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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144791/is-there-a-role-for-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-immunotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-with-microsatellite-instability-part-i-colorectal-cancer-microsatellite-instability-testing-and-clinical-implications
#1
Esmeralda Celia Marginean, Barbara Melosky
CONTEXT: - Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the third most-common cancer in developed countries and is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Two recognized pathways contribute to CRC development: a more-common chromosomal instability pathway and, in 15% of cases, a deficient mismatch repair or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) pathway. The MSI-H CRC can be associated with somatic or germline mutations. Microsatellite status has been recognized as a prognostic and predictive biomarker...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128931/universal-determination-of-microsatellite-instability-using-bat26-as-a-single-marker-in-an-argentine-colorectal-cancer-cohort
#2
María Laura González, Natalia Causada-Calo, Juan Pablo Santino, Mev Dominguez-Valentin, Fabiana Alejandra Ferro, Inés Sammartino, Pablo Germán Kalfayan, Maria Alicia Verzura, Tamara Alejandra Piñero, Andrea Romina Cajal, Walter Pavicic, Carlos Vaccaro
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hallmark tool for Lynch syndrome (LS) screening and a prognostic marker for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In regions with limited resources and scarce CRC molecular characterization as South America, the implementation of universal MSI screening is under debate for both its purposes. We sought to estimate the frequency of BAT26 in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to determine associated clinical and histological features. Consecutive patients from a CRC registry were included...
November 11, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128178/cost-effectiveness-of-lobectomy-versus-genetic-testing-afirma%C3%A2-for-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-considering-the-costs-of-surveillance
#3
Courtney J Balentine, David J Vanness, David F Schneider
BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether diagnostic thyroidectomy for indeterminate thyroid nodules would be more cost-effective than genetic testing after including the costs of long-term surveillance. METHODS: We used a Markov decision model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of thyroid lobectomy versus genetic testing (Afirma®) for evaluation of indeterminate (Bethesda 3-4) thyroid nodules. The base case was a 40-year-old woman with a 1-cm indeterminate nodule. Probabilities and estimates of utilities were obtained from the literature...
November 8, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126555/new-terminology-noninvasive-follicular-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp-and-its-effect-on-the-rate-of-malignancy-at-a-single-institution
#4
Colleen M Kiernan, Vivian L Weiss, Mitra Mehrad, Kim Ely, Naira Baregamian, Carmen C Solórzano
BACKGROUND: The cytologic qualities of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features mimic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) on fine-needle aspiration, leading to difficulty in distinguishing the 2 preoperatively. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of reclassification of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features at our practice. METHODS: We searched 1,046 patient charts for those cases with preoperative cytology and subsequent follicular-variant papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis on resection...
November 7, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120064/size-and-ultrasound-features-affecting-results-of-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-of-thyroid-nodules
#5
YiJie Dong, MinJing Mao, WeiWei Zhan, JianQiao Zhou, Wei Zhou, JieJie Yao, YunYun Hu, Yan Wang, TingJun Ye
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules according to size and US features. METHODS: A retrospective correlation was made with 1745 whole thyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy specimens with preoperative US-guided FNA results. All cases were divided into 5 groups according to nodule size (≤5, 5.1-10, 10.1-15, 15.1-20, and >20 mm). For target nodules, static images and cine clips of conventional US and color Doppler were obtained...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118474/cytological-evaluation-of-thyroid-lesions-by-nuclear-morphology-and-nuclear-morphometry
#6
R Yashaswini, T N Suresh, A Sagayaraj
Introduction: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid gland is an effective diagnostic method. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology classifies them into six categories and gives implied risk for malignancy and management protocol in each category. Though the system gives specific criteria, diagnostic dilemma still exists. Using nuclear morphometry, we can quantify the number of parameters, such as those related to nuclear size and shape. The evaluation of nuclear morphometry is not well established in thyroid cytology...
October 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113553/individualizing-surgery-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-based-on-a-detailed-sonographic-assessment-of-extrathyroidal-extension
#7
Eric James Kuo, William J Thi, Feibi Zheng, Kyle Zanocco, Masha J Livhits, Michael W Yeh
BACKGROUND: Lobectomy may be sufficient for patients with intrathyroidal papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) < 4 cm without nodal metastasis. Based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines, a strategy using ultrasound to identify appropriate candidates for lobectomy was implemented. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with Bethesda V or VI cytology who underwent surgery for PTC (January 2016 to May 2017). Eligibility for lobectomy was based both tumor (unilateral, intrathyroidal tumors ≤ 3 cm in size) and non-tumor (history of hypothyroidism, radiation exposure, etc...
November 7, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113031/role-of-core-needle-biopsy-as-a-first-line-diagnostic-tool-for-thyroid-nodules-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Min Ji Hong, Dong Gyu Na, Soo Jin Kim, Dae Sik Kim
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), and combined FNA/CNB for the first-line diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods: A total of 782 consecutive nodules that underwent simultaneous FNA and CNB were analyzed in this study. We compared the rate of inconclusive results and the diagnostic values for malignancy among FNA, CNB, and combined FNA/CNB. Results: CNB showed a lower rate (10...
September 15, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108474/molecular-testing-for-oncogenic-gene-alterations-in-pediatric-thyroid-lesions
#9
Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Emmanuel Labourier, Lisa Sullivan, Virginia A LiVolsi, Yimei Li, Rui Xiao, Sylvie Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Ken Kazahaya, N Scott Adzick, Zubair W Baloch, Andrew J Bauer
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are less common in pediatric patients (≤18 years) than in adults. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology allows for individual risk stratification, but a significant number of nodules are indeterminate. Incorporating gene mutation panels and gene expression classifiers may aid in pre-operative diagnosis. The overall aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oncogene alterations in a representative pediatric population and across a broad-spectrum of thyroid tumor diagnoses...
November 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096966/evaluation-of-the-thyroid-nodule-with-high-resolution-ultrasonography-and-elastography-without-fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy
#10
Antonio Ríos, José Manuel Rodríguez, Nuria María Torregrosa, Begoña Torregrosa, Angela Cepero, María Dolores Abellán, Antonio Miguel Hernández, Pascual Parrilla
INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the gold standard screening technique used in the diagnostic protocol for thyroid nodules. However, it is not free of complications. OBJECTIVE: To identify thyroid nodules in which FNAB could be avoided during the diagnostic process by means of the use of a high-resolution ultrasonography or elastography. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective, non-randomized study was carried out. Single thyroid nodules and dominant nodules of multinodular goiter were included...
October 30, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094782/thyroid-fna-cytology-in-asian-practice-active-surveillance-for-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-reduces-overtreatment-of-thyroid-carcinomas
#11
REVIEW
K Kakudo, M Higuchi, M Hirokawa, S Satoh, C K Jung, A Bychkov
Although Asian thyroid practices have implemented the American Thyroid Association guidelines, significant deviations in actual risk of malignancy (ROM) have been reported. With review of the literature from Asia, the authors examine the underlining reasons for actual ROMs reported in Asia being so different from western practice based on the author's perspective. Although the most popular diagnostic system for thyroid cytology used in Asian countries is the Bethesda system, the Japan Thyroid Association published clinical guidelines, including a national reporting system for thyroid cytology, to adapt conservative clinical management (active surveillance and strict triage patients for surgery) for low-risk thyroid carcinomas...
November 2, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094776/molecular-testing-of-braf-ras-and-tert-on-thyroid-fnas-with-indeterminate-cytology-improves-diagnostic-accuracy
#12
M Decaussin-Petrucci, F Descotes, L Depaepe, V Lapras, M-L Denier, F Borson-Chazot, J-C Lifante, J Lopez
OBJECTIVE: Liquid-based (LB)-FNA is widely recognized as a reliable diagnostic method to evaluate thyroid nodules. However, up to 30% of LB-FNA remain indeterminate according to the Bethesda system. Use of molecular biomarkers has been recommended to improve its pathological accuracy but implementation of these tests in clinical practice may be difficult. Here, we evaluated feasibility and performance of molecular profiling in routine practice by testing LB-FNA for BRAF, N/HRAS and TERT mutations...
November 2, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093058/cell-scientist-to-watch-gregory-alushin
#13
(no author information available yet)
Gregory Alushin received his bachelor degree in biochemistry from Columbia University in 2006. He then joined the laboratory of Eva Nogales to work on structural aspects of microtubules and kinetochores for his PhD in biophysics, and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 2012. Greg then moved to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, as a postdoctoral fellow with Clare Waterman. In 2013, he received an Early Independence Award from the NIH, enabling him to establish his own laboratory...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091573/the-2017-bethesda-system-for-reporting-thyroid-cytopathology
#14
Edmund S Cibas, Syed Z Ali
The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) established a standardized, category-based reporting system for thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. The 2017 revision reaffirms that every thyroid FNA report should begin with one of six diagnostic categories, the names of which remain unchanged since they were first introduced: (i) nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory; (ii) benign; (iii) atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS); (iv) follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm; (v) suspicious for malignancy; and (vi) malignant...
November 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081190/-immune-tolerance-induction-in-a-case-of-hemophilia-b-with-inhibitor-with-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-and-rituximab
#15
F Xue, W Liu, Y F Cheng, X F Liu, Y T Huang, R F Fu, L Zhang, R C Yang
Objective: To explore the immune tolerance induction (ITI) in a case of severe hemophilia B patient with inhibitor. Methods: The F Ⅸ∶C was detected using a one-stage method and FIX inhibitor was assayed using Bethesda method. ITI was performed with prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) in combination with rituximab. Results: His past exposure days (ED) with PCC were 20 ED and his peak FⅨ inhibitor titer was 56 BU/ml. When his FIX inhibitor titer decreased to 10.4 BU/ml in Nov. 2015 and after receiving the informed consent from his parents, ITI was started...
September 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077570/determination-of-mean-ionization-potential-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-reduction-of-proton-beam-range-uncertainties-theory-and-application
#16
Atchar Sudhyadhom
The accurate determination of mean ionization potential (I m) has the potential to reduce range uncertainty based margins and therefore allow for more focal treatments in proton radiotherapy. Many methods have been proposed to reduce uncertainty in I m and stopping power ratios (SPR), each with varying degrees of accuracy and issues. In this work, we present a simple parameterized model to determine I m in human biological tissue, allowing for the computation of patient-specific I m at the voxel level using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073758/the-use-of-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-in-patients-with-thyroid-nodules-in-asia-a-brief-overview-of-studies-from-the-working-group-of-asian-thyroid-fna-cytology
#17
Chan Kwon Jung, Soon Won Hong, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the most widely used screening and diagnostic method for thyroid nodules. Although Western guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology are widely available throughout Asia, the clinical practices in Asia vary from those of Western countries. Accordingly, the Working Group of Asian Thyroid FNA Cytology encouraged group members to publish their works jointly with the same topic. The articles in this special issue focused on the history of thyroid FNA, FNA performers and interpreters, training programs of cytopathologists and cytotechnicians, staining methods, the reporting system of thyroid FNA, quality assurance programs, ancillary testing, and literature review of their own country's products...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070553/introduction-to-the-workshop-on-iron-screening-and-supplementation-in-iron-replete-pregnant-women-and-young-children
#18
REVIEW
Christine L Taylor, Patsy M Brannon
The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements convened a public workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children in 2016 in Bethesda, Maryland. The starting point for the workshop was the recent reports from the US Preventive Services Task Force concluding that there was insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits and harms associated with iron screening and routine supplementation among asymptomatic pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo old) in the United States...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062556/neurology-research-in-saudi-arabia-urgent-call-for-action
#19
Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Faisal Boker, Albaraa Algamdi, Abdulah Alkahtani
OBJECTIVES: Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed(®) search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015...
August 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039144/transoral-endoscopic-thyroidectomy-via-a-vestibular-approach-why-and-how
#20
Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Young Jun Chai, Ralph P Tufano, Angkoon Anuwong, Hoon Yub Kim
The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a novel, scar-free surgical procedure that does not require visible incisions. Indications for TOETVA are as follows: predicted gland width on diagnostic imaging ≤10 cm; a thyroid volume outline of <45 mL or dominant nodule dimension of ≤50 mm; three or four Bethesda lesions; a primary papillary microcarcinoma without local or distant metastasis; and patient request for optimal esthetic results. Contraindications are as follows: patients unfit for general anesthesia; precedent radiation in the head, neck, upper mediastinum; antecedent neck surgery; recurrent goiter; a gland volume of >45 mL or main nodule diameter of >50 mm; and documentation of lymph node or distant metastases, tracheal/esophageal infiltration, preoperative laryngeal nerve palsy, hyperthyroidism, mediastinal goiter, or an oral abscess...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine
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