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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050412/adaptive-response-to-exercise-of-fast-growing-and-slow-growing-chicken-strains-blood-oxidative-status-and-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-defense
#1
S Mattioli, A Dal Bosco, S Ruggeri, M Martino, L Moscati, C Pesca, C Castellini
The adaptation of chickens to free-range rearing systems mainly involves the locomotory behavior, which is very different in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) strains. This study aimed to compare the effect of moderate locomotory activity (induced and prolonged) on the blood oxidative status in a slow-growing chicken strain with that in a fast-growing one. Thirty FG (Ross 308) birds and 30 SG (Hubbard) birds were divided into 2 groups for each strain and subjected to different treatments: no exercise (the control group [C]) and 1 h of walking at 4 km/h (the exercise group [E])...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050002/urinary-erythrocyte-derived-mirnas-emerging-role-in-iga-nephropathy
#2
Zhi-Yu Duan, Guang-Yan Cai, Ji-Jun Li, Ru Bu, Xiang-Mei Chen
Hematuria is one of the basic clinical manifestations of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Isolated microscopic hematuria or microscopic hematuria combined with proteinuria is risk factor for the long-term prognosis of IgAN. Current evidence of the consequences of glomerular hematuria rests on insights from basic research on the molecular mechanisms of hemoglobin and related reactive oxygen species-induced tubular injury as well as on the clinical evidence of macroscopic hematuria-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in IgAN...
October 19, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049743/additional-veno-venous-gas-exchange-as-a-problem-solving-strategy-for-an-oxygenator-not-transferring-oxygen-in-paediatric-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#3
Wolfgang Boettcher, Nicodème Sinzobahamvya, Frank Dehmel, Andreas Matschke, Andre Iben, Mi-Young Cho, Mathias Redlin, Joachim Photiadis
OBJECTIVES: Oxygenator failure during cardiopulmonary bypass constitutes a life-threatening event, especially when perfusion is conducted under normothermia. An alternative solution to emergency oxygenator changeover is described. METHODS: A supplementary oxygenator is added in the venous line without interrupting perfusion. De-airing is achieved through the cardiotomy reservoir. Oxygen supply is adapted to ensure physiologic partial oxygen pressure. RESULTS: On 5 occasions in the past 4 years, Capiox Baby FX 05 oxygenator ( n  = 4) and Capiox FX15 ( n  = 1) failed to exchange blood gases after bypass run ranging from 290 min to 563 min...
June 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049710/the-effect-of-antegrade-pulmonary-blood-flow-following-a-late-bidirectional-glenn-procedure
#4
Tao Yan, Guang Tong, Ben Zhang, Feng Yan, Xuan Zhou, Xianyue Wang, Hua Lu, Tao Ma, Xiaowu Wang, Hao Yu, Zhongchan Sun, Weida Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The effect of antegrade pulmonary blood flow (APBF) has never been studied in the bidirectional Glenn (BDG) procedure performed late. METHODS: Records of 112 consecutive patients who had a BDG procedure during a 10-year period were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether APBF occurred following the BDG procedure (APBF group, n = 81) or not (non-APBF group, n = 31). The median age at the BDG procedure was 6...
October 13, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049633/cardiopulmonary-bypass-does-not-induce-lung-dysfunction-after-pulmonary-thrombarterectomy-role-of-pulmonary-compliance
#5
Thierry Sacuto, Yann Sacuto
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary endarterectomy is a heavy surgical procedure that is performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aimed to cure postembolic pulmonary hypertension. Reperfusion oedema is both the hallmark of successful surgical procedure and the most frequent postoperative complication. Post-CPB lung dysfunction was not mentioned in any report. We undertook a study to determine whether post-CPB lung dysfunction was present in these patients. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study with matching on some baseline covariates, we selected 41 patients who had undergone pulmonary endarterectomy and in whom pre-, intra- and postoperative records were complete...
July 21, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049291/a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-classification-of-red-blood-cells-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#6
Mengjia Xu, Dimitrios P Papageorgiou, Sabia Z Abidi, Ming Dao, Hong Zhao, George Em Karniadakis
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematological disorder leading to blood vessel occlusion accompanied by painful episodes and even death. Red blood cells (RBCs) of SCD patients have diverse shapes that reveal important biomechanical and bio-rheological characteristics, e.g. their density, fragility, adhesive properties, etc. Hence, having an objective and effective way of RBC shape quantification and classification will lead to better insights and eventual better prognosis of the disease. To this end, we have developed an automated, high-throughput, ex-vivo RBC shape classification framework that consists of three stages...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049260/a-quantitative-analysis-of-microcirculation-in-skin-defects-covered-with-topical-wound-dressings-or-a-newly-developed-collagen-matrix
#7
Manuel Held, Fabian Medved, Wiebke Petersen, Dascha Sophie Tolzmann, Afshin Rahmanian-Schwarz, Hans-Eberhard Schaller, Jens Rothenberger
OBJECTIVE: Innovative skin substitutes and temporary wound dressings are frequently used in the treatment of superficial and partial-thickness wounds. The aim of this study was to compare 2 commonly used temporary skin dressings with a newly developed collagen matrix to determine changes in microcirculation as measured by blood flow, hemoglobin oxygenation, and relative hemoglobin values during healing of partial-thickness skin defects. METHODS: This animal study involved 28 adult male Lewis rats...
November 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049136/comparisons-of-traditional-metabolic-markers-and-compensatory-reserve-as-early-predictors-of-tolerance-to-central-hypovolemia-in-humans
#8
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Kristen R Lye, Christian G Magby, Victor A Convertino
Circulatory shock remains a leading cause of death in both military and civilian trauma. Early, accurate and reliable prediction of decompensation is necessary for the most efficient interventions and clinical outcomes. Individual tolerance to reduced central blood volume can serve as a model to assess the sensitivity and specificity of vital sign measurements. The compensatory reserve (CRM) is the measurement of this capacity. Measurements of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), blood lactate and end tidal CO2 (EtCO2) have recently gained attention as prognostic tools for early assessment of the status of patients with progressive hemorrhage, but lack the ability to adequately differentiate individual tolerance to hypovolemia...
October 18, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048604/influence-of-darpp-32-genetic-variation-on-bold-activation-to-happy-faces
#9
Ninni Persson, Catarina Lavebratt, Natalie C Ebner, Håkan Fischer
Dopaminergic pathways play a crucial role in reward processing, and advanced age can modulate its efficiency. DARPP-32 controls dopaminergic function and is a chemical nexus of reward processing. In 61 younger (20-30 years) and older adults (54% ♀) (65-74 years), we examined how blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation to emotional faces, vary over genotypes at three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), coding for DARPP-32 (rs879606; rs907094; 3764352). We also assessed age-magnification of DARPP-32 effects on BOLD activation...
October 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048475/in-vitro-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induces-a-distinct-immunological-pattern-in-blood-from-healthy-relatives-of-tuberculosis-patients
#10
Javier Juan-García, Silvia García-García, José Manuel Guerra-Laso, Sara Raposo-García, Cristina Diez-Tascón, Teresa Nebreda-Mayoral, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Ramiro López-Medrano, Araceli Fernández-Maraña, Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano
Part of the susceptibility to tuberculosis has a genetic basis, which is clear in primary immunodeficiencies, but is less evident in apparently immunocompetent subjects. Immune responses were analysed in blood samples from tuberculosis patients and their healthy first-degree relatives who were infected in vitro with mycobacteria (either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis BCG). The antimicrobial activity against M. tuberculosis in blood from relatives was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls...
October 10, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048258/selection-of-implantation-sites-for-transplantation-of-encapsulated-pancreatic-islets
#11
Haitao Zhu, Wenjing Li, Zhongwei Liu, Wenliang Li, Niuniu Chen, Linlin Lu, Wei Zhang, Zhen Wang, Bo Wang, Kaili Pan, Xiaoge Zhang, Guoqiang Chen
Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a valuable therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with exhausted insulin treatment. However, this therapy remains limited by the shortage of donor and the requirement of lifelong immunosuppression. Islet encapsulation, as an available bioartificial pancreas (BAP), represents a promising approach to enable protecting islet grafts without or with minimal immunosuppression and possibly expanding the donor pool. In order to develop a clinically implantable BAP, some key aspects need to be taken into accounts: encapsulation material, capsule design and implantation site...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047136/apnoeic-oxygenation-with-high-flow-nasal-oxygen-for-laryngeal-surgery-a-case-series
#12
C Lyons, M Callaghan
Surgery under apnoeic conditions with the use of high-flow nasal oxygen is novel. Between November 2016 and May 2017, 28 patients underwent tubeless laryngeal or tracheal surgery under apnoeic conditions with high-flow nasal oxygen as the sole method of gas exchange. Patients received total intravenous anaesthesia and neuromuscular blocking agents for the duration of their surgery. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 19 (15-24 [9-37]) min. Four patients experienced an episode of oxygen desaturation to a value between 85% and 90%, lasting less than 2 min in each case...
November 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047099/techniques-for-detecting-reactive-oxygen-species-in-pulmonary-vasculature-redox-signaling
#13
Yi Xu, Steven Qian
Redox signaling plays important roles in regulating pulmonary vasculature function. Aberrant redox signaling, e.g., overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that exceeds the capability of cellular antioxidant mechanisms, has been found to alter vasculature function and remodel blood vessel structure, thus contributes to pathological processes of pulmonary vasculature. The regulation of pulmonary vasculature via ROS is a very complicated process with various biological events involved, however, the specific effect of individual ROS and the underlying mechanism still remain unclear...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047091/hydrogen-sulfide-as-an-o2-sensor-a-critical-analysis
#14
Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Philip I Aaronson
There is increasing interest in the physiological actions and therapeutic potential of the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In addition to exerting antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pro-angiogenic effects, H2S has been suggested to play a central and ubiquitous role in O2 sensing. According to this concept, because H2S is metabolized by oxidation, its cellular concentration varies inversely with the ambient pO2 such that hypoxia causes a rise in intracellular [H2S]; this then acts to induce appropriate cellular responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047088/lung-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
Oleg Pak, Akylbek Sydykov, Djuro Kosanovic, Ralph T Schermuly, Alexander Dietrich, Katrin Schröder, Ralf P Brandes, Thomas Gudermann, Natascha Sommer, Norbert Weissmann
Lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) occurs in many lung diseases and during surgical procedures such as lung transplantation. The re-establishment of blood flow and oxygen delivery into the previously ischaemic lung exacerbates the ischaemic injury and leads to increased microvascular permeability and pulmonary vascular resistance as well as to vigorous activation of the immune response. These events initiate the irreversible damage of the lung with subsequent oedema formation that can result in systemic hypoxaemia and multi-organ failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047078/role-of-transcription-factors-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-an-important-link-to-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Annarita Di Mise, Yong-Xiao Wang, Yun-Min Zheng
Hypoxia, namely a lack of oxygen in the blood, induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasoremodeling, which serve as essential pathologic factors leading to pulmonary hypertension (PH). The underlying molecular mechanisms are uncertain; however, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an essential role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, vasoremodeling, and PH. Hypoxia causes oxidative damage to DNAs, proteins, and lipids. This damage (oxidative stress) modulates the activity of ion channels and elevates the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i, Ca(2+) signaling) of PASMCs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047077/adventitial-fibroblast-nox4-expression-and-ros-signaling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Scott A Barman, David Fulton
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary arterial blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a constitutively active enzyme, has been associated with oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further, elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemic stroke, and PAH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046768/smartphones-and-e-tablets-in-perioperative-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Frederic Michard
Smartphones and electronic tablets (e-tablets) have become ubiquitous devices. Their ease of use, smartness, accessibility, mobility and connectivity create unique opportunities to improve quality of surgical care from prehabilitation to rehabilitation. Before surgery, digital applications (Apps), serious games and text messaging may help for a better control of risk factors (hypertension, overweight), for smoking cessation, and for optimizing adherence to preoperative recommendations (e.g., regarding anticoagulation or antihypertensive treatments)...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046642/cooperative-oxygen-sensing-by-the-kidney-and-carotid-body-in-blood-pressure-control
#19
Daniela Patinha, Wioletta Pijacka, Julian F R Paton, Maarten P Koeners
Oxygen sensing mechanisms are vital for homeostasis and survival. When oxygen levels are too low (hypoxia), blood flow has to be increased, metabolism reduced, or a combination of both, to counteract tissue damage. These adjustments are regulated by local, humoral, or neural reflex mechanisms. The kidney and the carotid body are both directly sensitive to falls in the partial pressure of oxygen and trigger reflex adjustments and thus act as oxygen sensors. We hypothesize a cooperative oxygen sensing function by both the kidney and carotid body to ensure maintenance of whole body blood flow and tissue oxygen homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046213/-changes-in-blood-oxygen-metabolism-indices-and-their-clinical-significance-in-children-with-septic-shock
#20
Ling-Yang Xu, Ding Xu
The key to the treatment of septic shock is to provide adequate oxygen supply and improve tissue perfusion. Lactate and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) are commonly used as the indices of oxygen metabolism, but tissue hypoxia may still exist even when lactate and ScvO2 are within the normal range. Arteriovenous difference in carbon dioxide partial pressure (CO2 gap) can accurately reflect oxygen delivery when ScvO2 is in the normal range. This article reviews the advantages and shortages of lactate, lactate clearance rate, ScvO2, and CO2 gap in evaluating tissue hypoxia, in order to provide a reference for treatment and severity evaluation of septic shock...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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