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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294416/hypoxia-impairs-muscle-function-and-reduces-myotube-size-in-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle
#1
N R W Martin, K Aguilar-Agon, G P Robinson, D J Player, M C Turner, S D Myers, M P Lewis
Contemporary tissue engineered skeletal muscle models display a high degree of physiological accuracy compared with native tissue, and therefore may be excellent platforms to understand how various pathologies affect skeletal muscle. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease which causes tissue hypoxia and is characterised by muscle fibre atrophy and impaired muscle function. In the present study we exposed engineered skeletal muscle to varying levels of oxygen (O2 ; 21-1%) for 24 hours in order to see if a COPD like muscle phenotype could be recreated in vitro, and if so, at what degree of hypoxia this occured...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292581/-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-real-life-leonpoc-study
#2
Silvia García García, Luis Carazo Fernández, Javier Juan García, José Cesáreo Rilo Naveiro
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate different characteristics of COPD patients according to phenotypes and GOLD guidelines.according to GesEPOC phenotypes and GOLD 2011 ABCD guidelines and pharmacological treatment agreement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. LOCATION: COPD patients aged 40-85 from León were randomly selected from Primary Care database, MEDORA. PARTICIPANTS: 5222 eligible COPD patients were collected from MEDORA database...
March 11, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290796/-sudden-cardiac-death-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
N A Karoli, A P Rebrov
The article contains review of data on the problem of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Large studies have shown that risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is 2-3 times greater than in general population. The incidence of COPD and ischemic heart disease (IHD) progressively rises with age. Combination of these diseases is often observed in clinical practice among patients older than 40 years. According to the population study published in 2015 COPD has been associated with elevated risk of SCD especially in patients with frequent exacerbations within 5 years after diagnosis...
February 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287180/functional-interactors-of-three-genome-wide-association-study-genes-are-differentially-expressed-in-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-lung-tissue
#4
Jarrett D Morrow, Xiaobo Zhou, Taotao Lao, Zhiqiang Jiang, Dawn L DeMeo, Michael H Cho, Weiliang Qiu, Suzanne Cloonan, Victor Pinto-Plata, Bartholome Celli, Nathaniel Marchetti, Gerard J Criner, Raphael Bueno, George R Washko, Kimberly Glass, John Quackenbush, Augustine M K Choi, Edwin K Silverman, Craig P Hersh
In comparison to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), there has been poor replication of gene expression studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed microarray gene expression profiling on a large sample of resected lung tissues from subjects with severe COPD. Comparing 111 COPD cases and 40 control smokers, 204 genes were differentially expressed; none were at significant GWAS loci. The top differentially expressed gene was HMGB1, which interacts with AGER, a known COPD GWAS gene...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283854/management-of-the-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-acos-a-review-of-the-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Kristin L Hines, R Stokes Peebles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Examine the definition of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) and current treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with the ACOS have a lower quality of life and suffer from more complications than those affected by either disease alone. Diagnosis of ACOS is difficult because of the clinical similarities between the two diseases and the various phenotypes that comprise the syndrome. Defining treatment strategies for ACOS has been challenging because many clinical trials for asthma therapy have purposefully excluded patients with features of COPD, and COPD clinical trials have not included patients who might have an asthmatic component to their disease...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282995/understanding-copd-overlap-syndromes
#6
Tuang Yeow Poh, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Adrian Kwok Wai Chan, Anthony Chau Ang Yii, Valerie Fei Lee Yong, Pei Yee Tiew, Mariko Siyue Koh, Sanjay Haresh Chotirmall
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accounts for a large burden of lung disease. It can 'overlap' with other respiratory diseases including bronchiectasis, fibrosis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). While COPD alone confers morbidity and mortality, common features with contrasting clinical outcomes can occur in COPD 'overlap syndromes'. Areas Covered: Given the large degree of heterogeneity in COPD, individual variation to treatment is adopted based on its observed phenotype, which in turn overlaps with features of other respiratory disease states such as asthma...
March 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280320/the-effect-of-obesity-on-patients-with-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-results-from-knhanes-2010-to-2012
#7
Ju-Hee Park, Jung-Kyu Lee, Eun Young Heo, Deog Kyeom Kim, Hee Soon Chung
PURPOSE: A low body mass index has been associated with high mortalities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and studies reveal that obesity aggravates the clinical effects of COPD. We investigated the impact of obesity on patients newly identified with COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study, used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2010 to 2012...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273403/pten-pi3k-akt-regulates-macrophage-polarization-in-emphysematous-mice
#8
JunJuan Lu, LiHua Xie, Chun Liu, Qiang Zhang, ShengHua Sun
Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype has been observed in the lung tissues of COPD patients and cigarette smokers. The molecular basis of this process remains unclear, and it has not been completely illuminated in animal models of emphysema. In our study we combined cigarette smoke(CS) exposure with intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to build an emphysema model. We found by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry that the expression level of CD206 and the ratio of M2 to M1 macrophages was increased in emphysematous mice...
March 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270543/clinical-and-functional-lung-parameters-associated-with-frequent-exacerbator-phenotype-in-subjects-with-severe-copd
#9
Alberto Capozzolo, Pierluigi Carratù, Silvano Dragonieri, Vito Antonio Falcone, Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta, Vito Liotino, Giuseppina D'Alba, Giorgio Castellana, Onofrio Resta
BACKGROUND: COPD is currently recognized as a syndrome associated with a high prevalence of comorbidities and various phenotypes. Exacerbations are very important events in the clinical history of COPD because they drive the decline in lung function. In the present study, we aim to identify whether there are any clinical and functional specific features of frequent exacerbators in a population of patients with severe COPD. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, case control study...
March 7, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260876/heterogeneity-of-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome
#10
Hyonsoo Joo, Deokjae Han, Jae Ha Lee, Chin Kook Rhee
Many patients suffering from asthma or COPD have overlapping features of both diseases. However, a phenotypical approach for evaluating asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has not been established. In this report, we examined the phenotypes in patients with ACOS. Patients diagnosed with ACOS between 2011 and 2015 were identified and classified into four phenotype groups. Group A was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts ≥300. Group B was composed of patients who smoked <10 pack years and had blood eosinophil counts <300...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258130/paradigms-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-phenotypes-immunobiology-and-therapy-with-a-focus-on-vascular-disease
#11
Michael Schivo, Timothy E Albertson, Angela Haczku, Nicholas J Kenyon, Amir A Zeki, Brooks T Kuhn, Samuel Louie, Mark V Avdalovic
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome that represents a major global health burden. COPD phenotypes have recently emerged based on large cohort studies addressing the need to better characterize the syndrome. Though comprehensive phenotyping is still at an early stage, factors such as ethnicity and radiographic, serum, and exhaled breath biomarkers have shown promise. COPD is also an immunological disease where innate and adaptive immune responses to the environment and tobacco smoke are altered...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257315/personalized-medicine-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
E F M Wouters, B B R A F Wouters, I M L Augustin, F M E Franssen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes ongoing developments in personalized medicine and precision medicine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our current approach is far away of personalized management algorithms as current recommendations for COPD are largely based on a reductionist disease description, operationally defined by results of spirometry. RECENT FINDINGS: Besides precision medicine developments, a personalized medicine approach in COPD is described based on a holistic approach of the patient and considering illness as the consequence of dynamic interactions within and between multiple interacting and self-adjusting systems...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255962/bringing-stability-to-the-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patient-clinical-and-pharmacological-considerations-for-frequent-exacerbators
#13
REVIEW
Swati Gulati, J Michael Wells
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are critical events associated with an accelerated loss of lung function, increased morbidity, and excess mortality. AECOPD are heterogeneous in nature and this may directly impact clinical decision making, specifically in patients with frequent exacerbations. A 'frequent exacerbator' is a sub-phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is defined as an individual who experiences two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations per year...
March 3, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255811/sagittal-lung-ct-measurements-in-the-evaluation-of-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-a-distinctive-phenotype-from-copd-alone
#14
Yanjuan Qu, Yiyuan Cao, Meiyan Liao, Zhiyan Lu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the capability of sagittal-lung computed tomography (CT) measurements in differentiating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). METHODS: Clinical and high-resolution CT of 229 patients including 123 pure COPD patients and 106 ACOS patients were included. Sagittal-lung CT measurements in terms of bilateral lung height (LH), anterior-posterior lung diameter (APLD), diaphragm height (DH), and anterior sterno-diaphragmatic angle (ASDA), as well as inter-pulmonary septum length (IPSL) on axial images were measured both before and after bronchodilator (BD) administration...
March 3, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245616/the-impacts-of-cellular-senescence-in-elderly-pneumonia-and-in-age-related-lung-diseases-that-increase-the-risk-of-respiratory-infections
#15
REVIEW
Shigehisa Yanagi, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Ayako Miura, Ayako Matsuo, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Masamitsu Nakazato
Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
February 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223227/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-asthma
#16
REVIEW
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Erwin W Gelfand, Nima Rezaei
Corticosteroid-resistant asthmatics, although comprising only a portion of the asthma population, account for most of the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with asthma. Moreover, corticosteroids are not effective inhibitors of airway remodeling changes, and their long-term use is associated with debilitating systemic side effects. Therefore, potent and safe novel therapeutic alternatives, targeting basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the severe asthmatic phenotype are urgently needed...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217691/%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-misfolded-secretory-protein-variant-with-unique-effects-on-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#17
David H Perlmutter
In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids...
September 2016: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202552/airway-dynamics-in-copd-patients-by-within-breath-impedance-tracking-effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#18
András Lorx, Dorottya Czövek, Zoltán Gingl, Gergely Makan, Bence Radics, Dóra Bartusek, Szabolcs Szigeti, János Gál, György Losonczy, Peter D Sly, Zoltán Hantos
Tracking of the within-breath changes of respiratory mechanics using the forced oscillation technique may provide outcomes that characterise the dynamic behaviour of the airways during normal breathing.We measured respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) at 8 Hz in 55 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 20 healthy controls, and evaluated Rrs and Xrs as functions of gas flow (V') and volume (V) during normal breathing cycles. In 12 COPD patients, additional measurements were made at continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels of 4, 8, 14 and 20 hPa...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199135/extreme-trait-whole-genome-sequencing-identifies-ptpro-as-a-novel-candidate-gene-in-emphysema-with-severe-airflow-obstruction
#19
Josiah E Radder, Yingze Zhang, Alyssa D Gregory, Shibing Yu, Neil J Kelly, Joseph K Leader, Naftali Kaminski, Frank C Sciurba, Steven D Shapiro
RATIONALE: Genetic association studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have primarily tested for association with common variants, the results of which explain only a portion of disease heritability. As rare variation is also likely to contribute to susceptibility, we employed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of subjects with clinically extreme phenotypes to identify genomic regions enriched for rare variation contributing to COPD susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: Identify regions of rare genetic variation contributing to emphysema with severe airflow obstruction Methods: We identified heavy smokers that were resistant (n=65) or susceptible (n=64) to emphysema with severe airflow obstruction in the Pittsburgh SCCOR cohort...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191685/gene-based-segregation-method-for-identifying-rare-variants-in-family-based-sequencing-studies
#20
Dandi Qiao, Christoph Lange, Nan M Laird, Sungho Won, Craig P Hersh, Jarrett Morrow, Brian D Hobbs, Sharon M Lutz, Ingo Ruczinski, Terri H Beaty, Edwin K Silverman, Michael H Cho
Whole-exome sequencing using family data has identified rare coding variants in Mendelian diseases or complex diseases with Mendelian subtypes, using filters based on variant novelty, functionality, and segregation with the phenotype within families. However, formal statistical approaches are limited. We propose a gene-based segregation test (GESE) that quantifies the uncertainty of the filtering approach. It is constructed using the probability of segregation events under the null hypothesis of Mendelian transmission...
February 13, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
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