronal networks within the spinal cord directly control rhythmic movements of the arms/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs during locomotion in mammals. For an effective locomotion, these networks must be flexibly coordinated to allow for various gait patterns and independent use of the arms/forelimbs. This coordination can be accomplished by mechanisms intrinsic to the spinal cord, somatosensory feedback from the limbs and various supraspinal pathways. Incomplete spinal cord injury disrupts some of the pathways and structures involved in interlimb coordination, often leading to a disruption in the coordination between the arms/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs in animal models and in humans...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298142/effect-of-complete-syndesmotic-disruption-and-deltoid-injuries-and-different-reduction-methods-on-ankle-joint-contact-mechanics
#10
Jeremy LaMothe, Josh R Baxter, Susannah Gilbert, Conor I Murphy, Sydney C Karnovsky, Mark C Drakos
BACKGROUND: Syndesmotic injuries can be associated with poor patient outcomes and posttraumatic ankle arthritis, particularly in the case of malreduction. However, ankle joint contact mechanics following a syndesmotic injury and reduction remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of a syndesmotic injury and reduction techniques on ankle joint contact mechanics in a biomechanical model. METHODS: Ten cadaveric whole lower leg specimens with undisturbed proximal tibiofibular joints were prepared and tested in this study...
March 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298066/effect-of-fatigue-protocols-on-lower-limb-neuromuscular-function-and-implications-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-prevention-training
#11
Sue D Barber-Westin, Frank R Noyes
BACKGROUND: Approximately two-thirds of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are sustained during noncontact situations when an athlete is cutting, pivoting, decelerating, or landing from a jump. Some investigators have postulated that fatigue may result in deleterious alterations in lower limb biomechanics during these activities that could increase the risk of noncontact ACL injuries. However, prior studies have noted a wide variation in fatigue protocols, athletic tasks studied, and effects of fatigue on lower limb kinetics and kinematics...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295963/a-multicenter-study-of-the-impella-device-for-mechanical-support-of-the-systemic-circulation-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients
#12
V Vivian Dimas, Brian H Morray, Dennis W Kim, Christopher Sd Almond, Shabana Shahanavaz, Sebastian C Tume, Lynn F Peng, Doff B McElhinney, Henri Justino
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to review the use of Impella devices (Abiomed Inc, Danvers, MA) for temporary circulatory support in pediatric and adolescent patients (age ≤ 21 yrs). BACKGROUND: Options for minimally invasive circulatory support in children are limited, and published data are confined to case reports and small case series. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter review of Impella implants in pediatric and adolescent patients from 2009-15, using standardized data collection and INTERMACS definitions...
March 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289610/effect-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-on-achilles-tendon-healing-in-rabbit
#13
Arash Najafbeygi, Mohammad Javad Fatemi, Amir Hussein Lebaschi, Seyed Jaber Mousavi, Seyed Abouzar Husseini, Mitra Niazi
BACKGROUND: Tendon injuries are common and it takes a long time for an injured tendon to heal. Adverse phenomena such as adhesion and rupture are associated with these injuries. Finding a method to reduce the time required for healing which improves the final outcome, will lead to decreased frequency and intensity of adverse consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of the Achilles tendon in rabbits. METHODS: In 10 New Zealand white rabbits, Achilles tendon was cut at the intersection of the distal and middle thirds on both hind legs...
January 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288187/prevention-of-downhill-walking-induced-muscle-damage-by-non-damaging-downhill-walking
#14
Sumiaki Maeo, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Kazunori Nosaka
PURPOSE: Mountain trekking involves level, uphill, and downhill walking (DW). Prolonged DW induces damage to leg muscles, reducing force generating ability and muscle coordination. These increase risks for more serious injuries and accidents in mountain trekking, thus a strategy to minimize muscle damage is warranted. It has been shown that low-intensity eccentric contractions confer protective effect on muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric contractions. This study tested the hypothesis that 5-min non-damaging DW would attenuate muscle damage induced by 40-min DW, but 5-min level walking (LW) would not...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286822/ability-of-ultrasonography-in-detection-of-different-extremity-bone-fractures-a-case-series-study
#15
Farzad Bozorgi, Massoud Shayesteh Azar, Seyed Hossein Montazer, Aroona Chabra, Seyed Farshad Heidari, Alireza Khalilian
INTRODUCTION: Despite radiography being the gold standard in evaluation of orthopedic injuries, using bedside ultrasonography has several potential supremacies such as avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation, availability in pre-hospital settings, being extensively accessible, and ability to be used on the bedside. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of extremity bone fractures. METHODS: This study is a case series study, which was prospectively conducted on multiple blunt trauma patients, who were 18 years old or older, had stable hemodynamic, Glasgow coma scale 15, and signs or symptoms of a possible extremity bone fracture...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284666/anthropometric-and-biomechanical-characteristics-of-body-segments-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Y Fang, L R Morse, N Nguyen, N G Tsantes, K L Troy
People with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience bone and muscle loss in their paralyzed limbs that is most rapid and severe in the first 3years after injury. Restoration of mechanical loading through therapeutic physical activity may potentially slow or reverse post-SCI bone loss, however, therapeutic targets cannot be developed without accurate biomechanical models. Obesity is prevalent among SCI population, and it alters body composition and further affects parameters of these models. Here, clinical whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from people with acute (n=39) and chronic (n=61) SCI were analyzed to obtain anthropometric parameters including segment masses, center of mass location, and radius of gyration for both obese and non-obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280907/high-prevalence-of-knee-osteoarthritis-at-a-minimum-10-year-follow-up-after-knee-dislocation-surgery
#17
Gilbert Moatshe, Grant J Dornan, Tom Ludvigsen, Sverre Løken, Robert F LaPrade, Lars Engebretsen
PURPOSE: Long-term outcomes and the prevalence of osteoarthritis after surgical treatment of knee dislocations are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and knee function at a minimum of 10 years after knee dislocation surgery. METHODS: Sixty-five patients surgically treated for knee dislocations at a single level I trauma center between May 1996 and December 2004 were evaluated at a minimum of 10 years...
March 9, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272857/management-of-acute-complex-traumatic-wound-with-a-dermal-regeneration-template-case-report
#18
R R V Patel, M Giaquinto-Cillers, J Kotze, R S Hartnick, L W van der Merwe, E B Holford
BACKGROUND: Acute complex traumatic wounds of the lower limbs are usually managed by a combination of multiple debridements, dressing changes, and specialized surgical procedures which may include tissue transfers for the reconstruction of the soft tissue injury. The recovery is lengthy, and the outcome dependent on the initial injury, the surgical procedures undertaken and rehabilitation programs with a multidisciplinary team. METHOD: A nine-year-old male patient presented to Kimberly Hospital with an extensive soft tissue injury of the leg associated with a tibia fracture caused by a high velocity pedestrian vehicle accident...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272016/cactus-spine-wounds-a-case-report-and-short-review-of-the-literature
#19
Raymond A Dieter, Lisa R Whitehouse, Rebecca Gulliver
INTRODUCTION: Cactus plants are commonly seen in arid southwestern regions of the United States. Due to their ready availability, they have become a popular houseplant. The spines or glochidia can easily puncture the skin with only minor pressure (ie, bumping or touching the cactus). Removal of the offending spine is difficult, even with tweezers. CASE: An 18-year-old woman initially self-removed the spines, and marked discomfort and intense erythematous reaction developed within 8 to 10 hours...
February 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269635/wearable-embroidered-muscle-activity-sensing-device-for-the-human-upper-leg
#20
R B Ribas Manero, A Shafti, B Michael, J Grewal, J Ll Ribas Fernandez, K Althoefer, M J Howard
Within the last decade, running has become one of the most popular physical activities in the world. Although the benefits of running are numerous, there is a risk of Running Related Injuries (RRIs) of the lower extremities. Electromyography (EMG) techniques have previously been used to study causes of RRIs, but the complexity of this technology limits its use to a laboratory setting. As running is primarily an outdoors activity, this lack of technology acts as a barrier to the study of RRIs in natural environments...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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