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Kadhim Al-Attafi, Andrew Nattestad, Qijie Wu, Yusuke Ide, Yusuke Yamauchi, Shi Xue Dou, Jung Ho Kim
P25 is one of the most widely used forms of titanium(iv) oxide (TiO2), routinely utilised in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs), where it is often employed as a control, in spite of its poorly defined nature and the typically low device efficiency (or possibly because of this). Work by Park in 2000 and later by Lin et al. suggests that the rutile component might not be to blame for this, as has often been claimed. Recently it has been observed that P25 has quite a sizable amorphous content. A method to selectively remove this non-crystalline material has been developed, allowing for scrutiny of the role this amorphous material plays...
December 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Juan Li, Shijie Zhang, Di Shao, Zhenqing Yang, Wansong Zhang
Auxiliary acceptor groups play a crucial role in D-A-π-A structured organic dyes. In this paper, we designed three D-A-π-A structured organic molecules based on the prototype dye QT-1, named ME18-ME20, and further investigated their electronic and optical properties with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The calculated results indicate that the scope and intensity of dyes' absorption spectra have some outstanding changes by inserting auxiliary groups. ME20 has not only 152nm redshifts to long wave orientation, but also 78% increased oscillator strength compared to QT-1, and its absorption spectrum broadens region even up to 1400nm...
December 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Hashem Shahroosvand, Mortaza Eskandari
This paper describes the implementation of robust and modular sensitizers containing aromatic-amphiphilic ligands to provide new insights into the relationship between the molecular structure and electron injection process governing the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The significance of this work lies in the combination of favorable experimental and theoretical results in a new class of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes with the molecular formula of [Ru(E101)(Dicnq)x(Y)] which is named M101-M104 when X = 1 and Y = bpy, X = 1 and Y = phen, X = 2, and X = 1 and Y = 2 NCS, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Degao Wang, Seth L Marquard, Ludovic Troian-Gautier, Matthew V Sheridan, Benjamin D Sherman, Ying Wang, Michael S Eberhart, Byron H Farnum, Christopher J Dares, Thomas J Meyer
Water oxidation is a critical step in artificial photosynthesis and provides the protons and electrons used in reduction reactions to make solar fuels. Significant advances have been made in the area of molecular water oxidation catalysts with a notable breakthrough in the development of Ru(II) complexes that use a planar "bda" ligand (bda is 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate). These Ru(II)(bda) complexes show lower overpotentials for driving water oxidation making them ideal for light-driven applications with a suitable chromophore...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alessio Dessì, Matteo Monai, Matteo Bessi, Tiziano Montini, Massimo Calamante, Alessandro Mordini, Gianna Reginato, Cosimo Trono, Paolo Fornasiero, Lorenzo Zani
Donor-acceptor dyes are a well-established class of photosensitizers, used to enhance visible light harvesting in solar cells and in direct photocatalytic reactions, such as H2 production by photoreforming of sacrificial electron donors (SEDs). Amines - typically triethanolamine (TEOA) - are commonly employed as SEDs in such reactions. Dye-sensitized photoreforming of more sustainable, biomass-derived alcohols, on the other hand, was only recently reported using methanol as the electron donor. In this work, several rationally designed donor-acceptor dyes were used as sensitizers in H2 photocatalytic production, comparing the efficiency of TEOA and EtOH as SEDs...
December 11, 2017: ChemSusChem
Anders Hagfeldt, Parnian Ferdowsi, Yasemin Saygili, Weiwei Zhang, Tomas Edvinsson, Ladislav Kavan, Javad Mokhtari, Shaik M Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel
We designed, synthesized and characterized a novel metal-free organic sensitizer, suitable for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), both experimentally and theoretically. The structure of the novel donor-acceptor-π-bridge-acceptor (D-A-π-A) dye has triphenylamine (TPA) segment and 4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl) benzoic acid (BTEBA). The triphenylamine unit is widely used as electron donor for the photosensitizers due to its outstanding characteristics, i.e. the non-planar molecular configuration and excellent electron donating capability while 4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl) benzoic acid is used as electron acceptor unit...
December 11, 2017: ChemSusChem
Sung Min Cha, Goli Nagaraju, S Chandra Sekhar, L Krishna Bharat, Jae Su Yu
Utilizing carbon-based counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received much attention in recent times, owing to their low cost, good electrochemical activity, natural abundance and eco-friendly nature. Herein, we have facilely prepared quince leaves derived porous carbon (QLPC) using fallen quince leaves (QLs) and it was used as a cost-effective CE for the fabrication of DSSCs. By means of alkali treatment and pyrolysis process (at different temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 °C), the QLs powder undergoes chemical activation and carbonization, which results in a honeycomb-like QLPC with abundant micro/mesopores and large surface area...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Adam Weissman, Dan Amir, Yuval Elias, Iddo Pinkas, Jenny-Lee Mathias, Laurent Benisvy, Adi Salomon
We report the synthesis, characterization, and photo-physical properties of two new rutheniumII-phenol-imidazole complexes. These bio-mimetic complexes have potential as photocatalysts for water splitting. Owing to their multiple phenol-imidazole groups, they have a higher probability of light-induced radical formation than existing complexes. The new synthesized complexes show a better overlap with the solar spectrum compared to other rutheniumII-phenol-imidazole complexes, and their measured lifetimes are suitable for light-induced radical formation...
November 30, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Bon-Ryul Koo, Dong-Hyeun Oh, Doh-Hyung Riu, Hyo-Jin Ahn
In this study, highly transparent conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes were fabricated using the horizontal ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition. In order to improve their transparent conducting performances, we carried out oxygen activation by adjusting the ratio of O2/(O2+N2) in the carrier gas (0%, 20%, and 50%) used during the deposition process. The oxygen activation on the FTO electrodes accelerated the substitution concentration of F (FO·) into the oxygen sites in the FTO electrode while the oxygen vacancy (VO··) concentration was reduced...
December 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manish K Jaiswal, Uttam Gupta, Pratap Vishnoi
Quick and easy recovery without the loss of the photocatalytic activity of the catalysing agent is an effective way to meet the challenges associated with the high cost of hazard-free hydrogen production. A '2D/0D' covalently conjugated nanocomposite of MoS2/Fe3O4 has shown efficient catalyzing ability for five cycles of dye-sensitized H2 evolution.
November 30, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Arturo Matamoros-Volante, Ayelen Moreno-Irusta, Paulina Torres-Rodriguez, Laura Giojalas, María G Gervasi, Pablo E Visconti, Claudia L Treviño
STUDY QUESTION: Is image-based flow cytometry a useful tool to study intracellular events in human sperm such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation or signaling processes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image-based flow cytometry is a powerful tool to study intracellular events in a relevant number of sperm cells, which enables a robust statistical analysis providing spatial resolution in terms of the specific subcellular localization of the labeling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization...
November 25, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
Qingqing Miao, Suojiang Zhang
A simple in-situ self-assembly selective synthetic strategy for one step controllable formation of various 3D hierarchical Co3O4 micro/nanomaterials with peculiar morphologies, uniform size and high quality is successfully developed. The morphological control and related impact factors are investigated and clarified in detail. The results further clarify the corresponding mechanisms on the reaction process, product generation, calcining process, as well as the formation of specific morphologies. Furthermore, the superior catalytic properties of these materials are confirmed by two typical Co-based energy applications on the decomposition of an important solid rocket propellant-ammonium perchlorate (AP) and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)...
November 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Feifei Zhao, Dongguang Yin, Chenglong Wu, Bingqi Liu, Tao Chen, Mengting Guo, Kexian Huang, Zhiwen Chen, Yong Zhang
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have shown potential applications in diverse fields. However, their upconversion luminescence (UCL) intensity and excitation wavelength range are limited by the weak and narrowband absorption of lanthanide ions. Herein, we introduce and validate a strategy to largely increase the absorptivity and upconversion luminescence intensity under 808 nm excitation by broadband dye-sensitized quenching-shield sandwich structured upconversion nanocrystals NaLuF4:Gd,Yb,Tm@NaLuF4:Gd,Yb@NaNdF4:Yb...
November 28, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Rodrigo García-Rodríguez, Roger Jiang, Esdras J Canto-Aguilar, Gerko Oskam, Gerrit Boschloo
In this work, we study the influence of the distance between electrodes on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 using the organic dye LEG4 and a Cu(dmp)2 redox couple (dmp = dimethyl phenantroline). The solar cells are characterized by a large open circuit voltage of up to 1.03 V, and an efficiency of 8.2% has been achieved for a 5.3 μm thick TiO2 film using an epoxy resin-based sealed cell configuration with a minimal separation between electrodes. Transient short-circuit photocurrent measurements up to an intensity of 3 Suns show a significant decay in photocurrent after an initial peak current upon switching on the light for larger distance, resulting in a lower steady state photocurrent...
November 28, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Chun-Ting Li, Feng-Ling Wu, Bing-Hsuan Lee, Ming-Chang P Yeh, Jiann T'suen Lin
Rigid benzo[1,2-b:6,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) entity is introduced into the conjugated spacer of organic dyes, with triphenylamine as the electron donor and 2-cyanoacrylic acid as the acceptor, have been prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells. Inserting an aromatic entity between BDT and the anchor extends the absorption wavelength of the dyes and improves dark current suppression efficiency, and consequently leads to better cell performance. Addition of CDCA coadsorbent alleviates dye aggregation and results in better cell efficiency...
November 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fraser G L Parlane, Chantal Mustoe, Cameron W Kellett, Sarah J Simon, Wesley B Swords, Gerald J Meyer, Pierre Kennepohl, Curtis P Berlinguette
The interactions between a surface-adsorbed dye and a soluble redox-active electrolyte species in the dye-sensitized solar cell has a significant impact on the rate of regeneration of photo-oxidized dye molecules and open-circuit voltage of the device. Dyes must therefore be designed to encourage these interfacial interactions, but experimentally resolving how such weak interactions affect electron transfer is challenging. Herein, we use X-ray absorption spectroscopy to confirm halogen bonding can exist at the dye-electrolyte interface...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
Jin Hyok Ri, Shufang Wu, Jingpeng Jin, Tianyou Peng
A sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Pascal Nbelayim, Go Kawamura, Wai Kian Tan, Hiroyuki Muto, Atsunori Matsuda
The use of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in an effort to enhance their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) increases light absorbance of the cells but also affect their electron dynamics. This has contributed to the failure of plasmonic NPs to make the expected high impact of PCE enhancement. Herein, we investigated the wide range effects of plasmonic NPs on the performance of DSSCs, using extended characterization and a systematic approach. We prepared DSSCs using Ag@TiO2 NPs-doped TiO2 photoanodes...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Riccardo Milan, Gurpreet Singh Selopal, Marco Cavazzini, Simonetta Orlandi, Rita Boaretto, Stefano Caramori, Isabella Concina, Gianluca Pozzi
Computational studies have suggested that the integration of secondary amine as donor groups in the structure of unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) should have positive effects on photovoltaic performance, once the molecule is integrated as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Aiming at obtaining experimental confirmation, we synthesized a peripherally substituted push-pull ZnPc bearing three electron donating diphenylamine substituents and a carboxylic acid anchoring group and integrated it as sensitizer in TiO2-based DSSCs...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mariana Cecilio de Oliveira Monteiro, Patrik Schmuki, Manuela Sonja Killian
The effect of different post-treatments on TiO2 anatase surface reactivity was investigated, in order to obtain the best techniques for enhancing anatase performance in diverse applications, e.g. in photocatalysis and especially as photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Different post-treatments of compact anodic anatase TiO2 were compared, including O2 plasma, UV irradiation, immersion in H2O2, vapor thermal treatment and post-anodization, evaluating the increase of the amount of OH reactive groups on the surface and removal of surface contamination...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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