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phantom pain

Sara J Morgan, Janna L Friedly, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
OBJECTIVE: To determine relationships between pain site(s) and pain intensity/interference in people with lower limb amputations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Lower limb prosthesis users with unilateral or bilateral amputations (n=1296, mean time since amputation = 14.1 years). INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Intensity (1-item to assess average pain), PROMIS Pain Interference (4-item short form to assess the consequences of pain in desired activities), and questions that asked participants to rate the extent to which each of the following were a problem: residual limb pain, phantom limb pain, knee pain on the non-amputated side, back pain, and shoulder pain...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
T Koller, D Baumgartner
There is preliminary evidence that phantom pain is associated with disturbed organization of the sensory cortex and that this organization can be normalized with two-point discrimination (TPD) training. In this case study, a reduction in phantom pain and painful phantom sensation during a test period of 19 days, was achieved using an automated TPD procedure. In a patient with a transtibial amputation, pain levels decreased from a mean of 2.3/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) to 1.3/10 (VAS) and the painful phantom sensation level decreased from a mean 3...
October 10, 2016: Der Schmerz
Jessie Barbin, Vanessa Seetha, Jean-Marie Casillas, Jean Paysant, Dominic Perennou
OBJECTIVE: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a major problem after limb amputation. Mirror therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment using representations of movement, the efficacy of which in reducing PLP remains to be clarified. Here, we present the first systematic review on MT efficacy in phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb movement (PLM) in amputees (lower or upper limb). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A search on MEDLINE, COCHRANE DATABASE and EMBASE, crossing the key words "phantom limb" and "mirror therapy" found studies which were read and analyzed according the PRISMA statement...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Daniel Z Contract, Deborah M Caruso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Ankur Patel, Corey Reeves, Devang Padalia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Zhengwei Zhou, Maxim Bez, Wafa Tawackoli, Joseph Giaconi, Dmitriy Sheyn, Sandra de Mel, Marcel M Maya, Barry D Pressman, Zulma Gazit, Gadi Pelled, Dan Gazit, Debiao Li
PURPOSE: Previous studies have associated low pH in intervertebral discs (IVDs) with discogenic back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative CEST (qCEST) MRI can be used to detect pH changes in IVDs in vivo. METHODS: The exchange rate ksw between glycosaminoglycan (GAG) protons and water protons was determined from qCEST analysis. Its dependence on pH value was investigated in GAG phantoms with varying pH and concentrations. The relationship between ksw and pH was studied further in vivo in a porcine model on a 3T MR scanner and validated using a pH meter...
September 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Laura K Case, David Brang, Rosalynn Landazuri, Pavitra Viswanathan, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
While most people take identification with their body for granted, conditions such as phantom limb pain, alien hand syndrome, and xenomelia suggest that the feeling of bodily congruence is constructed and susceptible to alteration. Individuals with xenomelia typically experience one of their limbs as over-present and aversive, leading to a desire to amputate the limb. Similarly, many transgender individuals describe their untreated sexed body parts as incongruent and aversive, and many experience phantom body parts of the sex they identify with (Ramachandran, 2008)...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Jaiben George, Jared M Newman, Joseph W Caravella, Alison K Klika, Wael K Barsoum, Carlos A Higuera
BACKGROUND: Above knee amputation (AKA) is a rare, but serious, complication of total knee arthroplasty with relatively poor functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors predicting ambulatory status after AKA for periprosthetic joint infection of the knee and to elucidate the effects of this procedure on general health outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent AKA after an infected total knee arthroplasty between 2009 and 2014 at a single institution (n = 53) were retrospectively reviewed...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
H A Agashe, A Y Paek, J L Contreras-Vidal
Upper limb amputation results in a severe reduction in the quality of life of affected individuals due to their inability to easily perform activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that translate grasping intent from the brain's neural activity into prosthetic control may increase the level of natural control currently available in myoelectric prostheses. Current BMI techniques demonstrate accurate arm position and single degree-of-freedom grasp control but are invasive and require daily recalibration...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Katleho Limakatso, Lieselotte Corten, Romy Parker
BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is characterized by the anatomical shifting of neighbouring somatosensory and motor areas into a deafferented cortical area of the brain contralateral to the amputated limb. It has been shown that maladaptive neuroplasticity is positively correlated to the perception of PLP in amputees. Recent studies support the use of graded motor imagery (GMI) and its component to alleviate the severity of PLP and disability. However, there is insufficient collective empirical evidence exploring the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in amputees with PLP...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Young Han Lee, Jaemoon Yang, Ha-Kyu Jeong, Jin-Suck Suh
PURPOSE: Biochemical imaging of glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) could predict the depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in early osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym) of gagCEST images and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in the knee joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
S Becker, M Diers
Many chronic pain syndromes are characterized by enhanced perception of painful stimuli as well as alterations in cortical processing in sensory and motor regions. In this review article the alterations in muscle pain and neuropathic pain are described. Alterations in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic back pain are described as examples for musculoskeletal pain and also in patients with phantom limb pain after amputation and complex regional pain syndrome as examples for neuropathic pain. In addition to altered pain perception, cumulative evidence on alterations in the processing of reward and the underlying mechanisms in chronic pain has been described...
October 2016: Der Schmerz
M Seretny, L A Colvin
Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Hugh Sims-Williams, Julian C Matthews, Peter S Talbot, Sarah Love-Jones, Jonathan Cw Brooks, Nikunj K Patel, Anthony E Pickering
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) is used in the treatment of severe refractory neuropathic pain. We tested the hypothesis that DBS releases endogenous opioids to exert its analgesic effect using [(11)C]diprenorphine (DPN) positron emission tomography (PET). Patients with de-afferentation pain (phantom limb pain or anaesthesia dolorosa (n=5)) who obtained long-lasting analgesic benefit from DBS were recruited. [(11)C]DPN and [(15)O]water PET scanning was performed in consecutive sessions; first without, and then with PAG stimulation...
August 20, 2016: NeuroImage
Donald M Caspary, Daniel A Llano
Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate...
August 20, 2016: Hearing Research
Esmé G Trevelyan, Warren A Turner, Nicola Robinson
BACKGROUND: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a prevalent complication post-amputation. Currently, qualitative literature exploring the experience of PLP in amputees is sparse, and little is known about whether the educational needs of amputees are being met. OBJECTIVES: To explore lower limb amputees' descriptive lived experiences of PLP, to understand how PLP affects quality of life and to determine whether amputees feel they are provided with adequate information about PLP...
May 2016: British Journal of Pain
Jack W Tsao, Sacha B Finn, Matthew E Miller
Following left brachial plexus avulsion, a 20-year-old man had phantom limb pain and remapping of sensation from his paralyzed hand onto his face. Mirror therapy (15 min daily, 5 days/week) led immediately to good movement of the phantom limb with decreased pain. Within 2 weeks following nerve graft surgery, remapping of hand sensation onto the face disappeared along with resolution of phantom limb pain. Mirror therapy coupled with nerve grafting may relieve phantom limb pain due to brachial plexus avulsion and reverse hand-to-face remapping, suggesting that both peripheral and central mechanisms mediate development of phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization/neuroplasticity after brachial plexus avulsion...
June 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Sheila Jowsey-Gregoire, Martin Kumnig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) encompasses hand, face, uterus, penile and lower extremity transplantation. Psychosocial factors are recognized as important, but no standard approach to the evaluation, selection or posttransplant care has been described and thus, the development of a standardized approach is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Various psychosocial assessment tools have been reported. Body image and the functional impact of hand versus face transplantation are notable issues...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Derek J Snyder, Linda M Bartoshuk
Oral sensations (i.e., taste, oral somatosensation, retronasal olfaction) are integrated into a composite sense of flavor, which guides dietary choices with long-term health impact. The nerves carrying this input are vulnerable to peripheral damage from multiple sources (e.g., otitis media, tonsillectomy, head injury), and this regional damage can boost sensations elsewhere in the mouth because of central interactions among nerve targets. Mutual inhibition governs this compensatory process, but individual differences lead to variation in whole-mouth outcomes: some individuals are unaffected, others experience severe loss, and some encounter sensory increases that may (if experienced early in life) elevate sweet-fat palatability and body mass...
June 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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