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Ingo Hoffmann, Miriam Simon, Anja Hörmann, Thorsten Gravert, Peggy Heunemann, Sarah E Rogers, Michael Gradzielski
Nanoemulsions are metastable emulsions with droplet sizes between 20 and 100 nm with a wide range of applications e.g. in polymerization, in pharmaceutical and cos- metic formulations and as drug delivery systems. Even though they are not in ther- modynamic equilibrium, they can be metastable over relatively long times and have the advantage that they can be formed easily by low energy input methods. In par- ticular, the phase inversion concentration method (PIC) allows to form nanoemulsions simply by diluting a suitable mixture of oil and surfactants with water...
October 24, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wei Zhou, Xin Wang, Dan Zhou, Yidan Ouyang, Jialing Yao
Increasing grain yield and improving grain quality are two important goals for rice breeding. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the overall grain quantity and nutritional quality of rice will lay the foundation for developing new breeding strategies. RAG2 is a member of 14-16 kDa α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors in rice, which belong to the albumin of seed storage proteins. We found that RAG2 was specifically expressed in ripening seed and its transcription peak was between 14 and 21 days after flowering...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Guillaume Gillot, Jean-Luc Jany, Elisabeth Poirier, Marie-Bernadette Maillard, Stella Debaets, Anne Thierry, Emmanuel Coton, Monika Coton
Penicillium roqueforti is used as a ripening culture for blue cheeses and largely contributes to their organoleptic quality and typical characteristics. Different types of blue cheeses are manufactured and consumed worldwide and have distinct aspects, textures, flavors and colors. These features are well accepted to be due to the different manufacturing methods but also to the specific P. roqueforti strains used. Indeed, inoculated P. roqueforti strains, via their proteolytic and lipolytic activities, have an effect on both blue cheese texture and flavor...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mariantonietta Succi, Maria Aponte, Patrizio Tremonte, Serena Niro, Elena Sorrentino, Massimo Iorizzo, Luca Tipaldi, Gianfranco Pannella, Gianfranco Panfili, Alessandra Fratianni, Raffaele Coppola
Five protected designation of origin (PDO) Caciocavallo Silano and 6 non-PDO Caciocavallo cheeses, ripened for 6 mo and collected in the 5 Italian regions of the PDO area (Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, and Molise, Italy), were studied to assess their physico-chemical (pH, acidity, moisture, fat, ash, protein, and free amino acid composition) and microbiological profiles. Analyses evidenced a certain fluctuation of previous parameters among samples regardless of the kind of cheese evaluated (PDO and non-PDO)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Katja Nagler, Antonina O Krawczyk, Anne De Jong, Kazimierz Madela, Tamara Hoffmann, Michael Laue, Oscar P Kuipers, Erhard Bremer, Ralf Moeller
In its natural habitat, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis often has to cope with fluctuating osmolality and nutrient availability. Upon nutrient depletion it can form dormant spores, which can revive to form vegetative cells when nutrients become available again. While the effects of salt stress on spore germination have been analyzed previously, detailed knowledge on the salt stress response during the subsequent outgrowth phase is lacking. In this study, we investigated the changes in gene expression during B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhu Zhu, Yanli Chen, Guoqing Shi, Xueji Zhang
The antioxidant activity of selenium (Se) detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying Se induced fruit development and ripening. Our study showed that foliar pretreatment with 1mgL(-1) sodium selenate effectively delayed fruit ripening and maintained fruit quality. Gene expression studies revealed that the repression of ethylene biosynthetic genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase decreased ethylene production and respiration rate...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sun-Hyung Kim, Yeun-Sun Ji, Eui-Seok Lee, Soon-Taek Hong
Curcumin is a flavonoid found in the rhizome of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) and has recently attracted interest because it has numerous biological functions and therapeutic properties. In the present study, we attempted to incorporate curcumin into medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) nanoemulsions (0.15 wt% curcumin, 10 wt% MCT oil, and 10 wt% emulsifiers) with various emulsifiers [polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20), sorbitan monooleate (SM), and soy lecithin (SL)]. The physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions including the Ostwald ripening stability were investigated...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Sang Pil Hong, Eun Joo Lee, Young Ho Kim, Dong Uk Ahn
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation temperature on the volatile composition in Kimchi. Kimchi was fermented at 2 temperature conditions (4 and 20 °C). Volatile compounds of Kimchi samples were analyzed during the fermentation periods using the dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimum ripening time for the Kimchi fermented at 4 °C was 35 d, and that of 20 °C was 2 d. The pH at the optimum ripening time was 4.97 and 4.41, and the titratable acidity was 0...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Massimiliano Alessandrini, Federica Gaiotti, Nicola Belfiore, Fabiola Matarese, Claudio D'Onofrio, Diego Tomasi
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors have been acknowledged as greatly influencing grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has been scarcely debated in literature, to date. In this study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). RESULTS: The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest one (200 m a...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Claudia A Bustamante, Laura L Monti, Julieta Gabilondo, Federico Scossa, Gabriel Valentini, Claudio O Budde, María V Lara, Alisdair R Fernie, María F Drincovich
Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hatice Kansu-Celik, Ozlem Gun-Eryılmaz, Nasuh Utku Dogan, Seval Haktankaçmaz, Mehmet Cinar, Saynur Sarici Yilmaz, Cavidan Gülerman
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dinoprostone for cervical ripening and labor induction in patients with term oligohydramnios and Bishop score ≤ 5. METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study, which included 104 consecutive women with a Bishop score≤5. Participants were divided into two groups. Women with term isolated oligohydramnios and Bishop score≤5 underwent induction of labor with a vaginal insert containing 10-mg timed-release dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2; Group A, n=40)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Judith Schäfer, Anika Brett, Bernhard Trierweiler, Mirko Bunzel
Cell wall composition affects the texture of plant-based foods. In addition, the main components of plant cell walls are dietary fiber constituents and made responsible for potential physiological effects that are largely affected by the structural composition of the cell walls. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) is known to develop a woody and firm texture during maturation and ripening, most likely due to changes in the cell wall composition. To describe these changes chemically, radish was cultivated and harvested at different time points, followed by detailed chemical analysis of insoluble fiber polysaccharides and lignin...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Teija Ojala, Pia K S Laine, Terhi Ahlroos, Jarna Tanskanen, Saara Pitkänen, Tuomas Salusjärvi, Matti Kankainen, Soile Tynkkynen, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xiaojing Fu, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso, Ruben Juanes
We study the evolution of binary mixtures far from equilibrium, and show that the interplay between phase separation and hydrodynamic instability can arrest the Ostwald ripening process characteristic of nonflowing mixtures. We describe a model binary system in a Hele-Shaw cell using a phase-field approach with explicit dependence of both phase fraction and mass concentration. When the viscosity contrast between phases is large (as is the case for gas and liquid phases), an imposed background flow leads to viscous fingering, phase branching, and pinch off...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Xin-Yu Yuan, Rui-Heng Wang, Xiao-Dan Zhao, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins...
2016: PloS One
Cristina Barsan, Marcel Kuntz, Jean-Claude Pech
Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation of tomato plastids at three fruit developmental stages, namely, nascent chromoplasts from the mature green stage, chromoplasts from an intermediate stage, and fully differentiated red chromoplasts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hicham Chahtane, Woohyun Kim, Luis Lopez-Molina
Primary seed dormancy is an important adaptive plant trait whereby seed germination is blocked under conditions that would otherwise be favorable for germination. This trait is found in newly produced mature seeds of many species, but not all. Once produced, dry seeds undergo an aging time period, called dry after-ripening, during which they lose primary dormancy and gradually acquire the capacity to germinate when exposed to favorable germination conditions. Primary seed dormancy has been extensively studied not only for its scientific interest but also for its ecological, phenological, and agricultural importance...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Da-Long Guo, Fei-Fei Xi, Yi-He Yu, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Guo-Hai Zhang, Gan-Yuan Zhong
BACKGROUND: Early ripening is an important desirable attribute for fruit crops. 'Kyoho' is a popular table grape cultivar in many Asian countries. 'Fengzao' is a bud mutant of 'Kyoho' and ripens nearly 30 days earlier than 'Kyoho'. To identify genes controlling early fruit development and ripening in 'Fengzao', RNA-Seq profiles of the two cultivars were compared at 8 different berry developmental stages in both berry peel and flesh tissues. METHODS: RNA-Seq profiling of berry development between 'Kyoho' and 'Fenzhao' were obtained using the Illumina HiSeq system and analyzed using various statistical methods...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ying Jin, Jiaying Xu, Lanfang Wang, Qingyi Lu, Feng Gao
In this study, mixed-metal sulfide Zn1-xMnxS nanorod-assembled hierarchical hollow spheres are successfully synthesized via a template-free solvothermal process base on Ostwald ripening process. In the reaction system the glycerol plays a key role for the formation of ZnxMn1-xS hierarchical hollow structures through a "quasi-microemulsion-template" mechanism. When applied as capacitor electrode material, the hierarchical Zn1-xMnxS hollow spheres display excellent electrochemical performances. Specifically, Zn0...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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