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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213879/arthrogryposis-multiplex-congenita-classification-diagnosis-perioperative-care-and-anesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Lulu Ma, Xuerong Yu
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a rare disorder characterized by non-progressive, multiple contractures. In addition to affected extremities, patients may also present microstomia, decreased temporomandibular joint mobility. Although the etiology of AMC is unclear, any factor that decreases fetal movement is responsible for AMC. Thus, accurate diagnosis and classification are crucial to the appropriate treatment of AMC. The development of ultrasound technology has enabled prenatal diagnosis. Very early treatment is favorable, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary to improve the function of AMC patients...
February 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212154/optical-coherence-tomography-and-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-pulmonary-diseases
#2
Lizzy Wijmans, Julia N S d'Hooghe, Peter I Bonta, Jouke T Annema
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current imaging techniques (X-ray, computed tomography scan, ultrasound) have limitations in the identification and quantification of pulmonary diseases, in particular, on highly detailed level. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of innovative light- and laser-based imaging techniques that might fill this gap. RECENT FINDINGS: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are high-resolution imaging techniques, which, combined with bronchoscopy, provide 'near histology' detailed imaging of the airway wall, lung parenchyma, mediastinal lymph nodes, and pulmonary vasculature...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204920/a-review-of-congenital-lung-malformations-with-a-simplified-classification-system-for-clinical-and-research-use
#3
REVIEW
Michael Seear, Jennifer Townsend, Amy Hoepker, Douglas Jamieson, Deborah McFadden, Patrick Daigneault, William Glomb
PURPOSE: Congenital lung abnormalities are rare malformations increasingly detected early by prenatal ultrasound. Whether management of these frequently asymptomatic lesions should be surgical or conservative is an unresolved issue. The necessary prospective studies are limited by the absence of a widely accepted practical classification system. Our aim was to develop a simple, clinically relevant system for classifying and studying congenital lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We based our proposed grouping on a detailed analysis of clinical, radiological, and histological data from well-documented cases, plus an extensive review of the literature...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169912/radial-probe-ultrasound-guided-cryobiopsy
#4
Ilya G Berim, Ali I Saeed, Ahmed Awab, Adam Highley, Agnes Colanta, Fawad Chaudry
Fluoroscopy-guided transbronchial forceps biopsy has a low diagnostic yield in patients with radiographic suspicion of interstitial lung disease. Cryobiopsy has a higher diagnostic yield likely due to preserved lung architecture and larger biopsies; however, there is an increased risk of major airway bleeding and pneumothorax. Simultaneous use of endobronchial balloon blocker allows for containment of bleeding after cryobiopsy to the affected lobe. In the current article we describe use of radial ultrasound in identification of a target lung parenchyma without a major blood vessel adjacent to distal bronchi...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149583/the-role-of-bronchoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-airway-disease
#5
REVIEW
Tyler J Paradis, Jennifer Dixon, Brandon H Tieu
Endoscopy of the airway is a valuable tool for the evaluation and management of airway disease. It can be used to evaluate many different bronchopulmonary diseases including airway foreign bodies, tumors, infectious and inflammatory conditions, airway stenosis, and bronchopulmonary hemorrhage. Traditionally, options for evaluation were limited to flexible and rigid bronchoscopy. Recently, more sophisticated technology has led to the development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB)...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116017/emergency-medicine-resident-orientation-how-training-programs-get-their-residents-started
#6
Jillian McGrath, Michael Barrie, David P Way
INTRODUCTION: The first formal orientation program for incoming emergency medicine (EM) residents was started in 1976. The last attempt to describe the nature of orientation programs was by Brillman in 1995. Now almost all residencies offer orientation to incoming residents, but little is known about the curricular content or structure of these programs. The purpose of this project was to describe the current composition and purpose of EM resident orientation programs in the United States...
January 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101365/comments-to-role-of-upper-airway-ultrasound-in-airway-management
#7
Wan-Ching Lien
Tracheal ultrasound can be an alternative diagnostic tool in airway management, besides traditional confirmatory methods such as capnography and auscultation. The standard image is a hyperechoic air-mucosa (A-M) interface with a reverberation artifact posteriorly (comet-tail artifact). If the second A-M interface appears, which we call a "double-tract sign," esophageal intubation is considered.
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072483/optimization-of-ultrasound-transducer-positioning-for-endotracheal-tube-placement-confirmation-in-cadaveric-model
#8
Tiffany Lonchena, Sokpoleak So, James Ibinson, Peter Roolf, Steven L Orebaugh
OBJECTIVES: Sonography has been suggested as a possible means of endotracheal tube (ETT) placement confirmation. However, optimum ultrasound transducer placement has not been established. Using a cadaveric model, ETT placement by the sonographic appearance at the thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and suprasternal notch in the upper airway was assessed to determine which ultrasound transducer placement offered the most optimal images for ETT confirmation in the airway. METHODS: One provider intubated 5 cadavers, with the ultrasound transducer at each of the 3 levels, for a total of 30 intubations per specimen, while 2 providers assigned a visual score of 1 (subtle), 2 (clear), or 3 (pronounced) to each sonogram of the ETT in the airway...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066614/the-role-of-bronchoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-early-lung-cancer-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Marco Andolfi, Rossella Potenza, Rosanna Capozzi, Valeria Liparulo, Francesco Puma, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17% after diagnoses. Indeed many patients tend to have a very poor prognosis, due to being diagnosed at an advanced stage. Conversely patients who are diagnosed at an early stage have a 5-year survival >70%, indicating that early detection of lung cancer is crucial to improve survival. Although flexible bronchoscopy is a relatively non-invasive procedure for patients suspected of having lung cancer, only 29% of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 69% of microinvasive tumors were detectable using white light bronchoscopy (WLB) alone...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064412/journal-of-clinical-monitoring-and-computing-2016-end-of-year-summary-anesthesia
#10
REVIEW
Jan F A Hendrickx, Andre M De Wolf
Clinical monitoring and computing are essential during general anesthesia. As a result it would be impossible to review all the articles published in the Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing that are relevant to anesthesia. We therefore will limit this summary to those articles that are uniquely related to anesthesia. The topics include: anesthesia machines; ensuring the airway; anesthetic depth; neuromuscular transmission monitoring; locoregional anesthesia; ultrasound; and pain.
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053701/primary-thyroid-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Rita Peixoto, João Correia Pinto, Virgínia Soares, Pedro Koch, António Taveira Gomes
INTRODUCTION: A rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior compartment of the neck with compressive symptoms may represent, among other diagnosis, a neoplasm of the thyroid gland. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman referred to the endocrine surgical unit because of compressive cervical symptoms for 3 months. The cervical ultrasound revealed a sub-sternal goiter with heterogeneous echo structure and the fine-needle aspirating cytology was inconclusive...
January 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005836/pulmonologist-performed-per-esophageal-needle-aspiration-of-parenchymal-lung-lesions-using-an-ebus-bronchoscope-diagnostic-utility-and-safety
#12
Daniel P Steinfort, Michael W Farmer, Louis B Irving, Barton R Jennings
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal introduction of the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) videobronchoscope allows pulmonologists to perform endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) of mediastinal lesions. Safety, diagnostic accuracy, and feasibility of EUS-B-FNA in evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal lesions are not established. METHODS: All patients undergoing pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA of parenchymal lung lesions at 2 tertiary centers were included in this prospective observational cohort study...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989413/a-noninvasive-surfactant-adsorption-test-predicting-the-need-for-surfactant-therapy-in-preterm-infants-treated-with-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#13
Chiara Autilio, Mercedes Echaide, Alexandra Benachi, Anne Marfaing-Koka, Ettore D Capoluongo, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Daniele De Luca
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the surfactant adsorption test (SAT) as a predictor for the need for surfactant replacement therapy in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). STUDY DESIGN: Amniotic fluid samples were collected from 41 preterm neonates with RDS treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 15 healthy control term neonates. Purified porcine surfactant served as a further control. Lamellar bodies and lung ultrasound score were also measured in a subset of the neonates treated with CPAP...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988462/spatial-distribution-of-airway-wall-displacements-during-breathing-and-bronchoconstriction-measured-by-ultrasound-elastography-using-finite-element-image-registration
#14
Brian C Harvey, Kenneth R Lutchen, Paul E Barbone
With every breath, the airways within the lungs are strained. This periodic stretching is thought to play an important role in determining airway caliber in health and disease. Particularly, deep breaths can mitigate excessive airway narrowing in healthy subjects, but this beneficial effect is absent in asthmatics, perhaps due to an inability to stretch the airway smooth muscle (ASM) embedded within an airway wall. The heterogeneous composition throughout an airway wall likely modulates the strain felt by the ASM but the magnitude of ASM strain is difficult to measure directly...
March 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974969/a-novel-technique-of-needle-setting-for-curvilinear-endobronchial-ultrasound-improved-efficiency-with-no-cost
#15
Nikhil Meena, Ayoub Innabi, Bashar Alzghoul, Thaddeus Bartter
BACKGROUND: Standard instructions for biopsy using the convex curvilinear endobronchial ultrasound scope include visualization and adjustment of the sheath housing the biopsy needle before every puncture. In our practice, we pre-set this relationship before inserting the endobronchial ultrasound scope and leave it fixed for every puncture. OBJECTIVE: We postulated that this approach is more efficient than repeated re-adjustment and aimed to show that it would not increase the frequency of endobronchial ultrasound scope damage...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942480/diagnostic-imaging-of-benign-and-malignant-neck-masses-in-children-a-pictorial-review
#16
REVIEW
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942053/ultrasonography-a-viable-tool-for-airway-assessment
#17
Preethi B Reddy, Pankaj Punetha, Kolli S Chalam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL) grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. METHODS: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP) class, thyromental distance (TMD) and sternomental distance (SMD) were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid), anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC) and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E) to the distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC) were obtained...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933703/effects-of-cpap-therapy-on-visceral-fat-thickness-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-adipokines-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#18
Susanna S S Ng, Eric K H Liu, Ronald C W Ma, Tat-On Chan, Kin-Wang To, Ken K P Chan, Jenny Ngai, Wing-Ho Yip, Fanny W S Ko, Chun-Kwok Wong, David S C Hui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study explores the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with OSA on visceral and mesenteric fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adipokines. METHODS: A randomized controlled study was conducted at a teaching hospital on 90 patients newly diagnosed with OSA to receive either therapeutic CPAP or subtherapeutic CPAP for 3 months...
December 9, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916244/first-evaluation-of-the-new-thin-convex-probe-endobronchial-ultrasound-scope-a-human-ex%C3%A2-vivo-lung-study
#19
Priya Patel, Hironobu Wada, Hsin-Pei Hu, Kentaro Hirohashi, Tatsuya Kato, Hideki Ujiie, Jin Young Ahn, Daiyoon Lee, William Geddie, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration allows for sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes. The external diameter, rigidity, and angulation of the convex probe EBUS renders limited accessibility. This study compares the accessibility and transbronchial needle aspiration capability of the prototype thin convex probe EBUS against the convex probe EBUS in human ex vivo lungs rejected for transplant. METHODS: The prototype thin convex probe EBUS (BF-Y0055; Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a thinner tip (5...
December 1, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914206/is-ultrasound-a-valid-and-reliable-imaging-modality-for-airway-evaluation-an-observational-computed-tomographic-validation-study-using-submandibular-scanning-of-the-mouth-and-oropharynx
#20
Faraj W Abdallah, Eugene Yu, Phantila Cholvisudhi, Ahtsham U Niazi, Ki J Chin, Sherif Abbas, Vincent W Chan
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) imaging of the airway may be useful in predicting difficulty of airway management (DAM); but its use is limited by lack of proof of its validity and reliability. We sought to validate US imaging of the airway by comparison to CT-scan, and to assess its inter- and intra-observer reliability. We used submandibular sonographic imaging of the mouth and oropharynx to examine how well the ratio of tongue thickness to oral cavity height correlates with the ratio of tongue volume to oral cavity volume, an established tomographic measure of DAM...
January 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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