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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918000/nitric-oxide-prevents-aft1-activation-and-metabolic-remodeling-in-frataxin-deficient-yeast
#1
David Alsina, Joaquim Ros, Jordi Tamarit
Yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) is the orthologue of human frataxin, a mitochondrial protein whose deficiency causes Friedreich Ataxia. Yfh1 deficiency activates Aft1, a transcription factor governing iron homeostasis in yeast cells. Although the mechanisms causing this activation are not completely understood, it is assumed that it may be caused by iron-sulfur deficiency. However, several evidences indicate that activation of Aft1 occurs in the absence of iron-sulfur deficiency. Besides, Yfh1 deficiency also leads to metabolic remodeling (mainly consisting in a shift from respiratory to fermentative metabolism) and to induction of Yhb1, a nitric oxide (NO) detoxifying enzyme...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917843/rapgef2-a-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-for-rap1-small-gtpases-plays-a-crucial-role-in-adherence-junction-aj-formation-in-radial-glial-cells-through-erk-mediated-upregulation-of-the-aj-constituent-protein-expression
#2
Maged Ibrahim Farag, Yoko Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro Maeta, Tohru Kataoka
Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap1, characterized by possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domains and implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. We previously found that dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout mice exhibits severe defects in formation of apical surface adherence junctions (AJs) and localization of radial glial cells (RGCs). In this study, we analyze the underlying molecular mechanism by using primary cultures of RGCs established from the developing cerebral cortex...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917655/inactivation-of-tnf-lt-locus-alters-mouse-metabolic-response-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5
#3
Ziying Hu, Minjie Chen, Huifen Zhou, Anui Tharakan, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Yuhao Zhang, Wanjun Wang, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. This is widely believed to be attributable to PM2.5 exposure-induced pulmonary and subsequent systemic inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), lymphotoxin α (LTα), and lymphotoxin β (LTβ) are three homologous pro-inflammatory cytokines, each with both unique and redundant activities in inflammation. Their role in PM2.5 exposure-induced inflammation and adverse cardiometabolic effects has to be determined...
September 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917142/reactions-of-tobacco-genotypes-with-different-antioxidant-capacities-to-powdery-mildew-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-infections
#4
Gábor Gullner, Csilla Juhász, Adél Németh, Balázs Barna
The interactions of powdery mildew (Golovinomyces orontii) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with tobacco lines having down or upregulated antioxidants were investigated. Xanthi-nc, its salicylic acid-deficient NahG mutant, a paraquat-sensitive Samsun (PS) and its paraquat tolerant (PT) mutant were used. Cell membrane damage caused by H2O2 was significantly higher in NahG than Xanthi, whereas it was lower in PT than in PS. Leakage of ions from PT was reduced by the powdery mildew infection. On the other hand TMV inoculation led to a 6-fold and 2-fold elevation of ion leakage from hypersensitive resistant NahG and Xanthi leaves, respectively, whereas ion leakage increased slightly from susceptible PS leaves...
September 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916992/longevity-of-daily-oral-vitamin-d3-supplementation-differences-in-25ohd-and-24-25-oh-2d-observed-2%C3%A2-years-after-cessation-of-a-1-year-randomised-controlled-trial-victory-recall
#5
H M Macdonald, A Gryka, J C Y Tang, L S Aucott, W D Fraser, A D Wood
To determine how long vitamin D lasts after supplementation ceases, the marker of status was measured 2 and 3 years after a 1-year trial. Compared to placebo, the proportion of vitamin D-deficient women was still lower, if they had taken daily vitamin D3, after 2 years, indicating its longevity. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine longevity of vitamin D status following cessation of vitamin D3 supplementation, 2 and 3 years after a 1-year randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial and to investigate possible predictive factors...
September 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916740/mad2b-acts-as-a-negative-regulatory-partner-of-tcf4-on-proliferation-in-human-dermal-papilla-cells
#6
Nanlan Yu, Zhiqiang Song, Kezhou Zhang, Xichuan Yang
Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are important components of hair follicles and play a critical role in hair follicle development. However, the mechanisms by which DPCs induce hair follicle development remain unclear. In the present study, we identified the mitotic arrest deficient protein MAD2B as a modifier of DPCs. Overexpression of MAD2B inhibited DPC aggregative growth and proliferation induced by the Wnt signaling activator T cell factor 4 (TCF4), and decreased TCF4-induced expression and the release of hair growth-related cytokines, including hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor in DPCs...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916539/comparative-analysis-of-alternative-polyadenylation-in-s-cerevisiae-and-s-pombe
#7
Xiaochuan Liu, Mainul Hoque, Marc Larochelle, Jean-François Lemay, Nathan Yurko, James L Manley, François Bachand, Bin Tian
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a widespread mechanism that generates mRNA isoforms with distinct properties. Here we have systematically mapped and compared cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and S. pombe Although >80% of the mRNA genes in each species were found to display APA, S. pombe showed greater 3' UTR size differences among APA isoforms than did S. cerevisiae PASs in different locations of gene are surrounded with distinct sequences in both species and are often associated with motifs involved in the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 termination pathway...
September 15, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916290/conceptualizing-a-dynamic-fall-risk-model-including-intrinsic-risks-and-exposures
#8
Jochen Klenk, Clemens Becker, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Lars Schwickert, Kilan Rapp, Jorunn L Helbostad, Chris Todd, Stephen R Lord, Ngaire Kerse
Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916025/oral-manifestations-of-nutritional-disorders
#9
Stanislav N Tolkachjov, Alison J Bruce
Nutritional deficiencies occur when body metabolic requirements are not matched by intake and absorption. Reasons for this discrepancy are numerous, but often social, economic, medical, and even psychiatric factors may play a role. Vitamins and minerals are required for appropriate rapid cell turnover of the oral mucosa. The oral cavity is a unique anatomic environment that may manifest early signs of nutritional disorders as well as other indicators of systemic disease. Knowledge of these oral manifestations and associated findings will allow a practitioner to consider a nutritional disorder when evaluating oral changes and, in turn, initiate appropriate therapy...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915952/iga-nephropathy-during-treatment-with-tnf-alpha-blockers-could-it-be-predicted
#10
Vito Di Lernia
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) may sometimes be related to exposure to pharmacological agents, among which anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha agents. The characteristic pathological feature is a deposition of IgA-containing immune complexes in vessel walls in the kidney mesangium. The link between TNF-alpha blockers and IgAN may be hypothesized examining diseases which share pathologic features. In this respect, idiopathic IgAN and Henoch Schonlein Purpura have been the object of studies revealing a pathogenetic role of aberrant glycosylation of IgA1 molecules...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915816/cramp-deficiency-leads-to-a-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-and-impaired-phagocytosis-after-exposure-to-bacterial-meningitis-pathogens
#11
Eugenia Kress, Julika Merres, Lea-Jessica Albrecht, Sven Hammerschmidt, Thomas Pufe, Simone C Tauber, Lars-Ove Brandenburg
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host defence with a broad range of functions including direct antimicrobial activity and modulation of inflammation. Lack of cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) was associated with higher mortality and bacterial burden and impaired neutrophil granulocyte infiltration in a model of pneumococcal meningitis. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of CRAMP deficiency on glial response and phagocytosis after exposure to bacterial stimuli...
September 16, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915559/zbtb1-controls-nkp46-ror-gamma-t-innate-lymphoid-cell-ilc3-development
#12
Ying Lu, Xianyu Zhang, Nicolas Bouladoux, Saransh Neel Kaul, Kangxin Jin, Derek Sant'Angelo, Yasmine Belkaid, Damian Kovalovsky
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role conferring protection at the mucosal frontier. In this study, we have identified a requirement of the transcription factor Zbtb1 for the development of RORγt(+) ILCs (ILC3s). Zbtb1-deficient mice lacked NKp46(+) ILC3 cells in the lamina propria of the small and large intestine. This requirement of Zbtb1 was cell intrinsic, as NKp46(+) ILC3s were not generated from Zbtb1-deficient progenitors in bone marrow chimeras and Zbtb1-deficient RORγt(+) CCR6(-)NKp46(-) ILC3s didn't generate NKp46(+) ILC3s in co-cultures with OP9-DL1 stroma...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915557/loss-of-p16-ink4a-stimulates-aberrant-mitochondrial-biogenesis-through-a-cdk4-rb-independent-pathway
#13
Ethika Tyagi, Bin Liu, Chelsea Li, Tong Liu, Jared Rutter, Douglas Grossman
The tumor suppressor p16INK4A (p16) inhibits cell cycle progression through the CDK4/Rb pathway. We have previously shown that p16 regulates cellular oxidative stress, independent of its role in cell cycle control. We investigated whether loss of p16 had a direct impact on the mitochondria. We found that p16-null primary mouse fibroblasts (PMFs) displayed increased mitochondrial mass and expression of mitochondrial respiratory subunit proteins compared to wild-type (WT) PMFs. These findings in p16-null PMFs were associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors PRC and TFAM...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915381/adult-vitamin-d-deficiency-exacerbates-impairments-caused-by-social-stress-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Natalie J Groves, Mei Zhou, Dhanisha J Jhaveri, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults throughout the world. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment. However, studies based on observational epidemiology cannot address questions of causality; they cannot determine if vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor leading to the adverse health outcome...
September 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#15
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#16
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915246/inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-tumor-cells-upon-chemotherapy-drug-exposure-or-upon-selection-for-drug-resistance
#17
Derek W Edwardson, Justin Boudreau, Jonathan Mapletoft, Carita Lanner, A Thomas Kovala, Amadeo M Parissenti
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) has been shown to be released by tumor cells in response to docetaxel, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the latter through activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, it is unclear whether the former involves TLR4 receptor activation through direct binding of the drug to TLR4 at the cell surface. The current study was intended to better understand drug-induced TNF-α production in tumor cells, whether from short-term drug exposure or in cells selected for drug resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915237/dna-replication-stress-restricts-ribosomal-dna-copy-number
#18
Devika Salim, William D Bradford, Amy Freeland, Gillian Cady, Jianmin Wang, Steven C Pruitt, Jennifer L Gerton
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915148/adult-fmr1-knockout-mice-present-with-deficiencies-in-hippocampal-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-expression
#19
Samantha L Hodges, Suzanne O Nolan, Joseph H Taube, Joaquin N Lugo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the FMR1 gene. Mutations in the FMR1 gene are the largest monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and thus both disorders share many of the same cognitive and behavioral impairments. There is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulated immune responses play a role in the pathophysiology of ASD; however, the association between FXS and altered immunity requires further investigation. This study examined whether Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice on a FVB/NJ background strain had altered cytokine expression at baseline levels in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915122/understanding-fetal-factors-that-contribute-to-preterm-birth-sj%C3%A3-gren-larsson-syndrome-as-a-model
#20
Pippa Staps, Marije Hogeveen, Joris Fuijkschot, Joris van Drongelen, Michèl A A P Willemsen
AIM: Preterm birth is the world's leading cause of neonatal death. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology of preterm birth remains poorly understood. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare, neurometabolic disorder caused by a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. A majority of patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is born preterm. METHODS: Data of all known Dutch patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and all cases reported in literature were analyzed to learn from preterm birth in context of this rare disease...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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