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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535065/silica-polymerization-from-supersaturated-dilute-aqueous-solutions-in-the-presence-of-alkaline-earth-salts
#1
Marina Kley, Andreas Kempter, Volodymyr Boyko, Klaus Huber
The early stages of silica polymerization in aqueous solution proceeds according to a mechanism based on three steps: nucleation, particle growth and agglomeration of the particles. Application of time-resolved static and dynamic light scattering as a powerful in-situ technique in combination with spectrophotometric analysis of the monomer consumption based on the molybdenum blue method was carried out to further investigate this 3-step process. Experiments were carried out at four different initial silicic acid contents covering a range between 350 ppm and 750 ppm in the presence of either 10 mM NaCl or 5 mM of a mixture of CaCl2 and MgCl2...
May 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534677/modeling-tomato-ripening-based-on-carotenoid-raman-spectroscopy-experimental-versus-kinetic-model
#2
Daniel Martin, Alicia G Gonzalvez, Rocio Mateos Medina, Angel González Ureña
This work reports on a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on the carotenoid Raman signal in several tomato fruits during their postharvest time evolution and ripening. Both resonant (180°) backscattering and polarized (90°) Raman scattering were used to monitor the most prominent bands of carotenoid (lycopene and β-carotene) evolution in different tomato varieties. Relevant findings of the present investigations were that while the depolarization ratio of the ν1 band hardly changed with time, the Raman ν1 band intensity did change showing a similar pattern for all tomatoes investigated...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531965/does-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-affect-cadmium-uptake-and-chemical-forms-in-rice-at-different-growth-stages
#3
Na Luo, Xing Li, Ao Yu Chen, Li Jun Zhang, Hai Ming Zhao, Lei Xiang, Quan Ying Cai, Ce Hui Mo, Ming Hung Wong, Hui Li
Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices (a mix of root pieces, mycelium pieces and spores) on the temporal variation of Cd uptake and chemical forms in rice at four growth periods (tillering, jointing, flowering, and ripening stages) were investigated in soil added with 0, 2 and 10mgCdkg(-1). Results showed that the interactions amongst rice growth stages, soil Cd concentrations and mycorrhizal inoculation had significant effects (P˂0.001) on root biomass, straw and root Cd concentrations, and straw Cd chemical forms in rice...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530607/metabolic-and-rna-profiling-elucidates-proanthocyanidins-accumulation-in-aglianico-grape
#4
Alessandra Rinaldi, Clizia Villano, Carmine Lanzillo, Angelo Tamburrino, Michael Jourdes, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Luigi Moio, Luigi Frusciante, Domenico Carputo, Riccardo Aversano
Aglianico grapes are known for their high content of proanthocyanidins (PAs), which are responsible for the astringency of wines derived from this cultivar. However, the accumulation of PAs and their genetic control during berry development remain largely unexplored. This work aimed to monitor astringency-causing PAs in Aglianico berries and correlate them with the expression of 14 key genes. Berries were collected during ripening and dissected in skins and seeds. PAs were fractionated and the content of total phenolics, flavans, anthocyanins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins and tannin structural composition were evaluated...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530577/impact-of-apple-cultivar-ripening-stage-fermentation-type-and-yeast-strain-on-phenolic-composition-of-apple-ciders
#5
Oskar Laaksonen, Rain Kuldjärv, Toomas Paalme, Mira Virkki, Baoru Yang
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529757/enzyme-activities-and-gene-expression-of-starch-metabolism-provide-insights-into-grape-berry-development
#6
Xudong Zhu, Chaobo Zhang, Weimin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Chuan Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529508/the-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-for-andrastin-a-in-penicillium-roqueforti
#7
Juan F Rojas-Aedo, Carlos Gil-Durán, Abdiel Del-Cid, Natalia Valdés, Pamela Álamos, Inmaculada Vaca, Ramón O García-Rico, Gloria Levicán, Mario Tello, Renato Chávez
Penicillium roqueforti is a filamentous fungus involved in the ripening of several kinds of blue cheeses. In addition, this fungus produces several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound andrastin A, a promising antitumoral compound. However, to date the genomic cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of this compound in P. roqueforti has not been described. In this work, we have sequenced and annotated a genomic region of approximately 29.4 kbp (named the adr gene cluster) that is involved in the biosynthesis of andrastin A in P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528102/cheese-milk-low-homogenization-enhanced-early-lipolysis-and-volatiles-compounds-production-in-hard-cooked-cheeses
#8
María A Vélez, Erica R Hynes, Carlos A Meinardi, Verónica I Wolf, María C Perotti
Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522390/mango-kernel-starch-as-a-novel-edible-coating-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-fruit
#9
Anjum Nawab, Feroz Alam, Abid Hasnain
Mango kernel starch (MKS) coatings containing different plasticizers were used to extend the shelf life of tomato. The coating slurry was prepared by gelatinizing 4% mango kernel starch, plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol and their 1:1 mixture (50% of starch weight; db). The samples were kept at room temperature (20°C) and analyzed for shelf life. Significant difference in coated and control fruits were observed and all the coated fruits delayed ripening process that was characterized by reduction in weight loss and restricted changes in soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, firmness and decay percentage compared to uncoated sample...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516293/the-dominant-allele-aft-induces-a-shift-from-flavonol-to-anthocyanin-production-in-response-to-uv-b-radiation-in-tomato-fruit
#10
Stefano Catola, Antonella Castagna, Marco Santin, Valentina Calvenzani, Katia Petroni, Andrea Mazzucato, Annamaria Ranieri
The introgression of the A ft allele into domesticated tomato induced a shift from flavonol to anthocyanin production in response to UV-B radiation, while the hp - 1 allele negatively influenced the response of flavonoid biosynthesis to UV-B. Introgression of the dominant allele Anthocyanin fruit (Aft) from Solanum chilense induces anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. UV-B radiation can influence plant secondary metabolism regulating the expression of several genes, among which those involved in flavonoid biosynthesis...
May 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515789/towards-miscanthus-combustion-quality-improvement-the-role-of-flowering-and-senescence
#11
Elaine Jensen, Paul Robson, Kerrie Farrar, Sian Thomas Jones, John Clifton-Brown, Roger Payne, Iain Donnison
In commercially grown Miscanthus × giganteus, despite imposing a yield penalty, postwinter harvests improve quality criteria for thermal conversion and crop sustainability through remobilization of nutrients to the underground rhizome. We examined 16 Miscanthus genotypes with different flowering and senescence times for variation in N, P, K, moisture, ash, Cl and Si contents, hypothesizing that early flowering and senescence could result in improved biomass quality and/or enable an earlier harvest of biomass (in autumn at peak yield)...
May 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512461/transcriptional-responses-to-pre-flowering-leaf-defoliation-in-grapevine-berry-from-different-growing-sites-years-and-genotypes
#12
Sara Zenoni, Silvia Dal Santo, Giovanni B Tornielli, Erica D'Incà, Ilaria Filippetti, Chiara Pastore, Gianluca Allegro, Oriana Silvestroni, Vania Lanari, Antonino Pisciotta, Rosario Di Lorenzo, Alberto Palliotti, Sergio Tombesi, Matteo Gatti, Stefano Poni
Leaf removal is a grapevine canopy management technique widely used to modify the source-sink balance and/or microclimate around berry clusters to optimize fruit composition. In general, the removal of basal leaves before flowering reduces fruit set, hence achieving looser clusters, and improves grape composition since yield is generally curtailed more than proportionally to leaf area itself. Albeit responses to this practice seem quite consistent, overall vine performance is affected by genotype, environmental conditions, and severity of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510189/multiple-regulatory-roles-of-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-in-angiosperm
#13
REVIEW
Chao Gu, Zhi-Hua Guo, Ping-Ping Hao, Guo-Ming Wang, Zi-Ming Jin, Shao-Ling Zhang
APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor (TF) is a superfamily in plant kingdom, which has been reported to be involved in regulation of plant growth and development, fruit ripening, defense response, and metabolism. As the final response gene in ethylene signaling pathway, AP2/ERF TF could feedback modulate phytohormone biosynthesis, including ethylene, cytokinin, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. Moreover, AP2/ERF TF also participates in response to the signals of auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and jasmonate...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507144/critical-roles-of-dna-demethylation-in-the-activation-of-ripening-induced-genes-and-inhibition-of-ripening-repressed-genes-in-tomato-fruit
#14
Zhaobo Lang, Yihai Wang, Kai Tang, Dengguo Tang, Tatsiana Datsenka, Jingfei Cheng, Yijing Zhang, Avtar K Handa, Jian-Kang Zhu
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark important for genome integrity, development, and environmental responses in plants and mammals. Active DNA demethylation in plants is initiated by a family of 5-mC DNA glycosylases/lyases (i.e., DNA demethylases). Recent reports suggested a role of active DNA demethylation in fruit ripening in tomato. In this study, we generated loss-of-function mutant alleles of a tomato gene, SlDML2, which is a close homolog of the Arabidopsis DNA demethylase gene ROS1 In the fruits of the tomato mutants, increased DNA methylation was found in thousands of genes...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506068/viologen-based-conjugated-covalent-organic-networks-via-zincke-reaction
#15
Gobinda Das, Tina Skorjanc, Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Felipe Gándara, Matteo Lusi, D S Shankar Rao, Sridurai Vimala, Subbarao Krishna Prasad, Jesus Raya, Dong Suk Han, Ramesh Jagannathan, John-Carl Olsen, Ali Trabolsi
Morphology influences the functionality of covalent organic networks and determines potential applica-tions. Here, we report for the first time the use of Zincke reaction to fabricate, under either solvothermal or microwave conditions, a viologen-linked covalent organic network in the form of hollow particles or nanosheets. The synthesized materials are stable in acidic, neutral and basic aqueous solutions. Under basic conditions, the neutral network as-sumes radical cationic character without decomposing or changing structure...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505887/emission-and-distribution-of-phosphine-in-paddy-fields-and-its-relationship-with-greenhouse-gases
#16
Weiyi Chen, Xiaojun Niu, Shaorong An, Hong Sheng, Zhenghua Tang, Zhiquan Yang, Xiaohong Gu
Phosphine (PH3), as a gaseous phosphide, plays an important role in the phosphorus cycle in ecosystems. In this study, the emission and distribution of phosphine, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in paddy fields were investigated to speculate the future potential impacts of enhanced greenhouse effect on phosphorus cycle involved in phosphine by the method of Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. During the whole period of rice growth, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 emission flux and PH3 emission flux (r=0...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505788/flow-and-evolution-of-ice-sucrose-crystal-mushes
#17
Andrew J Gilbert, Felix K Oppong, Robert S Farr
We study the rheology of suspensions of ice crystals at moderate to high volume fractions in a sucrose solution in which they are partially soluble, a model system for a wide class of crystal mushes or slurries. Under step changes in shear rate, the viscosity changes to a relaxed value over several minutes, in a manner well fitted by a single exponential. The behavior of the relaxed viscosity is power-law shear thinning with shear rate, with an exponent of -1.76±0.25, so that shear stress falls with increasing shear rate...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505101/dairy-propionibacteria-versatile-probiotics
#18
REVIEW
Houem Rabah, Fillipe Luiz Rosa do Carmo, Gwénaël Jan
Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties...
May 13, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505092/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-tomato-grf-transcription-factor-family-genes-in-response-to-abiotic-stresses-and-phytohormones
#19
Khadiza Khatun, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Jong-In Park, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Chang Kil Kim, Ki-Byung Lim, Ill Sup Nou, Mi-Young Chung
Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in diverse biological and physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress and hormone responses. However, the roles of GRFs in vegetative and reproductive growth, development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) have not been extensively explored. In this study, we characterized the 13 SlGRF genes. In silico analysis of protein motif organization, intron-exon distribution, and phylogenetic classification confirmed the presence of GRF proteins in tomato...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500777/a-comprehensive-investigation-of-starch-degradation-process-and-identification-of-a-transcriptional-activator-mabhlh6-during-banana-fruit-ripening
#20
Yun-Yi Xiao, Jian-Fei Kuang, Xin-Na Qi, Yu-Jie Ye, Zhen-Xian Wu, Jian-Ye Chen, Wang-Jin Lu
Although starch degradation has been well studied in model systems such as Arabidopsis leaves and cereal seeds, this process in starchy fruits during ripening, especially in bananas, is largely unknown. In this study, 38 genes encoding starch degradation-related proteins were identified and characterized from banana fruit. Expression analysis revealed that 27 candidate genes were significantly induced during banana fruit ripening, with concomitant conversion of starch-to-sugars. Furthermore, iTRAQ-based proteomics experiments identified 18 starch degradation-associated enzymes bound to the surface of starch granules, of which 10 were markedly up-regulated during ripening...
May 13, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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