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Preventive medicine, public health

Divya Talwar, Tung-Sung Tseng, Margaret Foster, Lei Xu, Lei-Shih Chen
PURPOSE: The completion of the Human Genome Project has enhanced avenues for disease prevention, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the shortage of genetic professionals, genetics/genomics training has been provided to nongenetic health professionals for years to establish their genomic competencies. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and evaluate the existing genetics/genomics education programs for nongenetic health professionals. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from January 1990 to June 2016...
October 20, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Prakash Chandra Pandey, Sarita Bajaj, Anubha Srivastava
OBJECTIVE: Snake bite in India is a common medical emergency and an occupational hazard for majority of Indian population especially farmers. Epidemiological data on snake bite from the North India is sparse. Hence we conducted this study to find clinico-epidemiological profile of neuroparalytic snake bite. METHODS: This is a record-based, descriptive study carried out at the Department of Medicine, M.L.N. Medical College and associated Swaroop Rani Nehru Hospital, Allahabad, U...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Bandy X Lee, Peter D Donnelly, Larry Cohen, Shikha Garg
The Guest Editors introduce the Special Issue for the Journal of Public Health Policy on violence, health, and the 2030 Agenda. Emphasizing the importance of collaboration between scholars and practitioners, they outline the process of jointly imagining and designing the next generation of violence prevention strategies. They include representative works of members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA), including the World Bank, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention Institute, the Danish Institute Against Torture, the University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Gender Violence and Health Centre, and the Yale University Law and Psychiatry Division, among others...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
James Gilligan, Bandy X Lee, Shikha Garg, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Audrey Luo
Many national and international institutions advocate approaching violence as a problem in public health and preventive medicine, in a manner similar to the way we address other disabling and life-threatening pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Prevention by a health model requires an ecological perspective. Previous work has found evidence that economic factors, including unemployment and relative poverty, as well as political culture and values, may affect violent death rates, including homicide and suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Mareike Kroll, Revati Phalkey, Sayani Dutta, Sharvari Shukla, Carsten Butsch, Erach Bharucha, Frauke Kraas
BACKGROUND: Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India...
2016: Global Health Action
David C Sheridan, Robert G Hendrickson, Gillian Beauchamp, Amber Laurie, Rongwei Fu, B Zane Horowitz
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent intentional ingestions remain a significant public health problem in the United States with little research to date on the over-the-counter or prescription medicines that adolescents abuse. These data are important for anticipatory guidance by primary care providers, preventive health, and poison center outreach. METHODS: This was an observational study using the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System. The study population consisted of all cases of patients aged 13 to 19 years from 2004 to 2013 with a coding of "intentional abuse...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Bethany L Strong, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Wendy Braund
The American College of Preventive Medicine Policy Committee makes policy guidelines and recommendations on preventive medicine and public health topics for public health decision makers. After a review of the current evidence available in 2016, the College is providing a consensus-based set of policy recommendations designed to reduce firearm-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S. These guidelines address seven general areas pertaining to the public health threat posed by firearms: gun sales and background checks, assault weapons and high-capacity weapons, mental health, research funding, gun storage laws, and physician counseling...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Barbara Stetson, Karl E Minges, Caroline R Richardson
Accelerating diabetes rates have resulted in a global public health epidemic. Lifestyle change is a cornerstone of care, yet regimen demands may result in adherence difficulties. Distress, depression, and other psychosocial concerns are higher in those with diabetes. While interventions, such as the Diabetes Prevention Program appear to be effective, further research is needed to support the translation of interventions to prevent diabetes. Studies assessing optimal approaches to promoting effective decision making, coping and adherence are needed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Tsuyoshi Hamada, NaNa Keum, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative field that utilizes molecular pathology to incorporate interpersonal heterogeneity of a disease process into epidemiology. In each individual, the development and progression of a disease are determined by a unique combination of exogenous and endogenous factors, resulting in different molecular and pathological subtypes of the disease. Based on "the unique disease principle," the primary aim of MPE is to uncover an interactive relationship between a specific environmental exposure and disease subtypes in determining disease incidence and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Daniel J Flannery, Jonathan Todres, Catherine P Bradshaw, Angela Frederick Amar, Sandra Graham, Mark Hatzenbuehler, Matthew Masiello, Megan Moreno, Regina Sullivan, Tracy Vaillancourt, Suzanne M Le Menestrel, Frederick Rivara
Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses...
October 9, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Jennifer A Price, Ana I F Sousa Soares, Augustine D Asante, Joao S Martins, Kate Williams, Virginia L Wiseman
BACKGROUND: Despite public health care being free at the point of delivery in Timor-Leste, wealthier patients access hospital care at nearly twice the rate of poorer patients. This study seeks to understand the barriers driving inequitable utilisation of hospital services in Timor-Leste from the perspective of community members and health care managers. METHODS: This multisite qualitative study in Timor-Leste conducted gender segregated focus groups (n = 8) in eight districts, with 59 adults in urban and rural settings, and in-depth interviews (n = 8) with the Director of community health centres...
September 30, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
H Sadhna, R Harris, J L Miles-Chan, S Yves, M Jean-Pierre, J Noorjehan, A G Dulloo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Global estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence are based upon the World Health Organisation (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cut-off values of 25 and 30 kg/m(2), respectively. To validate these BMI cut-offs for adiposity in the island population of Mauritius, we assessed the relationship between BMI and measured body fat mass in this population according to gender and ethnicity. METHODS: In 175 young adult Mauritians (age 20-42 years) belonging to the two main ethnic groups-Indians (South Asian descent) and Creoles (African/Malagasy descent), body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured, total body fat assessed by Deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution, and trunk (abdominal) fat by segmental bioimpedance analysis...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
P Padmapriya, V Senthil Kumar, R Senthil Raja, A Khaleefathullah Sheriff, T S Uma, S Mohana, Kavita Arunagiri, A Anupama, N Saran, R Kiruba, K Saravana Murali, B V Suresh Babu, N Nivas Chakravarthy, K Saraswathi, K Kaveri, P Gunasekaran
Dengue is a public health problem with an increasing global incidence and geographic distribution in almost all tropical and subtropical countries, with a transition from epidemic to endemic occurrence. In this study, we report a six-year analysis (2009-2014) performed at the Department of Virology, King Institute of Preventive Medicine, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Our data confirm earlier findings that dengue is highly endemic in Chennai. In the present study, 10,099 serum samples from suspected dengue cases were tested for IgM ELISA (NIV Capture) and IgG Panbio ELISA (Australia)...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
Aila Hoss, Akshara Menon, Liza Corso
CONTEXT: Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Yu Shi, Wen Wu
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a major public health problem worldwide. Because of the unclear mechanism of NP, its treatment is one of the most difficult medical problems. As a targeted, noninvasive, safe therapy, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) provides a new method for the treatment of NP; however, its effect on this treatment still lacks support from evidence-based medicine. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials and to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical utility of PRF for the treatment of NP...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Glendon Diehl, Nicole Bradstreet, Felicia Monahan
Tasked with analyzing the effectiveness of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) global health engagements, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) used the Measures Of Effectiveness in Defense Engagement and Learning (MODEL) study to conduct a qualitative analysis of the DoD's response efforts to the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. The research aims to summarize the findings of studies that monitor and evaluate the DoD's response to the Ebola pandemic or compare the effectiveness of different DoD response activities; it further aims to identify common themes around positive and negative lessons learned and recommendations that can be applied to future DoD humanitarian assistance and disaster response efforts...
September 2016: Health Security
Desmond Schatz
This address was delivered by Desmond Schatz, MD, President, Medicine & Science, of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), at the Association's 76th Scientific Sessions in New Orleans, LA, on 12 June 2016. Dr. Schatz is Professor and Associate Chairman of Pediatrics, Medical Director of the University of Florida Diabetes Institute, and Director of the Clinical Research Center at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. A physician-scientist, he has been involved in type 1 diabetes research since the mid-1980s and has published over 300 articles and book chapters...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Shannon M Sullivan, Kate Tsiplova, Wendy J Ungar
Economic evaluations conducted in children have unique features compared to adults. Important developments in pediatric economic evaluation in recent years include new options for valuing health states for cost-utility analysis (CUA) and shifting child health priorities. The Pediatric Economic Database Evaluation (PEDE) project includes a comprehensive database of pediatric health economic evaluations published since 1980. The objective of this scoping review was to identify trends over time in the use of CUA and other analytic techniques, and the therapeutic areas chosen for study...
October 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
(no author information available yet)
This final rule details the requirements for submitting registration and summary results information, including adverse event information, for specified clinical trials of drug products (including biological products) and device products and for pediatric postmarket surveillances of a device product to, the clinical trial registry and results data bank operated by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This rule provides for the expanded registry and results data bank specified in Title VIII of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) to help patients find trials for which they might be eligible, enhance the design of clinical trials and prevent duplication of unsuccessful or unsafe trials, improve the evidence base that informs clinical care, increase the efficiency of drug and device development processes, improve clinical research practice, and build public trust in clinical research...
September 21, 2016: Federal Register
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