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Christos Xiouras, Antonios Fytopoulos, Jeroen Jordens, Andreas G Boudouvis, Tom Van Gerven, Georgios D Stefanidis
Industrial synthesis of enantiopure compounds is nowadays heavily based on the separation of racemates through crystallization processes. Although the application of ultrasound in solution crystallization processes (sonocrystallization) has become a promising emerging technology, offering several benefits (e.g. reduction of the induction time and narrowing of the metastable zone width, control over the product size, shape and polymorphic modification), little attention has been paid so far to the effects of ultrasound on chiral crystallization processes...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Heidi Kruit, Oskari Heikinheimo, Timo Sorsa, Juuso Juhila, Jorma Paavonen, Leena Rahkonen
The prediction of successful labour induction is difficult, indicating a need for a biomarker test. Little is known about the effect of Foley catheter (FC) induction on biochemical mediators in the cervix, such as the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (TIMP). We enrolled 35 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, intact amniotic membranes and cephalic presentation ≥40 gestational weeks scheduled for labour induction by FC. Serial cervical swab samples were collected at FC insertion and expulsion...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Prabin Lamichhane, Anna Pietrzyk, Conor Feehily, Paul D Cotter, David T Mannion, Kieran N Kilcawley, Alan L Kelly, Jeremiah J Sheehan
Centrifugation is a common milk pretreatment method for removal of Clostridium spores which, on germination, can produce high levels of butyric acid and gas, resulting in rancid, gassy cheese. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of centrifugation of milk, as well as incorporation of high heat-treated centrifugate into cheese milk, on the microbial and volatile profile of Maasdam cheese. To facilitate this, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in combination with a selective media-based approach were used to study the microbial composition of cheese during maturation, and volatile organic compounds within the cheese matrix were analyzed by HPLC and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Dewi Yunita, Christine E R Dodd
A commercial blue-veined cheese made from unpasteurized milk was examined by conventional culturing and PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community 16S rRNA genes using 3 primer sets, V3, V4V5, and V6V8. Genomic DNA for amplification was extracted directly from raw milk, starter culture, cheese at different stages of production, fully ripened cheese, and from the cultured cells grown on various media. The outer rind was sampled separately from the inner white core and blue veins...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yun Chai, Miaomiao Qu, Meng Jin
This study was designed to evaluate the application effect of single balloon catheters and dinoprostone on promoting cervical ripening of pregnant women in late-term pregnancy and their influences on stress and inflammatory responses. A total of 160 pregnant women with indications of labor induction were included and randomly divided into the control (n=80) and observation (n=80) groups. Patients in the control group received labor induction by administration of dinoprostone at the vaginal vault, while those in the observation group received labor induction by domestic single balloon catheters...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ankita Jagannath Lakade, Kothandapani Sundar, Prathapkumar H Shetty
A new approach was developed for a simple and easy colorimetric detection assay to detect the use of calcium carbide in artificial ripening of fruits. Residues of arsenic on the fruit surface were used as an indicator for this. Use of calcium carbide in artificial ripening has been banned in many countries including India. In the present study, we have used a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection method for determination of artificial ripening of fruits. ICP-MS analysis showed the presence of higher amounts of arsenic on fruits ripened using calcium carbide...
March 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Jean David Wurtz, Chiu Fan Lee
Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Huifeng Luo, Cheng Dai, Yongping Li, Jia Feng, Zhongchi Liu, Chunying Kang
The red color of the foliage and fruit in strawberry comes from anthocyanins stored in the vacuole. However, how anthocyanin accumulation is regulated in strawberry is still unclear. A reduced anthocyanin in petioles (rap) mutant was identified in an ENU mutagenized population of YW5AF7, a white-fruited variety of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. The causative mutation was identified to be a premature stop codon in a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene. In addition to the foliage coloration, RAP also mediates fruit pigmentation and acts downstream of the fruit-specific transcription factor FvMYB10...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sakihito Kitajima, Wataru Aoki, Daisuke Shibata, Daisuke Nakajima, Nozomu Sakurai, Kazufumi Yazaki, Ryosuke Munakata, Toki Taira, Masaru Kobayashi, Shunsuke Aburaya, Eric Hyrmeya Savadogo, Susumu Hibino, Haruna Yano
Latexes in immature fruit, young petioles and lignified trunks of fig trees protect the plant using toxic proteins and metabolites in various organ-dependent ways. Latexes from plants contain high amounts of toxic proteins and metabolites, which attack microbes and herbivores after exudation at pest-induced wound sites. The protein and metabolite constituents of latexes are highly variable, depending on the plant species and organ. To determine the diversity of latex-based defense strategies in fig tree (Ficus carica) organs, we conducted comparative proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses on latexes isolated from immature fruit, young petioles and lignified trunks of F...
March 13, 2018: Planta
Fotouh R Mansour, Neil D Danielson
Solvent-terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ST-DLLME) is a special mode of DLLME in which a demulsifying solvent is injected into the cloudy mixture of sample/extractant to break the emulsion and induce phase separation. The demulsification process starts by flocculation of the dispersed microdroplets by Ostwald ripening or coalescence to form larger droplets. Then, the extractant either floats or sinks depending on its density as compared with that for the aqueous sample. The demulsifier should have high surface activity and low surface tension in order to be capable of inducing phase separation...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Kieran N Kilcawley, Hope Faulkner, Holly J Clarke, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products...
March 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Osvaldo Zarivi, Patrizia Cesare, Anna Maria Poma, Sabrina Colafarina, Antonella Bonfigli, Annegret Kohler, Pierpaolo Aimola, Anna Maria Ragnelli, Giovanni Pacioni, Michele Miranda
A survey of the truffle Tuber melanosporum genome has shown the presence of 67 programmed cell death (PCD)-related genes. The 67 genes are all expressed during fruit body (FB) development of T. melanosporum development; their expression has been detected by DNA microarrays and qPCR. A set of 14 PCD-related genes have been chosen, those with the highest identities to the homologs of other species, for a deeper investigation. That PCD occurs during T. melanosporum development has been demonstrated by the TUNEL reaction and transmission electron microscopy...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Yvonne Young, Natasha Buckiewicz, Tristan A F Long
Since its arrival to North America less than a decade ago, the invasive Spotted-Wing Drosophila ( Drosophila suzukii ) has inflicted substantial economic losses on soft fruit agriculture due to its ability to oviposit into ripening fruits. More effective management approaches for this species are needed, but little is known about the factors that influence behavioral choices made by D. suzukii when selecting hosts, or the consequences that their offspring experience when developing in different environments...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
María José Martínez Esteso, Roque Bru Martínez
Discovery-based proteomics studies have an important role in the understanding of the biochemical processes that occur during grape berry ripening. The ripening process is relevant in determining grape berry quality. For a proteome analysis of grape berry ripening, Kambiranda et al., (2018) applied a label-free mass spectrometry based quantitative approach. The authors reported the identification of proteins associated with the production flavour, aroma and ethylene production. Despite the valuable contribution of discovery-based proteomics studies, the picture is still incomplete...
March 12, 2018: Proteomics
Joshua I Rosenbloom, Methodius G Tuuli, Molly J Stout, Omar M Young, Candice L Woolfolk, Julia D López, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the factors associated with severe maternal morbidity in a modern cohort of women laboring at term and to create a prediction model. STUDY DESIGN:  This is a retrospective cohort study of all term, laboring patients with live births at a single tertiary care center from 2004 to 2014. The primary outcome was composite maternal morbidity including organ failure, amniotic fluid embolism, anesthesia complications, sepsis, shock, thrombotic events, transfusion, or hysterectomy...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Fernanda B Campagnollo, Larissa P Margalho, Bruna A Kamimura, Marcelo D Feliciano, Luisa Freire, Letícia S Lopes, Verônica O Alvarenga, Vasco A P Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Donald W Schaffner, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Artisanal raw milk cheeses are highly appreciated dairy products in Brazil and ensuring their microbiological safety has been a great need. This study reports the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with anti-listerial activity, and their effects on Listeria monocytogenes during refrigerated shelf-life of soft Minas cheese and ripening of semi-hard Minas cheese. LAB strains (n = 891) isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses (n = 244) were assessed for anti-listerial activity by deferred antagonism assay at 37 °C and 7 °C...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Oscar van Mastrigt, Tjakko Abee, Søren K Lillevang, Eddy J Smid
During food fermentation processes like cheese ripening, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encounter long periods of nutrient limitation leading to slow growth. Particular LAB survive these periods while still contributing to flavour formation in the fermented product. In this study the dairy Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetylactis FM03-V1 is grown in retentostat cultures to study its physiology and aroma formation capacity at near-zero growth rates. During the cultivations, the growth rate decreased from 0.025 h-1 to less than 0...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Simone Decontardi, Célia Soares, Nelson Lima, Paola Battilani
Penicillium and Aspergillus genera, both including mycotoxin producing species, were reported as associated to cheese and cheese working environment, but never studied in an extensive way in Italian grana cheese (Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano). The aim of this work was to address the identification of Aspergilli and Penicillia associated to grana cheese in order to lay down the basis for risk assessment and safe processing for a high quality production. One hundred and four strains belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera were obtained from cheese crust and from ripening room air (with the latter largely dominant), and identified following a polyphasic approach, strongly required for the identification at the species level...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Jorge Del Cueto, Birger Lindberg Møller, Federico Dicenta, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez
Almond bitterness is the most important trait for breeding programs since bitter-kernelled seedlings are usually discarded. Amygdalin and its precursor prunasin are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called β-glucosidases. In order to better understand the genetic control of almond bitterness, some studies have shown differences in the location of prunasin hydrolases (PH, the β-glucosidase that degrades prunasin) in sweet and bitter genotypes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize different PHs in sweet- and bitter-kernelled almonds to determine whether differences in their genomic or protein sequences are responsible for the sweet or bitter taste of their seeds...
December 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jiaxuan Guo, Shufang Wang, XiaoYang Yu, Rui Dong, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei, Yuanyue Shen
Polyamines (PAs) participate in many plant growth and developmental processes, including fruit ripening. However, it is not clear whether PAs play a role in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), a model non-climacteric plant. Here, we found that the content of the PA spermine (Spm) increased more sharply after the onset of fruit coloration than did that of the PAs putrescine (Put) or spermidine (Spd). Spm dominance in ripe fruit resulted from abundant transcripts of a strawberry S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase gene (FaSAMDC), which encodes an enzyme that generates a residue needed for PA biosynthesis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
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