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cancer epidemiology

Yang Feng, Weixing Dai, Yaqi Li, Shaobo Mo, Qingguo Li, Sanjun Cai
OBJECTIVE: Marital status has been found as an independent prognostic factor for survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether patients with different marital status have benefited the same from the treatment improvement. METHODS: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database for patients diagnosed with CRC from 1975 to 2009. Yearly survival data was presented with overlying loess smoothing lines, stratifying by marital status...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Suhong Xiao, Ying-Sheng Tang, Praveen Kusumanchi, Sally P Stabler, Ying Zhang, Asok C Antony
Background: Epidemiologic and in vitro studies suggest independent linkages between poor folate and/or vitamin B-12 nutrition, genomic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 viral integration, and cancer. However, there is no direct evidence in vivo to support the causative role of poor folate nutrition in HPV16 integration into the cellular genome. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that folate deficiency enables the integration of HPV16 into the genome of HPV16-harboring keratinocytes, and could thereby influence earlier transformation of these cells to cancer in an animal model...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
Guoqing Zhang, Renfeng Li, Yilei Deng, Longshuan Zhao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Compared with overall survival, conditional survival is a more relevant measure of prognosis in surviving patients over time. The aim of this study was to describe the conditional survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma according to different prognostic variables through an analysis of a national population-based cancer registry. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3,082 hepatocellular carcinoma patients who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2014...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
L G J Leijssen, A M Dinaux, H Kunitake, L G Bordeianou, D L Berger
PURPOSE: Proximal and distal colon cancers differ in terms of epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathologic features. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of right-sided (RC), transverse (TC), and left-sided (LC) colon cancer on morbidity rates and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with resected colon cancer between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess predictors of overall (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS), as well as disease-free survival (DFS)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Arnolfo Petruzziello
Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent primary malignant tumors and accounts for about 90% of all primary liver cancers. Its distribution varies greatly according to geographic location and it is more common in middle and low- income countries than in developed ones especially in Eastern Asia and Sub Saharan Africa (70% of all new HCCs worldwide), with incidence rates of over 20 per 100,000 individuals. Explanation: The most important risk factors for HCC are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, excessive consumption of alcohol and exposition to aflatoxin B1...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
B Borghese, P Santulli, L Marcellin, C Chapron
Endometriosis and adenomyosis are histologically defined. The frequency of endometriosis cannot be precisely estimated in the general population. Endometriosis is considered a disease when it causes pain and/or infertility. Endometriosis is a heterogeneous disease with three well-recognized subtypes that are often associated with each other: superficial endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). DIE is frequently multifocal and mainly affects the following structures: the uterosacral ligaments, the posterior vaginal cul-de-sac, the bladder, the ureters, and the digestive tract (rectum, recto-sigmoid junction, appendix)...
March 11, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Bo Qin, Adana A M Llanos, Yong Lin, Elizabeth A Szamreta, Jesse J Plascak, Hannah Oh, Karen Pawlish, Christine B Ambrosone, Kitaw Demissie, Chi-Chen Hong, Elisa V Bandera
PURPOSE: Self-reported weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) are commonly used in cancer epidemiology studies, but information on the validity of self-reports among cancer survivors is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of these self-reported measures among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors, known to have high obesity prevalence. METHODS: We compared the self-reported and measured values among 243 participants from the Women's Circle of Health Follow-Up Study (WCHFS), a population-based longitudinal study of AA breast cancer survivors...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Lauren E Wilson, Craig Evan Pollack, Melissa A Greiner, Michaela A Dinan
PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether physician-level characteristics were associated with 21-gene recurrence score (RS) genomic testing to evaluate recurrence risk and benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-negative breast cancer. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program-Medicare data linked with the American Medical Association physician master file...
March 13, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Arvid Sjölander
Measures of causal effects play a central role in epidemiology. A wide range of measures exist, which are designed to give relevant answers to substantive epidemiological research questions. However, due to mathematical convenience and software limitations most studies only report odds ratios for binary outcomes and hazard ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In this paper we show how logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards regression models can be used to estimate a wide range of causal effect measures, with the R-package stdReg...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer...
2018: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Yuhan Liu, Anbang He, Baoer Liu, Yucheng Zhong, Xinhui Liao, Jiangeng Yang, Jieqing Chen, Jianting Wu, Hongbing Mei
Several epidemiological studies have reported that polymorphisms in microRNA-196a2 (miR-196a2) were associated with various cancers. However, the results remained unverified and were inconsistent in different cancers. Therefore, we carried out an updated meta-analysis to elaborate the effects of rs11614913 polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. A total of 84 articles with 35,802 cases and 41,541 controls were included to evaluate the association between the miR-196a2 rs11614913 and cancer risk by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Current staging paradigms from the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for upper urinary tract carcinomas treat locoregionally advanced (T4 and N+) and metastatic (M1) patients as a single entity (stage IV). The current study proposes a modification of the AJCC staging system where these 2 entities are separated. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2014) was accessed through SEER*Stat program...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Shin Ishikane, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga
Hypertension, which often exists as a comorbid condition in cancer patients, is considered as a factor affecting cancer progression. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in theregulation of blood pressure, and angiotensin II (Ang II) is a well-known pressor peptide in RAS. There is also accumulated evidence indicating that Ang II plays a critical role in the metastasis of various cancers by modulating adhesion, migration invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Consistent with this, large epidemiological studies have reported the potential beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Ang II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) against cancer metastasis; however, some of the results remain controversial...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Yan Qiao, Tingting Yang, Yong Gan, Wenzhen Li, Chao Wang, Yanhong Gong, Zuxun Lu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have clarified the potential associations between regular aspirin use and cancers. However, it remains controversial on whether aspirin use decreases the risk of cancers risks. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis to assess the associations between aspirin use and cancers. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations...
March 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Carole Fakhry, Martin Krapcho, David W Eisele, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) is well established. However, up-to-date incidence estimates and trends for head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs) overall, including major anatomic sites, and nonoropharyngeal (non-OP) HNSCCs by sex, race, and age in the United States are not well described. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of incident HNSCCs during 1992 through 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was performed to evaluate the incidence of HNSCCs overall, OPSCC, and non-OP HNSCC (those of the larynx, oral cavity, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and nasal cavity)...
March 13, 2018: Cancer
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Mette Skovgaard Christensen, Jesper Medom Vestergaard, Francesco d'Amore, Jette Sønderskov Gørløv, Gunnar Toft, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Zara Ann Stokholm, Inge Brosbøl Iversen, Mette Schou Nissen, Henrik Albert Kolstad
BACKGROUND: Styrene is an important industrial chemical that the general population is exposed to at low levels. Previous research has suggested increased occurrence of leukemia and lymphoma among reinforced plastics workers exposed at high levels of styrene. METHODS: We followed 73,036 workers of 456 small and medium sized Danish reinforced plastics companies 1968-2011 and investigated the exposure-response relation between cumulative styrene exposure and incidence of lymphohematopoietic malignancies...
March 10, 2018: Epidemiology
Xingkang He, Wenrui Wu, Yu'e Ding, Yue Li, Jianmin Si, Leimin Sun
With an increasing trend of patients with young-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), risks of second primary cancers (SPCs) among them become a concerning issue. We aimed to define the detailed risk and site-distributed patterns of SPCs in young CRC individuals (age ≤50). A population-based cohort were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risk (AER) were calculated to assess the risk for SPCs compared with the general population...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
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