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Roger Graham Lentle, Gordon W Reynolds, Corrin M Hulls, J P Chambers
We used spatiotemporal mapping of strain rate to determine the direction of propagation and amplitudes of the longitudinal and circumferential components of antro-corporal contractions and fundal contractions in the rat stomach maintained ex vivo and containing a volume of fluid that was within its normal functional capacity. In the region of the greater curvature the longitudinal and circular components of anterocorporal (AC) contractions propagated synchronously at right angles to the arciform geometric axis of the stomach...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Rosa-M Valls, Elisabet Llauradó, Sara Fernández-Castillejo, Francesc Puiggrós, Rosa Solà, Lluis Arola, Anna Pedret
BACKGROUND: Oligopin(ۚ) (OP) is a quantified extract from French Maritime Pine bark (FMPB) with low molecular weight procyanidins. The cardioprotective effects of OP need to be tested in human clinical intervention trials with an appropriate design. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of subchronic consumption of OP on cardiovascular disease risk factors such as lipid profile, systolic blood pressure (BP) and oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in stage-1-hypertensive subjects...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Shabnam Niroumand, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Babak Eghbali, Maryam Abrishami, Arash Gholoobi, Hamid Reza Bahrami Taghanaki, Mohammad Khajedaluee
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran)...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
M C Burg, P Lunkenheimer, P Niederer, C Brune, K Redmann, M Smerup, U Spiegel, F Becker, D Maintz, W Heindel, R H Anderson
Purpose: There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. Methods: We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes...
November 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Joël L'Hermite, Elisabeth Dubout, Sophie Bouvet, Laure-Hélène Bracoud, Philippe Cuvillon, Jean-Emmanuel de La Coussaye, Jacques Ripart
BACKGROUND: Sore throat is a common complaint after surgery. It affects patient satisfaction and can affect activity after discharge. The supraglottic airway device (SAD) offers an alternative to traditional tracheal intubation with potential benefit in preventing sore throat. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of sore throat following three different SADs, the laryngeal mask airway Unique (LMA-U) and the more recent LMA Supreme (LMA-S) and the I-gel...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Suzanne Oparil, David A Calhoun, Lama Ghazi, Tanja Dudenbostel
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a high risk of hypertension and is characterized by hyperaldosteronism and hypercortisolism. We have previously reported that patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above goal in spite of the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes, have a high prevalence of hyperaldosteronism that is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). Experimental studies indicate that adipocytes secrete a as yet undetermined factor that stimulates aldosterone and cortisol release...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
P Meimoun, J Clerc, D Ardourel, U Djou, S Martis, T Botoro, F Elmkies, H Zemir, A Luycx-Bore, J Boulanger
To test the usefulness of non-invasive coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography by comparison to invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR), a new vasodilator-free index of coronary stenosis severity, in patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis of intermediate severity (IS) and stable coronary artery disease. 94 consecutive patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years) with angiographic LAD stenosis of IS (50-70 % diameter stenosis), were prospectively studied...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Håvard Tetlie Garberg, Marianne U Huun, Lars O Baumbusch, Monica Åsegg-Atneosen, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can identify and grade acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, non-coding strands of RNA that are released into the circulation in response to tissue stress and injury. Some miRNAs are highly tissue specific and thus may potentially be non-invasive biomarkers of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal expression of selected circulating miRNAs in a clinically relevant piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI)...
October 18, 2016: Neonatology
Alexander U Brandt, Elena Meinert-Bohn, Jan Leo Rinnenthal, Hanna Zimmermann, Janine Mikolajczak, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Sebastian Papazoglou, Caspar F Pfüller, Johann Schinzel, Björn Tackenberg, Friedemann Paul, Katrin Hahn, Judith Bellmann-Strobl
BACKGROUND: The PMP22 gene encodes a protein integral to peripheral myelin. Its deletion leads to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). PMP22 is not expressed in the adult central nervous system, but previous studies suggest a role in CNS myelin development. The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in HNPP patients. METHODS: Twenty HNPP patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in a cross-sectional study...
2016: PloS One
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Reshma B Muniyappa, Geetha C Rajappa, Suresh Govindswamy, Prathima P Thamanna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various adjuvants have been introduced to decrease the dose of volatile agents and their side effects. Dexmedetomidine a potent alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is one such agent. Our objective is to assess the effect of preanesthetic dexmedetomidine on isoflurane consumption and its effect on intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery profile. SETTING AND DESIGN: This prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study was done in a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Chetna Shamshery, Ashish Kannaujia, Rajashree Madabushi, Dinesh Singh, Divya Srivastava, Shobhana Jafa
BACKGROUND: Central neuraxial blockade (CNB) is an established technique of providing anesthesia for surgeries of the lower limb and abdomen. Hypotension is the most common side effect of CNB. It was hypothesized that by supplementing the initial burst of vasopressin following hypovolemia, hypotension following combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) could be avoided. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 patients undergoing lower limb and abdomen surgeries were included in the study, with 61 patients randomized into two groups - I and II...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
U N Swarnamba, K Veena, Safiya I Shaikh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laryngoscopy and intubation elicits huge spectrum of stress response which is hazardous in high-risk patients. Many drugs and techniques have been used to attenuate the stress response. Lornoxicam 16 mg is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug agent with analgesic potency equivalent to morphine 10 mg, fentanyl 100 μg and tramadol 100 mg. Lornoxicam has been found to attenuate stress response in some studies. We compared the lornoxicam with fentanyl in attenuating stress response...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Parul U Gandhi, Hanna K Gaggin, Margaret M Redfield, Horng H Chen, Susanna R Stevens, Kevin J Anstrom, Marc J Semigran, Peter Liu, James L Januzzi
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate relationships between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and parameters of diastolic function or functional capacity in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) who were randomized to receive sildenafil or placebo. BACKGROUND: IGFBP7 was previously found to be associated with diastolic function in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but it is unclear whether these associations are present in HFpEF...
September 29, 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
Manuj Yadav, Densil Cabrera
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to study the effect of room acoustics and phonemes on the perception of loudness of one's own voice (autophonic loudness) for a group of trained singers. METHODS: For a set of five phonemes, 20 singers vocalized over several autophonic loudness ratios, while maintaining pitch constancy over extreme voice levels, within five simulated rooms. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the slope of the autophonic loudness function (logarithm of autophonic loudness as a function of voice sound pressure level) for the five phonemes, with slopes ranging from 1...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Sunil V Pawar, Vinay G Zanwar, Ajay S Choksey, Ashok R Mohite, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Qais Q Contractor, Pravin M Rathi, Ravi U Verma, Premlata K Varthakavi
:  Background and rationale. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of pediatric liver disease in western countries. Its prevalence in Indian subcontinent is not well studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a school based cross sectional study we have screened overweight and obese children in the age group of 11 to 15 years for NAFLD. Ultrasonography, elevated serum transaminases, fibroscan were used for defining NAFLD. Dietary habits, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, blood counts and insulin resistance were recorded...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Katsunori Suzuki, Yurie Mitsuma, Takaaki Sato, Takumi Anraku, Mariko Hatta
BACKGROUND: Some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin have poor glycemic control and require add-on therapy to reach target glucose values. Increased insulin doses or the addition of an oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) may improve glycemic control, but many patients fail to achieve target values. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment efficacy and safety of three different therapies in such patients. METHODS: T2DM outpatients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Erhan Gökçek, Ayhan Kaydu, Mehmet Salim Akdemir, Ferit Akil, Ibrahim Ozkan Akıncı
PURPOSE: To compared the effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on early anesthesia recovery in patients undergoing to craniotomy for intracranial lesions. METHODS: After IRB approval, the study included 50 patients aged 18-70 years who had ASA physical statuses of I-II and were scheduled for intracranial surgery. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: sevoflurane and desflurane. Anaesthesia was routinely induced in all patients followed by desflurane 5%-6% or sevoflurane 1%-2%...
September 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Ju-Sing Fan, Yen-Chia Chen, Hsien-Hao Huang, David Hung-Tsang Yen, Chorng-Kuang How, Mu-Shuan Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the incidence and risk factors for interhospital transfer neurological deterioration (IHTND) in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH). METHODS: Consecutive adult patients with first-ever SICH referred to our emergency department (ED) and transported by ambulance from July 2011 through June 2015 were eligible for this prospective observational study. Enrolled patients had SICH with elapsed time <12 hours and a nearly normal Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (≥13) at presentation...
October 12, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
L Arendt-Nielsen, G-L Jiang, R DeGryse, C C Turkel
OBJECTIVES: OnabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) attenuates peripheral nociceptive transduction and consequently neuronal firing. The aim of this mechanistic study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular (IA) onabotA in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial using a single ultrasound-guided IA injection of onabotA (200 U). Patients (N = 121) were randomized to receive onabotA (n = 61) or placebo (n = 60)...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
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