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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620698/potential-disease-biomarkers-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-fibroblast-activation-protein
#1
REVIEW
Roger Yazbeck, Simone E Jaenisch, Catherine A Abbott
The importance of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) gene family in regulating critical biochemical pathways continues to emerge. The two most well-studied members of the family, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP), have been investigated both as therapeutic targets for disease and as diagnostic biomarkers. The interest in DPP4 and FAP as potential disease biomarkers has been driven primarily by observations of altered expression profiles in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Furthermore, the stability and persistence of soluble DPP4 and FAP in the serum make them attractive candidate serology markers...
June 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619162/impact-of-treatments-for-recycled-broiler-litter-on-the-viability-and-infectivity-of-microorganisms
#2
Daiane Voss-Rech, Iara Maria Trevisol, Liana Brentano, Virgínia Santiago Silva, Raquel Rebelatto, Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Marcos Antonio Zanella Mores, Arlei Coldebella, Sônia de Avila Botton, Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz
The microbiological risk of recycled litter depends on the efficacy of the management system applied to inactivate residual microorganisms and preserve the health of the successive broiler flock. This study aimed to assess the viability and infectivity of the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Salmonella Heidelberg in recycled litter exposed to different treatments. The litter was contaminated with microorganisms and submitted to the treatments (T): T1: shallow fermentation; T2: quicklime (calcium oxide); T3: shallow fermentation followed by addition of quicklime; T4: no treatment...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617655/adapted-biotroph-manipulation-of-plant-cell-ploidy
#3
Mary C Wildermuth, Michael A Steinwand, Amanda G McRae, Johan Jaenisch, Divya Chandran
Diverse plant biotrophs that establish a sustained site of nutrient acquisition induce localized host endoreduplication. Endoreduplication is a process by which cells successively replicate their genomes without mitosis, resulting in an increase in nuclear DNA ploidy. Elevated ploidy is associated with enhanced cell size, metabolic capacity, and the capacity to differentiate. Localized host endoreduplication induced by adapted plant biotrophs promotes biotroph colonization, development, and/or proliferation...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599625/genetic-variants-of-micb-and-plce1-and-associations-with-the-laboratory-features-of-dengue
#4
James Whitehorn, Duong Thi Hue Kien, Nguyen Than Ha Quyen, Bridget Wills, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Dong Thi Hoai Tam, Nguyen Minh Tuan, Thomas Jaenisch, Martin Hibberd, Chiea Chuen Khor, Cameron P Simmons
BACKGROUND: A previous genome-wide association study identified 2 susceptibility loci for severe dengue at MICB rs3132468 and PLCE1 rs3740360 and further work showed these mutations to be also associated with less severe clinical presentations. The aim of this study was to determine if these specific loci were associated with laboratory features of dengue that correlate with clinical severity with the aim of elucidating the functional basis of these genetic variants. METHODS: This was a case-only analysis of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients obtained from 2 prospective cohort studies and 1 randomised clinical trial in Vietnam (Trial registration: ISRCTN ISRCTN03147572...
June 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538727/establishment-and-cryptic-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-brazil-and-the-americas
#5
N R Faria, J Quick, I M Claro, J Thézé, J G de Jesus, M Giovanetti, M U G Kraemer, S C Hill, A Black, A C da Costa, L C Franco, S P Silva, C-H Wu, J Raghwani, S Cauchemez, L du Plessis, M P Verotti, W K de Oliveira, E H Carmo, G E Coelho, A C F S Santelli, L C Vinhal, C M Henriques, J T Simpson, M Loose, K G Andersen, N D Grubaugh, S Somasekar, C Y Chiu, J E Muñoz-Medina, C R Gonzalez-Bonilla, C F Arias, L L Lewis-Ximenez, S A Baylis, A O Chieppe, S F Aguiar, C A Fernandes, P S Lemos, B L S Nascimento, H A O Monteiro, I C Siqueira, M G de Queiroz, T R de Souza, J F Bezerra, M R Lemos, G F Pereira, D Loudal, L C Moura, R Dhalia, R F França, T Magalhães, E T Marques, T Jaenisch, G L Wallau, M C de Lima, V Nascimento, E M de Cerqueira, M M de Lima, D L Mascarenhas, J P Moura Neto, A S Levin, T R Tozetto-Mendoza, S N Fonseca, M C Mendes-Correa, F P Milagres, A Segurado, E C Holmes, A Rambaut, T Bedford, M R T Nunes, E C Sabino, L C J Alcantara, N J Loman, O G Pybus
Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly...
June 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492794/exploring-vascular-function-biomarkers-implications-for-rehabilitation
#6
Shane A Phillips, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Flávia Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, Rodrigo Boemo Jaenisch, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis and regulating blood vessel function. Endothelial function is considered an independent predictor for risk of future cardiovascular events in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular patients, as well as a predictor for postoperative complications in cardiovascular surgery patients. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by high-resolution ultrasound is widely used to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which is mainly mediated by nitric oxide release...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492791/respiratory-muscle-training-improves-diaphragm-citrate-synthase-activity-and-hemodynamic-function-in-rats-with-heart-failure
#7
Rodrigo Boemo Jaenisch, Mariane Bertagnolli, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Ross Arena, Pedro Dal Lago
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced respiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure positively alters the clinical trajectory of heart failure. In an experimental model, respiratory muscle training in rats with heart failure has been shown to improve cardiopulmonary function through mechanisms yet to be entirely elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The present report aimed to evaluate the respiratory muscle training effects in diaphragm citrate synthase activity and hemodynamic function in rats with heart failure...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469032/rapid-and-specific-detection-of-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-viruses
#8
Nunya Chotiwan, Connie D Brewster, Tereza Magalhaes, James Weger-Lucarelli, Nisha K Duggal, Claudia Rückert, Chilinh Nguyen, Selene M Garcia Luna, Joseph R Fauver, Barb Andre, Meg Gray, William C Black, Rebekah C Kading, Gregory D Ebel, Guillermina Kuan, Angel Balmaseda, Thomas Jaenisch, Ernesto T A Marques, Aaron C Brault, Eva Harris, Brian D Foy, Sandra L Quackenbush, Rushika Perera, Joel Rovnak
Understanding the dynamics of Zika virus transmission and formulating rational strategies for its control require precise diagnostic tools that are also appropriate for resource-poor environments. We have developed a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that distinguishes Zika viruses of Asian and African lineages. The assay does not detect chikungunya virus or flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, or West Nile viruses. The assay conditions allowed direct detection of Zika virus RNA in cultured infected cells; in mosquitoes; in virus-spiked samples of human blood, plasma, saliva, urine, and semen; and in infected patient serum, plasma, and semen samples without the need for RNA isolation or reverse transcription...
May 3, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439102/mecp2-regulated-mirnas-control-early-human-neurogenesis-through-differential-effects-on-erk-and-akt-signaling
#9
N Mellios, D A Feldman, S D Sheridan, J P K Ip, S Kwok, S K Amoah, B Rosen, B A Rodriguez, B Crawford, R Swaminathan, S Chou, Y Li, M Ziats, C Ernst, R Jaenisch, S J Haggarty, M Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, which encodes a multifunctional epigenetic regulator with known links to a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although postnatal functions of MeCP2 have been thoroughly investigated, its role in prenatal brain development remains poorly understood. Given the well-established importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurogenesis, we employed isogenic human RTT patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and MeCP2 short hairpin RNA knockdown approaches to identify novel MeCP2-regulated miRNAs enriched during early human neuronal development...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377514/smarce1-is-required-for-the-invasive-progression-of-in-situ-cancers
#10
Ethan S Sokol, Yu-Xiong Feng, Dexter X Jin, Minu D Tizabi, Daniel H Miller, Malkiel A Cohen, Sandhya Sanduja, Ferenc Reinhardt, Jai Pandey, Daphne A Superville, Rudolf Jaenisch, Piyush B Gupta
Advances in mammography have sparked an exponential increase in the detection of early-stage breast lesions, most commonly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). More than 50% of DCIS lesions are benign and will remain indolent, never progressing to invasive cancers. However, the factors that promote DCIS invasion remain poorly understood. Here, we show that SMARCE1 is required for the invasive progression of DCIS and other early-stage tumors. We show that SMARCE1 drives invasion by regulating the expression of secreted proteases that degrade basement membrane, an ECM barrier surrounding all epithelial tissues...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250532/risk-of-microcephaly-after-zika-virus-infection-in-brazil-2015-to-2016
#11
Thomas Jaenisch, Kerstin Daniela Rosenberger, Carlos Brito, Oliver Brady, Patrícia Brasil, Ernesto Ta Marques
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of microcephaly in babies born to women infected by the Zika virus during pregnancy in Brazil in an epidemic between 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We obtained data on the number of notified and confirmed microcephaly cases in each Brazilian state between November 2015 and October 2016 from the health ministry. For Pernambuco State, one of the hardest hit, weekly data were available from August 2015 to October 2016 for different definitions of microcephaly...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167275/single-amino-acid-fingerprinting-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-with-high-density-peptide-arrays
#12
Laura K Weber, Andrea Palermo, Jonas Kügler, Olivier Armant, Awale Isse, Simone Rentschler, Thomas Jaenisch, Jürgen Hubbuch, Stefan Dübel, Alexander Nesterov-Mueller, Frank Breitling, Felix F Loeffler
The antibody species that patrol in a patient's blood are an invaluable part of the immune system. While most of them shield us from life-threatening infections, some of them do harm in autoimmune diseases. If we knew exactly all the antigens that elicited all the antibody species within a group of patients, we could learn which ones correlate with immune protection, are irrelevant, or do harm. Here, we demonstrate an approach to this question: First, we use a plethora of phage-displayed peptides to identify many different serum antibody binding peptides...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132741/respiratory-muscle-training-improves-chemoreflex-response-heart-rate-variability-and-respiratory-mechanics-in-rats-with-heart-failure
#13
Rodrigo B Jaenisch, Edson Quagliotto, Chalyne Chechi, Leonardo Calegari, Fernando Dos Santos, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Pedro Dal Lago
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present report was to evaluate respiratory muscle training (RMT) effects on hemodynamic function, chemoreflex response, heart rate variability, and respiratory mechanics in rats with heart failure (HF rats). METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary-sham (Sed-Sham, n = 8), respiratory muscle trained-sham (RMT-Sham, n = 8), sedentary-HF (Sed-HF, n = 8) and respiratory muscle trained-HF (RMT-HF, n = 8). Animals were submitted to an RMT protocol performed 30 minutes per day, 5 days per week for 6 weeks, whereas the sedentary animals did not exercise...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074830/tet1-in-nucleus-accumbens-opposes-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#14
Jian Feng, Catherine J Pena, Immanuel Purushothaman, Olivia Engmann, Deena Walker, Amber N Brown, Orna Issler, Marie Doyle, Eileen Harrigan, Ezekiell Mouzon, Vincent Vialou, Li Shen, Meelad M Dawlaty, Rudolf Jaenisch, Eric J Nestler
Depression is a leading cause of disease burden, yet current therapies fully treat <50% of affected individuals. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in depression and antidepressant action. Here we examined a possible role for the DNA dioxygenase, ten-eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1), in depression-related behavioral abnormalities. We applied chronic social defeat stress, an ethologically validated mouse model of depression-like behaviors, and examined Tet1 expression changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region...
July 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041895/induction-of-expansion-and-folding-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#15
Yun Li, Julien Muffat, Attya Omer, Irene Bosch, Madeline A Lancaster, Mriganka Sur, Lee Gehrke, Juergen A Knoblich, Rudolf Jaenisch
An expansion of the cerebral neocortex is thought to be the foundation for the unique intellectual abilities of humans. It has been suggested that an increase in the proliferative potential of neural progenitors (NPs) underlies the expansion of the cortex and its convoluted appearance. Here we show that increasing NP proliferation induces expansion and folding in an in vitro model of human corticogenesis. Deletion of PTEN stimulates proliferation and generates significantly larger and substantially folded cerebral organoids...
March 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028355/from-blood-to-breath-new-horizons-for-esophageal-cancer-biomarkers
#16
REVIEW
Roger Yazbeck, Simone E Jaenisch, David I Watson
Esophageal cancer is a lethal cancer encompassing adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma sub-types. The global incidence of esophageal cancer is increasing world-wide, associated with the increased prevalence of associated risk factors. The asymptomatic nature of disease often leads to late diagnosis and five-year survival rates of less than 15%. Current diagnostic tools are restricted to invasive and costly endoscopy and biopsy for histopathology. Minimally and non-invasive biomarkers of esophageal cancer are needed to facilitate earlier detection and better clinical management of patients...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989770/human-naive-pluripotent-stem-cells-model-x-chromosome-dampening-and-x-inactivation
#17
Anna Sahakyan, Rachel Kim, Constantinos Chronis, Shan Sabri, Giancarlo Bonora, Thorold W Theunissen, Edward Kuoy, Justin Langerman, Amander T Clark, Rudolf Jaenisch, Kathrin Plath
Naive human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be derived from primed hESCs or directly from blastocysts, but their X chromosome state has remained unresolved. Here, we show that the inactive X chromosome (Xi) of primed hESCs was reactivated in naive culture conditions. Like cells of the blastocyst, the resulting naive cells contained two active X chromosomes with XIST expression and chromosome-wide transcriptional dampening and initiated XIST-mediated X inactivation upon differentiation. Both establishment of and exit from the naive state (differentiation) happened via an XIST-negative XaXa intermediate...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905428/stem-cells-and-interspecies-chimaeras
#18
REVIEW
Jun Wu, Henry T Greely, Rudolf Jaenisch, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Janet Rossant, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
Chimaeras are both monsters of the ancient imagination and a long-established research tool. Recent advances, particularly those dealing with the identification and generation of various kinds of stem cells, have broadened the repertoire and utility of mammalian interspecies chimaeras and carved out new paths towards understanding fundamental biology as well as potential clinical applications.
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803317/jointly-reduced-inhibition-and-excitation-underlies-circuit-wide-changes-in-cortical-processing-in-rett-syndrome
#19
Abhishek Banerjee, Rajeev V Rikhye, Vincent Breton-Provencher, Xin Tang, Chenchen Li, Keji Li, Caroline A Runyan, Zhanyan Fu, Rudolf Jaenisch, Mriganka Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) arises from loss-of-function mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (Mecp2), but fundamental aspects of its physiological mechanisms are unresolved. Here, by whole-cell recording of synaptic responses in MeCP2 mutant mice in vivo, we show that visually driven excitatory and inhibitory conductances are both reduced in cortical pyramidal neurons. The excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) ratio is increased in amplitude and prolonged in time course. These changes predict circuit-wide reductions in response reliability and selectivity of pyramidal neurons to visual stimuli, as confirmed by two-photon imaging...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768957/cns-disease-models-with-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-the-crispr-age
#20
REVIEW
Julien Muffat, Yun Li, Rudolf Jaenisch
In vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells provides a systematic platform to investigate the physiological development and function of the human nervous system, as well as the etiology and consequence when these processes go awry. Recent development in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture systems allows modeling of the complex structure formation of the human CNS, and the intricate interactions between various resident neuronal and glial cell types. Combined with an ever-expanding genome editing and regulation toolkit such as CRISPR/Cas9, it is now a possibility to study human neurological disease in the relevant molecular, cellular and anatomical context...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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