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Very low carbohydrate diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265828/liver-regeneration-is-impaired-in-mice-with-acute-exposure-to-a-very-low-carbohydrate-diet
#1
Hao Chen, Yandie Lin, Wu Sun, Yun Cai, Hao Li
BACKGROUND: The metabolic response to hepatic insufficiency has been implicated in the regulators of normal liver regeneration. Modulation of nutritional factors has been demonstrated to affect liver regeneration. Diets containing very low carbohydrate and high fat levels cause a unique metabolic state, the effect of which on liver regeneration is unknown. METHODS: Mice were placed on standard mice chow (ND) or a very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH)...
March 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256458/fats-fatty-acids-in-indian-diets-time-for-serious-introspection
#2
REVIEW
Indu Mani, Anura V Kurpad
Recommended dietary allowances for fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes are set on global standards aimed at prevention of lifestyle diseases. Yet, the fat composition of a diet is both ethnic/region specific as well as income dependent. Indian diets are predominantly vegetarian and relatively low in fat. Furthermore, the main sources of fat are of plant origin rather than animal origin. This results in a diet that is relatively low in saturated FA, high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and very low in n-3 PUFA...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239404/impact-of-a-6-week-non-energy-restricted-ketogenic-diet-on-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-biochemical-parameters-in-healthy-adults
#3
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236296/different-types-of-dietary-advice-for-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#4
REVIEW
Shanshan Han, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Emer Van Ryswyk, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Dietary advice is the main strategy for managing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It remains unclear what type of advice is best. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM for improving health outcomes for women and babies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (8 March 2016), PSANZ's Trials Registry (22 March 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
February 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#5
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193599/an-online-intervention-comparing-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-versus-a-plate-method-diet-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Laura R Saslow, Ashley E Mason, Sarah Kim, Veronica Goldman, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Hovig Bayandorian, Jennifer Daubenmier, Frederick M Hecht, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166253/effects-of-a-very-high-saturated-fat-diet-on-ldl-particles-in-adults-with-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Sally Chiu, Paul T Williams, Ronald M Krauss
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109411/the-challenge-in-improving-the-diets-of-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-recipients-a-historical-commentary
#8
EDITORIAL
Barry M Popkin
This paper provides a historical background for the current nutrition issues faced by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The Food Stamp Program evolved into SNAP during a period when U.S. diets, particularly those of the poor, became less healthful. During the 1960s, the U.S. (Kennedy-Johnson era) addressed malnutrition first with a pilot project focused on retail sales and cash food stamps, which showed that low-income consumers purchased relatively healthy foods for a fairly high-quality diet...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#9
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003201/effects-of-free-sugars-on-blood-pressure-and-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-nutritional-isoenergetic-intervention-trials
#10
Elena Fattore, Francesca Botta, Carlo Agostoni, Cristina Bosetti
BACKGROUND: Sugar has been suggested as a central risk factor in the development of noncommunicable diseases. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the evidence of the effects of free sugars compared with complex carbohydrates on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials to compare diets that provide a given amount of energy from free sugars with a control diet that provides the same amount of energy from complex carbohydrates...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992898/the-scientific-basis-of-guideline-recommendations-on-sugar-intake-a-systematic-review
#11
Jennifer Erickson, Behnam Sadeghirad, Lyubov Lytvyn, Joanne Slavin, Bradley C Johnston
Background: The relationship between sugar and health is affected by energy balance, macronutrient substitutions, and diet and lifestyle patterns. Several authoritative organizations have issued public health guidelines addressing dietary sugars. Purpose: To systematically review guidelines on sugar intake and assess consistency of recommendations, methodological quality of guidelines, and the quality of evidence supporting each recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science (1995 to September 2016); guideline registries; and gray literature (bibliographies, Google, and experts)...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922863/suppression-of-myocardial-18f-fdg-uptake-through-prolonged-high-fat-high-protein-and-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-before-fdg-pet-ct-for-evaluation-of-patients-with-suspected-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#12
Yang Lu, Christopher Grant, Karen Xie, Nadera J Sweiss
BACKGROUND: A major obstacle in using FDG-PET/CT to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is the unpredictable physiological myocardial FDG uptake. We hypothesized that a prolonged 72-hour pretest high-fat, high-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate (HFHPVLC) diet preparation could suppress physiologic myocardial uptake of FDG and thus help to identify active CS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 215 FDG-PET/CT tests from 207 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis and clinical suspicion for CS between July 2014 and December 2015...
February 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#13
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903520/visceral-adiposity-and-metabolic-syndrome-after-very-high-fat-and-low-fat-isocaloric-diets-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Vivian L Veum, Johnny Laupsa-Borge, Øyvin Eng, Espen Rostrup, Terje H Larsen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Ottar K Nygård, Jørn V Sagen, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen, Simon N Dankel, Gunnar Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Forty-six men (aged 30-50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high-fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891164/a-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-decreases-lean-mass-and-impairs-cardiac-function-in-pair-fed-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Jessica Nilsson, Madelene Ericsson, Masoumeh Motamedi Joibari, Fredrick Anderson, Leif Carlsson, Stefan K Nilsson, Anna Sjödin, Jonas Burén
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876096/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-very-low-carbohydrate-and-high-carbohydrate-diets-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Jeannie Tay, Ian T Zajac, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Vanessa Danthiir, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, Grant D Brinkworth
This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875499/impact-of-acute-dietary-manipulations-on-dxa-and-bia-body-composition-estimates
#17
Grant M Tinsley, Elisa Morales, Jeffrey S Forsse, Peter W Grandjean
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of acute preassessment diets on body composition estimates obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). METHODS: In a counterbalanced design, 48 males and females were provided with two 1-d diets: high-carbohydrate diet (9 g CHO·kg) and very low-carbohydrate diet (1 to 1.5 g CHO·kg). For each condition, body composition was assessed in the morning after an overnight fast, in the afternoon after feeding, and the following morning after a second overnight fast...
April 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826354/the-effects-on-weight-loss-and-gene-expression-in-adipose-and-hepatic-tissues-of-very-low-carbohydrate-and-low-fat-isoenergetic-diets-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Tomomi Yamazaki, Sumire Okawa, Mayumi Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by excessive fat or carbohydrate intake. The improvement of obesity is an important issue, especially in Western societies. Both low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and low-fat diet (LFD) are used to achieve weight loss in humans. To clarify the mechanisms underlying LCD-induced weight loss, especially in early stage, we compared the gene expression in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD)- and LFD-fed diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822291/monitoring-for-compliance-with-a-ketogenic-diet-what-is-the-best-time-of-day-to-test-for-urinary-ketosis
#19
Paul Urbain, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet with no calorie limit that induces a metabolic condition called "physiological ketosis". It was first introduced to treat epilepsy in the 1920s and has become quite popular recently as weight-loss and performance-enhancing diet. Its therapeutic use in a range of diseases is under investigation. During KD interventions people are supposed to monitor compliance with the dietary regimen by daily urine testing for ketosis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756449/microalgae-as-a-safe-food-source-for-animals-nutritional-characteristics-of-the-acidophilic-microalga-coccomyxa-onubensis
#20
Francisco Navarro, Eduardo Forján, María Vázquez, Zaida Montero, Elisabeth Bermejo, Miguel Ángel Castaño, Alberto Toimil, Enrique Chagüaceda, Miguel Ángel García-Sevillano, Marisa Sánchez, María José Domínguez, Rosario Pásaro, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, José María Vega
BACKGROUND: Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
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