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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#1
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328379/mir%C3%A2-1273g%C3%A2-3p-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-lovo-cells-via-cannabinoid-receptor-1-through-activation-of-erbb4-pik3r3-mtor-s6k2-signaling-pathway
#2
Min Li, Xiaoping Qian, Mingzhen Zhu, Aiyi Li, Mingzhi Fang, Yong Zhu, Jingyu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miR) are important in various crucial cell processes including proliferation, migration and invasion. Dysregulation of miRNAs have been increasingly reported to contribute to colorectal cancer. However, the detailed biological function and potential mechanisms of miR‑1273g‑3p in colorectal cancer remain poorly understood. The expression levels of miR‑1273g‑3p in human colorectal cancer LoVo cell lines were detected via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327584/gama-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-rice-bran-diet-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-balances-energy-expenditure-via-modification-of-gut-microbiota-and-scfas
#3
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp. and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered SCFA distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by down-regulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327360/aboveground-herbivory-induced-jasmonates-disproportionately-reduce-plant-reproductive-potential-by-facilitating-root-nematode-infestation
#4
Ricardo A R Machado, Carla C M Arce, Michael A McClure, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Different plant-feeders, including insects and parasitic nematodes, can influence each other by triggering systemic changes in their shared host plants. In most cases however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, and the consequences for plant fitness are not well understood. We studied the interaction between leaf feeding Manduca sexta caterpillars and root parasitic nematodes in Nicotiana attenuata. Simulated Manduca sexta attack increased the abundance of root parasitic nematodes in the field and facilitated Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in the glasshouse...
January 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324043/tritrophic-interactions-mediated-by-herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-mechanisms-ecological-relevance-and-application-potential
#5
Ted C J Turlings, Matthias Erb
Tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies are an integral part of all terrestrial ecosystems. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) play a key role in these interactions, as they can attract predators and parasitoids to herbivore-attacked plants. Thirty years after this discovery, the ecological importance of the phenomena is widely recognized. However, the primary function of HIPVs is still subject to much debate, as is the possibility of using these plant-produced cues in crop protection...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320480/pharmacological-activation-of-rev-erbs-is-lethal-in-cancer-and-oncogene-induced-senescence
#6
Gabriele Sulli, Amy Rommel, Xiaojie Wang, Matthew J Kolar, Francesca Puca, Alan Saghatelian, Maksim V Plikus, Inder M Verma, Satchidananda Panda
The circadian clock imposes daily rhythms in cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and DNA damage response. Perturbations of these processes are hallmarks of cancer and chronic circadian rhythm disruption predisposes individuals to tumour development. This raises the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of the circadian machinery may be an effective therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. REV-ERBs, the nuclear hormone receptors REV-ERBα (also known as NR1D1) and REV-ERBβ (also known as NR1D2), are essential components of the circadian clock...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318700/time-course-and-dynamics-of-obesity-related-behavioral-changes-induced-by-energy-dense-foods-in-mice
#7
Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Aurelijus Burokas, Marta Fructuoso, Ionas Erb, Elena Martín-García, Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Cedric Notredame, Rafael Maldonado, Mara Dierssen
Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Using novel automated methods for the high-throughput screening of behavior, we here examine mice meal pattern upon long-term exposure to a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity induced by unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317192/abnormal-cortical-brain-integration-of-somatosensory-afferents-in-als
#8
Sina Sangari, Alain Giron, Guillaume Marrelec, Pierre-François Pradat, Véronique Marchand-Pauvert
OBJECTIVES: Infraclinical sensory alterations have been reported at early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While previous studies mainly focused on early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), late SEPs, which reflect on cortical pathways involved in cognitive-motor functions, are relatively underinvestigated. Early and late SEPs were compared to assess their alterations in ALS. METHODS: Median and ulnar nerves were electrically stimulated at the wrist, at 9 times the perceptual threshold, in 21 ALS patients without clinical evidence of sensory deficits, and 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312660/high-prevalence-of-esbl-producing-e-coli-in-private-and-shared-latrines-in-an-informal-urban-settlement-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#9
Stefan Erb, Lauren D'Mello-Guyett, Hamisi M Malebo, Robert M Njee, Fatuma Matwewe, Jeroen Ensink, Vladimira Hinic, Andreas Widmer, Reno Frei
Background: Data about the burden of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing microorganisms in Africa are limited. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of human faecal ESBL carriage in the community of an informal urban settlement in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa) by using environmental contamination of household latrines with ESBL as a surrogate marker. Methods: Within the context of a large survey in February 2014 assessing 636 randomly selected household latrines for faecal contamination by the detection of growth of E...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302739/comparison-of-endo-cut-mode-and-forced-coag-mode-for-the-formation-of-stricture-after-esophageal-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-in-an-in-vivo-porcine-model
#10
Masamichi Arao, Ryu Ishihara, Yusuke Tonai, Taro Iwatsubo, Satoki Shichijyo, Noriko Matsuura, Hiroko Nakahira, Sachiko Yamamoto, Yoji Takeuchi, Koji Higashino, Noriya Uedo, Shinichi Nakatsuka
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Stricture is a major complication of esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal carcinoma. To date, various methods have been developed to prevent stricture. However, the mechanism by which different electrosurgical unit (ESU) modes affect the formation of post-ESD stricture has not been evaluated. This study aimed to compare the degree of stricture caused by two major ESU modes (ENDO CUT mode and FORCED COAG mode) in a porcine model...
January 4, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299933/is-there-any-relationship-between-adc-values-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-the-histopathologic-prognostic-factors-of-invasive-ductal-carcinoma
#11
Hale Aydin, Bahar Guner, Isil Esen Bostanci, Melda Boyacioglu Bulut, Bilgin Kadri Aribas, Lutfi Dogan, Mehmet Ali Gulcelik
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used increasingly as a modality than can provide important information about breast cancer. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is an imaging technique from which ADC values can be calculated in addition to obtaining important structural information which cannot be obtained from other imaging studies. We did not find any significant relationships between ADC values and prognostic factors, but did provide some explanations for conflicting results in the literature...
January 4, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297959/p2y2-r-deletion-ameliorates-sialadenitis-in-il-14%C3%AE-transgenic-mice
#12
Lucas T Woods, Jean M Camden, Mahmoud G Khalafalla, Michael J Petris, Laurie Erb, Julian L Ambrus, Gary A Weisman
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-14α-transgenic (IL-14αTG) mice develop an autoimmune exocrinopathy with characteristics similar to Sjögren's syndrome, including sialadenitis and hyposalivation. The P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2 R) for extracellular ATP and UTP is upregulated during salivary gland inflammation (i.e., sialadenitis) where it regulates numerous inflammatory responses. The present study investigated the role of P2Y2 Rs in autoimmune sialadenitis in the IL-14αTG mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome...
January 3, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286696/observation-of-caroli-de-gennes-matricon-vortex-states-in-yba_-2-cu_-3-o_-7-%C3%AE
#13
Christophe Berthod, Ivan Maggio-Aprile, Jens Bruér, Andreas Erb, Christoph Renner
The copper oxides present the highest superconducting temperature and properties at odds with other compounds, suggestive of a fundamentally different superconductivity. In particular, the Abrikosov vortices fail to exhibit localized states expected and observed in all clean superconductors. We have explored the possibility that the elusive vortex-core signatures are actually present but weak. Combining local tunneling measurements with large-scale theoretical modeling, we positively identify the vortex states in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ}...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283425/molecular-basis-for-converting-2s-methylsuccinyl-coa-dehydrogenase-into-an-oxidase
#14
Simon Burgener, Thomas Schwander, Elvira Romero, Marco W Fraaije, Tobias J Erb
Although flavoenzymes have been studied in detail, the molecular basis of their dioxygen reactivity is only partially understood. The members of the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA oxidase families catalyze similar reactions and share common structural features. However, both enzyme families feature opposing reaction specificities in respect to dioxygen. Dehydrogenases react with electron transfer flavoproteins as terminal electron acceptors and do not show a considerable reactivity with dioxygen, whereas dioxygen serves as a bona fide substrate for oxidases...
December 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282813/extinction-and-reinstatement-of-an-operant-responding-maintained-by-food-in-different-models-of-obesity
#15
Aurelijus Burokas, Elena Martín-García, Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Ionas Erb, Jerome McDonald, Cedric Notredame, Mara Dierssen, Rafael Maldonado
A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking habits after maintaining an energy balanced diet. Alterations of eating behavior such as compulsive-like behavior and lack of self-control over food intake play a critical role in relapse. In this study, we used an operant paradigm of food-seeking behavior on two different diet-induced obesity models, a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity or for unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
December 28, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276362/the-effects-of-genetic-and-environmental-factors-on-writing-development
#16
Florina Erbeli, Sara A Hart, Young-Suk Grace Kim, Jeanette Taylor
Researchers have identified sources of individual differences in writing across beginning and developing writers. The aim of the present study was to further clarify the sources of this variability by investigating the extent to which there are differences in genetic and environmental factors underlying the associations between lexical diversity, syntactic knowledge, and semantic cohesion knowledge in relation to writing. Differences were examined across two developmental phases of writing: beginning (i.e., elementary school) and developing (i...
October 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275330/structural-basis-for-substrate-specificity-of-methylsuccinyl-coa-dehydrogenase-an-unusual-member-of-the-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-family
#17
Thomas Schwander, Richard McLean, Jan Zarzycki, Tobias J Erb
(2S)-methylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCD) belongs to the family of FAD-dependent acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) and is a key enzyme of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for acetate assimilation. It catalyzes the oxidation of (2S)-methylsuccinyl-CoA to α,β-unsaturated mesaconyl-CoA and shows only about 0.5% activity with succinyl-CoA. Here we report the crystal structure of MCD at a resolution of 1.37 Å. The enzyme forms a homodimer of two 60 kDa subunits. Compared to other ACDs, MCD contains a ~170 residue long N-terminal extension that structurally mimics a dimer-dimer interface of these enzymes that are canonically organized as tetramers...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261578/cryobiopsy-of-the-pleura-an-improved-diagnostic-tool
#18
Syed Z Tousheed, Poojaramuddanahally Hanumantharayappa Manjunath, Sagar Chandrasekar, Bangalore Venkatraman Murali Mohan, Hemanth Kumar, Kedar R Hibare, Ranganatha Ramanjaneya
BACKGROUND: Medical thoracoscopy (rigid and semirigid pleuroscopy) has revolutionized the approach to the diagnosis of pleural disease by offering a very high diagnostic yield. Rigid pleuroscopy offers the advantages of therapeutic intervention and larger biopsy specimens, whereas semirigid pleuroscopy using a standard biopsy forceps yields smaller and more superficial pleural samples. Cryobiopsy through semirigid pleuroscope in anecdotal studies has been used to overcome these disadvantages...
January 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258288/unexpectedly-large-impact-of-forest-management-and-grazing-on-global-vegetation-biomass
#19
Karl-Heinz Erb, Thomas Kastner, Christoph Plutzar, Anna Liza S Bais, Nuno Carvalhais, Tamara Fetzel, Simone Gingrich, Helmut Haberl, Christian Lauk, Maria Niedertscheider, Julia Pongratz, Martin Thurner, Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450 petagrams of carbon. In the hypothetical absence of land use, potential vegetation would store around 916 petagrams of carbon, under current climate conditions. This difference highlights the massive effect of land use on biomass stocks...
December 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251720/pharmacological-perturbation-of-cdk9-using-selective-cdk9-inhibition-or-degradation
#20
Calla M Olson, Baishan Jiang, Michael A Erb, Yanke Liang, Zainab M Doctor, Zinan Zhang, Tinghu Zhang, Nicholas Kwiatkowski, Myriam Boukhali, Jennifer L Green, Wilhelm Haas, Tyzoon Nomanbhoy, Eric S Fischer, Richard A Young, James E Bradner, Georg E Winter, Nathanael S Gray
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), an important regulator of transcriptional elongation, is a promising target for cancer therapy, particularly for cancers driven by transcriptional dysregulation. We characterized NVP-2, a selective ATP-competitive CDK9 inhibitor, and THAL-SNS-032, a selective CDK9 degrader consisting of a CDK-binding SNS-032 ligand linked to a thalidomide derivative that binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cereblon (CRBN). To our surprise, THAL-SNS-032 induced rapid degradation of CDK9 without affecting the levels of other SNS-032 targets...
December 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
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