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CAR T cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642356/equal-opportunity-car-t-cells
#1
Rayne H Rouce, Helen E Heslop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641074/development-of-novel-antigen-receptors-for-car-t-cell-therapy-directed-toward-solid-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
David Chen, James Yang
Development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have led to remarkable successes in the treatment of B-cell malignancies with anti-CD19 CAR. Here we discuss the development of novel antigen receptors for use in solid malignancies with respect to target antigens, receptor design, and T cell manipulations.
June 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629762/targeting-the-tumor-and-its-associated-stroma-one-and-one-can-make-three-in-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#3
Anna Mondino, Gerlanda Vella, Laura Icardi
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has become a promising immunotherapeutic option for cancer patients. The proof for ACT therapeutic efficacy was first obtained with allogenic T cells and then reproduced with T cells isolated from patients' tumor samples (i.e. tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). It is now clear that specificity of ACT products can be educated by genetically engineering T cells with classical T Cell Receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). To date a poor accessibility of the tumor mass and a hostile microenvironment, influenced by genetic and epigenetic instability, mainly limit ACT therapeutic efficacy in the case of solid tumors...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628852/skin-regeneration-in-three-dimensions-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities
#4
REVIEW
Ahmed T El-Serafi, Ibrahim T El-Serafi, Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Folke Sjöberg
Skin regeneration is a life-saving need for many patients, whom list is stretched from burn victims to motor-car accidents. Spraying cells, either keratinocytes or stem cells, were associated with variable results and, in many cases, unfavorable outcomes. As the spatial configuration of the skin is distinctive, many trials investigated the bio-printing or the construction of three dimensional skin models where different layers of the skin were preserved. Although some of these models showed the histological configuration of the skin, their acceptance by the wound was questionable as a consequence of delayed vascularization...
June 15, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625015/crispr-cas9-mediated-lag-3-disruption-in-car-t-cells
#5
Yongping Zhang, Xingying Zhang, Chen Cheng, Wei Mu, Xiaojuan Liu, Na Li, Xiaofei Wei, Xiang Liu, Changqing Xia, Haoyi Wang
T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have been successfully applied to treat advanced refractory B cell malignancy. However, many challenges remain in extending its application toward the treatment of solid tumors. The immunosuppressive nature of tumor microenvironment is considered one of the key factors limiting CAR-T efficacy. One negative regulator of Tcell activity is lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3). We successfully generated LAG-3 knockout Tand CAR-T cells with high efficiency using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene editing and found that the viability and immune phenotype were not dramatically changed during in vitro culture...
June 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613086/exploiting-natural-killer-group-2d-receptors-for-car-t-cell-therapy
#6
Benjamin Demoulin, W James Cook, Joana Murad, David J Graber, Marie-Louise Sentman, Caroline Lonez, David E Gilham, Charles L Sentman, Sophie Agaugue
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically engineered proteins that combine an extracellular antigen-specific recognition domain with one or several intracellular T-cell signaling domains. When expressed in T cells, these CARs specifically trigger T-cell activation upon antigen recognition. While the clinical proof of principle of CAR T-cell therapy has been established in hematological cancers, CAR T cells are only at the early stages of being explored to tackle solid cancers. This special report discusses the concept of exploiting natural killer cell receptors as an approach that could broaden the specificity of CAR T cells and potentially enhance the efficacy of this therapy against solid tumors...
June 14, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610774/false-positive-hiv-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing-during-car-t-cell-therapy
#7
Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Bruno P Granwehr, George M Viola, Micah Bhatti, James M Kelley, James Kochenderfer, Chitra Hosing
Advancements in immunotherapy have opened a new era in oncology, to include genetic modification of human T-cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that enables targeted tumor recognition (Kochenderfer et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2015; Maus and Levine 2016; Rosenberg et al., 2008). Herein, we report a false-positive HIV testing in a patient who had undergone CAR T-cell therapy created with a lentiviral vector.
June 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608730/novel-therapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#8
Raoul Santiago, Stéphanie Vairy, Daniel Sinnett, Maja Krajinovic, Henrique Bittencourt
During recent decades, the prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved dramatically, nowadays, reaching a cure rate of almost 90%. These results are due to a better management and combination of old therapies, refined risk-group stratification and emergence of minimal residual disease (MRD) combined with treatment's intensification for high-risk subgroups. However, the subgroup of patients with refractory/relapsed ALL still presents a dismal prognosis indicating necessity for innovative therapeutic approaches...
June 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604239/continuing-challenges-and-current-issues-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Ankit Kansagra, Saurabh Dahiya, Mark Litzow
Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has resulted into high cure rates for pediatric patients, however outcomes for adult patients remain suboptimal. The 5-year overall survival is only 30-40% in adults and elderly patients with ALL compared to 90% in children. We have seen major advances in our understanding and management of ALL related to identification of new cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities and development of novel targeted agents for the treatment of ALL...
June 11, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604120/current-and-developing-synthetic-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma
#10
Klaus Podar, Martin Pecherstorfer
The introduction of novel agents has significantly improved multiple myeloma (MM) patient outcome during the last two decades. MM received the most drug approvals for any one malignancy during this time period, both in the United States as well as in Europe. Areas covered: Proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies are prototype drug classes, which target both specific MM cell functions, as well as the tumor supportive bone marrow microenvironment, and represent current cornerstones of MM therapy...
June 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602436/car-t-cells-administered-in-combination-with-lymphodepletion-and-pd-1-inhibition-to-patients-with-neuroblastoma
#11
Andras Heczey, Chrystal U Louis, Barbara Savoldo, Olga Dakhova, April Durett, Bambi Grilley, Hao Liu, Mengfeng F Wu, Zhuyong Mei, Adrian Gee, Birju Mehta, Huimin Zhang, Nadia Mahmood, Haruko Tashiro, Helen E Heslop, Gianpietro Dotti, Cliona M Rooney, Malcolm K Brenner
Targeting disialoganglioside (GD2) on neuroblastoma (NB) with T cells expressing a first-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) was safe, but the cells had poor expansion and long-term persistence. We developed a third-generation GD2-CAR (GD2-CAR3) and hypothesized that GD2-CAR3 T cells (CARTs) would be safe and effective. This phase 1 study enrolled relapsed or refractory NB patients in three cohorts. Cohort 1 received CART alone, cohort 2 received CARTs plus cyclophosphamide and fludarabine (Cy/Flu), and cohort 3 was treated with CARTs, Cy/Flu, and a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596938/genome-edited-t-cell-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Juliette M K M Delhove, Waseem Qasim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alternative approaches to conventional drug-based cancer treatments have seen T cell therapies deployed more widely over the last decade. This is largely due to their ability to target and kill specific cell types based on receptor recognition. Introduction of recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) using viral vectors and HLA-independent T cell therapies using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are discussed. This article reviews the tools used for genome editing, with particular emphasis on the applications of site-specific DNA nuclease mediated editing for T cell therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591119/manufacture-of-car-t-cells-in-the-body
#13
Johanna Olweus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591098/the-use-of-car-t-cells-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#14
Peter Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588060/sending-car-t-cells-after-multiple-myeloma
#15
(no author information available yet)
Preliminary results from an ongoing phase I clinical trial in China suggest that chimeric antigen receptor T cells engineered to home in on a protein called BCMA may be a potent therapeutic option for multiple myeloma. The therapy was well tolerated and induced complete, durable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.
June 6, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580944/il-17-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-switch-migratory-patterns-between-resting-and-activated-states
#16
Duncan R McKenzie, Ervin E Kara, Cameron R Bastow, Timona S Tyllis, Kevin A Fenix, Carly E Gregor, Jasmine J Wilson, Rachelle Babb, James C Paton, Axel Kallies, Stephen L Nutt, Anne Brüstle, Matthias Mack, Iain Comerford, Shaun R McColl
Interleukin 17-producing γδ T (γδT17) cells have unconventional trafficking characteristics, residing in mucocutaneous tissues but also homing into inflamed tissues via circulation. Despite being fundamental to γδT17-driven early protective immunity and exacerbation of autoimmunity and cancer, migratory cues controlling γδT17 cell positioning in barrier tissues and recruitment to inflammatory sites are still unclear. Here we show that γδT17 cells constitutively express chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR2...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561728/adoptive-t-cell-therapy-for-solid-tumors
#17
Oladapo Yeku, Xinghuo Li, Renier J Brentjens
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an innovative form of immunotherapy wherein autologous T cells are genetically modified to express chimeric receptors encoding an antigen-specific single-chain variable fragment and various costimulatory molecules. Upon administration, these modified T cells traffic to, and recognize, cancer cells in an HLA-independent manner. CAR T-cell therapy has shown remarkable success in the treatment of CD-19-expressing B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. However, clinical gains to the same magnitude have not been reported in solid tumors...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561703/hematologic-malignancies-plasma-cell-disorders
#18
Madhav V Dhodapkar, Ivan Borrello, Adam D Cohen, Edward A Stadtmauer
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by the growth of tumor cells in the bone marrow. Properties of the tumor microenvironment provide both potential tumor-promoting and tumor-restricting properties. Targeting underlying immune triggers for evolution of tumors as well as direct attack of malignant plasma cells is an emerging focus of therapy for MM. The monoclonal antibodies daratumumab and elotuzumab, which target the plasma cell surface proteins CD38 and SLAMF7/CS1, respectively, particularly when used in combination with immunomodulatory agents and proteasome inhibitors, have resulted in high response rates and improved survival for patients with relapsed and refractory MM...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556553/tailoring-biomaterials-for-cancer-immunotherapy-emerging-trends-and-future-outlook
#19
REVIEW
Chao Wang, Yanqi Ye, Quanyin Hu, Adriano Bellotti, Zhen Gu
Cancer immunotherapy, as a paradigm shift in cancer treatment, has recently received tremendous attention. The active cancer vaccination, immune checkpoint blockage (ICB) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for T-cell-based adoptive cell transfer are among these developments that have achieved a significant increase in patient survival in clinical trials. Despite these advancements, emerging research at the interdisciplinary interface of cancer biology, immunology, bioengineering, and materials science is important to further enhance the therapeutic benefits and reduce side effects...
May 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555136/oncolytic-immunotherapy-conceptual-evolution-current-strategies-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Zong Sheng Guo, Zuqiang Liu, Stacy Kowalsky, Mathilde Feist, Pawel Kalinski, Binfeng Lu, Walter J Storkus, David L Bartlett
The concept of oncolytic virus (OV)-mediated cancer therapy has been shifted from an operational virotherapy paradigm to an immunotherapy. OVs often induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) of cancer cells, and they may interact directly with immune cells as well to prime antitumor immunity. We and others have developed a number of strategies to further stimulate antitumor immunity and to productively modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) for potent and sustained antitumor immune cell activity. First, OVs have been engineered or combined with other ICD inducers to promote more effective T cell cross-priming, and in many cases, the breaking of functional immune tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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