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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911402/utilizing-the-ethylene-releasing-compound-2-chloroethylphosphonic-acid-as-a-tool-to-study-ethylene-response-in-bacteria
#1
Richard V Augimeri, Andrew J Varley, Janice L Strap
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous phytohormone that is involved in numerous aspects of plant development, playing a dominant role in senescence and fruit ripening. Exogenous ethylene applied during early plant development triggers the triple response phenotype; a shorter and thicker hypocotyl with an exaggerated apical hook. Despite the intimate relationship between plants and bacteria, the effect of exogenous ethylene on bacteria has been greatly overlooked. This is partly due to the difficulty of controlling gaseous ethylene within the laboratory without specialized equipment...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904413/influence-of-yellow-light-emitting-diodes-at-590-nm-on-storage-of-apple-tomato-and-bell-pepper-fruit
#2
Doris Kokalj, Janez Hribar, Blaž Cigić, Emil Zlatić, Lea Demšar, Lovro Sinkovič, Helena Šircelj, Grega Bizjak, Rajko Vidrih
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) and firmness of the fruit were also determined...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904402/microbiological-quality-and-variability-of-natural-microbiota-in-croatian-cheese-maturing-in-lambskin-sacks
#3
Jadranka Frece, Marija Vrdoljak, Mija Filipčić, Marko Jelić, Iva Čanak, Željko Jakopović, Jelka Pleadin, Ivana Gobin, Tibela Landeka Dragičević, Ksenija Markov
As in the traditional production of cheese in lambskin sacks raw cow's or sheep's milk is mostly used, the purpose of this study is to see how the production affects the microbiological quality of the cheese. To do that, we tested 39 samples of raw cow's and sheep's milk, curd, ripened cheese (15, 30 and 45 days) and lambskin sacks for native microbial population. Two-thirds of the milk, curd and cheese samples had higher counts of staphylococci and enterobacteria than permitted by regulations. Not a single sample had Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, but we did find Escherichia coli in sheep's milk and cheese, and yeast and mould in both types of milk and cheese...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899927/regulation-of-on-tree-vitamin-e-biosynthesis-in-olive-fruit-during-successive-growing-years-the-impact-of-fruit-development-and-environmental-cues
#4
Egli C Georgiadou, Vlasios Goulas, Thessaloniki Ntourou, George A Manganaris, Panagiotis Kalaitzis, Vasileios Fotopoulos
The term vitamin E refers to a group of eight lipophilic compounds known as tocochromanols. The tocochromanols are divided into two groups, that is, tocopherols and tocotrienols, with four forms each, namely α-, β-, γ-, and δ-. In order to explore the temporal biosynthesis of tocochromanols in olive (Olea europaea cv. 'Koroneiki') fruit during on-tree development and ripening over successive growing years, a combined array of analytical, molecular, bioinformatic, immunoblotting, and antioxidant techniques were employed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898813/genome-to-phenome-mapping-in-apple-using-historical-data
#5
Zoë Migicovsky, Kyle M Gardner, Daniel Money, Jason Sawler, Joshua S Bloom, Peter Moffett, C Thomas Chao, Heidi Schwaninger, Gennaro Fazio, Gan-Yuan Zhong, Sean Myles
Apple ( X Borkh.) is one of the world's most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficiently large samples. To establish genotype-phenotype relationships and advance MAS in apple, we extracted over 24,000 phenotype scores from the USDA-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database and linked them with over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 689 apple accessions from the USDA apple germplasm collection clonally preserved in Geneva, NY...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898758/evolutionary-profiling-of-group-ii-pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent-decarboxylases-suggests-expansion-and-functional-diversification-of-histidine-decarboxylases-in-tomato
#6
Rahul Kumar, Gitanjali Jiwani, Amit Pareek, Thula SravanKumar, Ashima Khurana, Arun K Sharma
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes are one of the most important enzymes involved in plant N metabolism. Here, we explored the evolution of group II PLP-dependent decarboxylases (PLP_deC), including aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, glutamate decarboxylase, and histidine decarboxylase in the plant lineage. Gene identification analysis revealed a higher number of genes encoding PLP_deC in higher plants than in lower plants. Expression profiling of PLP_deC orthologs and syntelogs in (L.) Heynh., pepper ( L...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895648/grape-ripening-is-regulated-by-deficit-irrigation-elevated-temperatures-according-to-cluster-position-in-the-canopy
#7
Olfa Zarrouk, Cecilia Brunetti, Ricardo Egipto, Carla Pinheiro, Tânia Genebra, Antonella Gori, Carlos M Lopes, Massimiliano Tattini, M Manuela Chaves
The impact of water deficit on berry quality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the performance of varieties exposed to a combination of high temperatures/water stress during the growing season and under vineyard conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two irrigation regimes, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 30% ETc) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, 15% ETc) and of two cluster positions within the canopy (east- and west-exposed sides) on berry ripening in red Aragonez (Tempranillo) grapevines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891143/comparative-physiological-and-proteomic-analysis-reveal-distinct-regulation-of-peach-skin-quality-traits-by-altitude
#8
Evangelos Karagiannis, Georgia Tanou, Martina Samiotaki, Michail Michailidis, Grigorios Diamantidis, Ioannis S Minas, Athanassios Molassiotis
The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analyzed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold), harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean), or high (495 m mean) altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890296/analytic-solutions-for-colloid-transport-with-time-and-depth-dependent-retention-in-porous-media
#9
Feike J Leij, Scott A Bradford, Antonella Sciortino
Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889144/exploring-the-microbiota-of-the-red-brown-defect-in-smear-ripened-cheese-by-454-pyrosequencing-and-its-prevention-using-different-cleaning-systems
#10
Raffaele Guzzon, Ilaria Carafa, Kieran Tuohy, Gonzalo Cervantes, Luca Vernetti, Andrea Barmaz, Roberto Larcher, Elena Franciosi
Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886490/dynamic-scaling-and-island-growth-kinetics-in-pulsed-laser-deposition-of-srtio_-3
#11
Gyula Eres, J Z Tischler, C M Rouleau, Ho Nyung Lee, H M Christen, P Zschack, B C Larson
We use real-time diffuse surface x-ray diffraction to probe the evolution of island size distributions and its effects on surface smoothing in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of SrTiO_{3}. We show that the island size evolution obeys dynamic scaling and two distinct regimes of island growth kinetics. Our data show that PLD film growth can persist without roughening despite thermally driven Ostwald ripening, the main mechanism for surface smoothing, being shut down. The absence of roughening is concomitant with decreasing island density, contradicting the prevailing view that increasing island density is the key to surface smoothing in PLD...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875928/combining-mechanical-foaming-and-thermally-induced-phase-separation-to-generate-chitosan-scaffolds-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#12
D P Biswas, P A Tran, C Tallon, A J O'Connor
In this paper, a novel foaming methodology consisting of turbulent mixing and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used to generate scaffolds for tissue engineering. Air bubbles were mechanically introduced into a chitosan solution which forms the continuous polymer/liquid phase in the foam created. The air bubbles entrained in the foam act as a template for the macroporous architecture of the final scaffolds. Wet foams were crosslinked via glutaraldehyde and frozen at -20 °C to induce TIPS in order to limit film drainage, bubble coalescence and Ostwald ripening...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874964/kinetics-of-volatile-marker-compounds-during-ripening-of-cured-loins-inoculated-with-staphylococcus-carnosus
#13
Ramona Bosse Née Danz, Melanie Wirth, Monika Gibis, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Weiss
BACKGROUND: The current study was designed to investigate the influence of ripening time (12 weeks, 15 °C) on the volatile compounds and sensory acceptance for North European cured loins inoculated with a proteolytic Staphylococcus carnosus starter culture. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the trend of volatile compounds, sensory acceptance and proteolytic activity increased during a ripening of 7 to 9 weeks. A further ripening led to a plateau phase for sensory attributes and aroma-relevant volatile compounds such as benzaldehyde, nonanone and acetophenone...
November 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873332/monitoring-of-compositional-changes-during-berry-ripening-in-grape-seed-extracts-of-cv-sangiovese-vitis-vinifera-l
#14
Giuseppe Bombai, Federica Pasini, Vito Verardo, Onur Sevindik, Michele Di Foggia, Paola Tessarin, Anna Maria Bregoli, Paola Taddei, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Adamo Domenico Rombolà
BACKGROUND: Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically-cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. RESULTS: Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872628/proteomics-and-ssh-analyses-of-ala-promoted-fruit-coloration-and-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-a-mads-box-gene-mdmads1
#15
Xinxin Feng, Yuyan An, Jie Zheng, Miao Sun, Liangju Wang
Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869753/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-polygalacturonase-family-members-during-peach-fruit-softening
#16
Ming Qian, Yike Zhang, Xiangyan Yan, Mingyu Han, Jinjin Li, Fang Li, Furui Li, Dong Zhang, Caiping Zhao
Polygalacturonase (PG) is an important hydrolytic enzyme involved in pectin degradation during fruit softening. However, the roles of PG family members in fruit softening remain unclear. We identified 45 PpPG genes in the peach genome which are clustered into six subclasses. PpPGs consist of four to nine exons and three to eight introns, and the exon/intron structure is basically conserved in all but subclass E. Only 16 PpPG genes were expressed in ripening fruit, and their expression profiles were analyzed during storage in two peach cultivars with different softening characteristics...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869671/the-evolution-of-total-phenolic-compounds-and-antioxidant-activities-during-ripening-of-grapes-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-tempranillo-grown-in-semiarid-region-effects-of-cluster-thinning-and-water-deficit
#17
Inmaculada Garrido, David Uriarte, Marcos Hernández, José Luis Llerena, María Esperanza Valdés, Francisco Espinosa
A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861943/respiration-climacteric-in-tomato-fruits-elucidated-by-constraint-based-modelling
#18
Sophie Colombié, Bertrand Beauvoit, Christine Nazaret, Camille Bénard, Gilles Vercambre, Sophie Le Gall, Benoit Biais, Cécile Cabasson, Mickaël Maucourt, Stéphane Bernillon, Annick Moing, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Jean-Pierre Mazat, Yves Gibon
Tomato is a model organism to study the development of fleshy fruit including ripening initiation. Unfortunately, few studies deal with the brief phase of accelerated ripening associated with the respiration climacteric because of practical problems involved in measuring fruit respiration. Because constraint-based modelling allows predicting accurate metabolic fluxes, we investigated the respiration and energy dissipation of fruit pericarp at the breaker stage using a detailed stoichiometric model of the respiratory pathway, including alternative oxidase and uncoupling proteins...
November 15, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857716/the-synthesis-and-accumulation-of-resveratrol-are-associated-with-veraison-and-abscisic-acid-concentration-in-beihong-vitis-vinifera-%C3%A3-vitis-amurensis-berry-skin
#19
Junfang Wang, Shuqin Wang, Guotian Liu, Everard J Edwards, Wei Duan, Shaohua Li, Lijun Wang
Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA) can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening) and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA) on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin, and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) berry skin...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847424/the-effect-of-lead-on-the-process-of-spermatogenesis-in-sex-glands-of-male-albino-rats
#20
Olga Sergeevna Shubina, Natalia Anatolievna Dudenkova
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager. M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™...
October 2016: Veterinary World
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