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Voula Alexandraki, Golfo Moatsou
The hypothesis of this research paper was that the physicochemical conditions in a low-pH, high-moisture white brined cheese such as Feta would make para-κ-casein vulnerable to residual chymosin activity during ripening and storage. It was important to address this hypothesis, since cheese para-κ-casein could theoretically be used for the assessment of the origin of cheese milk by means of various analytical methods. Feta cheese was manufactured from sheep milk and from four different mixtures of sheep and goat milk in triplicate...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
G Orlandi, R Calvini, L Pigani, G Foca, G Vasile Simone, A Antonelli, A Ulrici
An electronic eye (EE) for fast and easy evaluation of grape phenolic ripening has been developed. For this purpose, berries of different grape varieties were collected at different harvest times from veraison to maturity, then an amount of the derived must was deposited on a white sheet of absorbent paper to obtain a sort of paper chromatography. Thus, RGB images of the must spots were collected using a flatbed scanner and converted into one-dimensional signals, named colourgrams, which codify the colour properties of the images...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Abigail B Snyder, Randy W Worobo
Mucoralean invasive fungal infections, while unusual among the general population, have a high mortality rate among immunocompromised individuals who become infected. They are also common spoilage organisms in cultured dairy products, some fresh produce, and baked goods. Additionally, Mucor and Rhizopus spp. are utilized in the production of traditional fermented foods including mold ripened cheeses and fermented soy products. The risk that consumption of these foods poses to immunocompromised consumers has been previously identified...
May 18, 2018: Microorganisms
Bruno G Defilippi, Troy Ejsmentewicz, María Paz Covarrubias, Orianne Gudenschwager, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
The avocado is a climacteric fruit and begins a softening process after harvest. During ripening, the mesocarp changes in texture, and this affects fruit quality and cold storage capacity. Softening is commonly associated with cell wall disassembly in climacteric fruits. However, changes in the cell wall structure and composition during avocado softening are poorly understood. To understand this process, cell wall pectins in "Hass" avocado fruit were studied during ripening at 20 °C after harvest and after cold storage...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marco Cirilli, Daniela Giovannini, Angelo Ciacciulli, Remo Chiozzotto, Stefano Gattolin, Laura Rossini, Alessandro Liverani, Daniele Bassi
BACKGROUND: Texture is one of the most important fruit quality attributes. In peach, stony hard (SH) is a recessive monogenic trait (hd/hd) that confers exceptionally prolonged firm flesh to fully ripe fruit. Previous studies have shown that the SH mutation affects the fruit ability to synthesize appropriate amounts of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which orchestrates the ripening processes through the activation of system 2 ethylene pathway. Allelic variation in a TC microsatellite located within the first intron of PpYUC11-like (a YUCCA-like auxin-biosynthesis gene) has been recently proposed as the causal mutation of the SH phenotype...
May 18, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Zengling Yang, Jiaqi Mei, Zhiqiang Liu, Guangqun Huang, Guan Huang, Lujia Han
Understanding the biochemical heterogeneity of plant tissue linked to crop straw anatomy is attractive to plant researchers and researchers in the field of biomass-refinery. This study provides an in-situ analysis and semi-quantitative, visualization distributions of major composition distribution in internodal transverse sections of wheat straw based on FTIR microspec-troscopic imaging, with a fast Non-Negativity-Constrained Least Squares (fast NNLS) fitting. The paper investigates changes in biochemical components of tissue during stages of elongation, booting, heading, flowering, grain-filling, milk-ripening, dough, and full-ripening...
May 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
J C L Sousa, M G Vivas, B R C Vale, J L Ferrari, D M A Schiavon
In the present work, we report on the positive effect of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) stabilizer agent on the optical features of colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs). With this aim, we performed some spectroscopic measurements such as steady-state absorption and fluorescence, fluorescence quantum yield and time-resolved photoluminescence for five MSA-capped CdTe QD samples with different synthesis times. The first general aspect to highlight is that the QDs' average size increased with synthesis time (from 30 to 150 min) while the size dispersion decreased due to the Ostwald ripening mechanism...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Hyerim Yang, Hyeongmin Kim, Sumin Jung, Hyeyeon Seo, Shofa Khoirun Nida, Seung-Yup Yoo, Jaehwi Lee
BACKGROUND: Nanocrystallization technologies have been widely studied in recent years, as the formulation of drug nanocrystals solves problems of poor drug solubility and bioavailability. However, drug nanocrystals in the size range of 1-1000 nm usually need to be accompanied by stabilizers, such as polymers or surfactants, to enhance their stability. Despite their simplicity, improved dissolution rate, and enhanced bioavailability, the limited stability of nanocrystal formulations has prevented further development...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jingxia Guo, Yunyun Li, Cong Hu, Shi Zhou, Hao Xu, Qijia Zhang, Guo Wang
The influence of three Ca-containing amendments (dolomite, slaked lime, and limestone) on soil water soluble Pb (Pb-w) levels, Pb accumulation by two rice plants (TJ-8, japonica and II-3301, indica), and the factors affecting Pb-w were investigated. Pot experiment was performed under waterlogged conditions using Pb-contaminated soil collected from an agricultural field near a mine. It was found that the soil amendments significantly reduced Pb content in the rice plants in the order dolomite > slaked lime > limestone, irrespective of rice cultivar...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alison M Bauer, Justin R Lappen, Kimberly S Gecsi, David N Hackney
BACKGROUND: The optimal method for induction of labor for multiparous women with an unfavorable cervix is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if induction of labor with simultaneous use of oxytocin and a cervical ripening balloon, compared with sequential use, increases the likelihood of delivery within 24 hours in multiparous women. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a randomized controlled trial between November 2014 and June 2017. Eligible participants were multiparous women with a vertex presenting, non-anomalous singleton gestation ≥ 34 weeks undergoing induction of labor...
May 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yigal Achmon, Nir Sade, María Del Mar Rubio Wilhelmi, Jesus D Fernández-Bayo, Duff R Harrold, James J Stapleton, Jean S VanderGheynst, Eduardo Blumwald, Christopher W Simmons
Conventional solarization and biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing residue amendments were compared with respect to generation of pesticidal conditions and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) plant growth in treated soils. Soil oxygen depletion was examined as a response that has previously not been measured across multiple depths during biosolarization. For biosolarized soil, volatile fatty acids were found to accumulate concurrent with oxygen depletion and the magnitude of these changes varied by soil depth...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ashkan Tirgar, Daewoo Han, Andrew J Steckl
Premature ripening of fruits and senescence of vegetables caused by ethylene gas (a natural aging hormone) imposes significant wastage during packaging, transport, and storage. We report on packaging membranes, produced by electrospinning, that act as efficient carriers for potassium permanganate, a salt widely used for oxidizing alkenes such as ethylene. Ethylene reaction tests were performed with 60 µL of ethylene in 3L of air. Potassium permanganate (PPM) loaded alumina nanofibers incorporating alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) show a superior performance oxidizing up to 73% of ethylene within 25 min...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Matteo Briguglio, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Giancarlo Panzica, Antonio Malgaroli, Giuseppe Banfi, Carlotta Zanaboni Dina, Roberta Galentino, Mauro Porta
Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (ACh), the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
Shehab Alzobaidi, Jason Lee, Summer Jiries, Chang Da, Justin Harris, Kaitlin Keene, Gianfranco Rodriguez, Eric Beckman, Robert Perry, Keith P Johnston, Robert Enick
The design of surfactants for CO2 /oil emulsions has been elusive given the low CO2 -oil interfacial tension, and consequently, low driving force for surfactant adsorption. Our hypothesis is that waterless, high pressure CO2 /oil emulsions can be stabilized by hydrophobic comb polymer surfactants that adsorb at the interface and sterically stabilize the CO2 droplets. The emulsions were formed by mixing with an impeller or by co-injecting CO2 and oil through a beadpack (CO2 volume fractions (ϕ) of 0.50-0.90)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Adrián Garrido-Bigotes, Nicolás E Figueroa, Pablo M Figueroa, Carlos R Figueroa
Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Jennifer Luk, Derek Lobb, James Andrew Smith
Physical simulation systems are commonly used in training of midwifery and obstetrics students, but none of these systems offers a dynamic compliance aspect that would make them more truly representative of cervix ripening. In this study, we introduce a unique soft robot phantom that simulates the cervix softening during the latent labor phase of birth. This proof-of-concept robotic phantom can be dilated by 1 cm and effaced by 35% through the application of a Foley catheter-like loading mechanism. Furthermore, psychophysics trials demonstrate how untrained subjects can identify hard and soft states of the phantom with specificities of 91% and 87%, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Soft Robotics
Celia Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina Medina-Plaza, Cristina Garcia-Cabezon, Yolanda Blanco, Jose A Fernandez-Escudero, Enrique Barajas-Tola, Miguel A Rodriguez-Perez, Fernando Martin-Pedrosa, Maria L Rodriguez-Mendez
The maturity of grapes is usually monitored by means of the sugar concentration. However, the assessment of other parameters such as the phenolic content is also important because the phenolic maturity has an important impact on the organoleptic characteristics of wines. In this work, voltammetric sensors able to detect phenols in red grapes have been developed. They are based on metal oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 , NiO, and TiO2 ,) whose excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols allows obtaining sensors with detection limits in the range of 10-8 M and coefficients of variation lower than 7%...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Huijuan Yang, Junling Liu, Meile Dang, Bo Zhang, Hongguang Li, Rui Meng, Dong Qu, Yazhou Yang, Zhengyang Zhao
β-galactosidase (β-Gal), one of the cell wall modifying enzymes, plays an important role in fruit ripening and softening. However, its role in apple fruit texture remains unclear. In this study, the role of β-Gal was analyzed in two apple cultivars, 'Fuji' and 'Qinguan,' which are characterized by different fruit texture types, during fruit development and ripening. The firmness and pectin content of the fruits rapidly decreased and were much lower in 'Fuji' than in 'Qinguan' from 105 days after full bloom (DAFB)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert M Rossi, Carri R Warshak, Heather R Masters, Jodi K Regan, Sara A Kritzer, Kristin P Magner
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cervical ripening with misoprostol (MP) is associated with higher rates of cesarean delivery (CD) (CD) compared to dinoprostone (DP) or Pitocin/Foley balloon (PFB) in infants found to be small for gestational age (SGA). STUDY DESIGN: Single center institution based cohort study of all inductions between 2008-2012 where birth weight was found to be as SGA (< 10th percentile). Maternal demographic, obstetric, and labor characteristics were compared between SGA births where cervical ripening with MP, Mode compares MP to referent group (DP), or PFB was used as the primary agent...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Qingxin Song, Atsumi Ando, Dongqing Xu, Lei Fang, Tianzhen Zhang, Enamul Huq, Hong Qiao, Xing Wang Deng, Z Jeffrey Chen
Heterosis is widely applied in agriculture; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for superior performance are not well understood. Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes are shown to be down-regulated in Arabidopsis interspecific hybrids. Ethylene is a plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and maturation but inhibits hypocotyl elongation. Here we report that application of exogenous ethylene could eliminate biomass vigor in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 hybrids, suggesting a negative role of ethylene in heterosis...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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