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Violence prevention

Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca J Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive adolescents have low ART-adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART-adherence with adolescent violence victimisation by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Anna M Leddy, Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E Kennedy, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Carol R Underwood
Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania...
March 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Kelli N O'Laughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Julius Kasozi, Kelsy E Greenwald, Nicholas R Perkons, Zikama M Faustin, Ingrid V Bassett, Norma C Ware
Background: Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n  = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n  = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data...
2018: Conflict and Health
Claire de Brie, Emmanuelle Piet, Patrick Chariot
BACKGROUND: Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners...
March 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Kevin Smith, Jude Mary Cénat, Andréanne Lapierre, Jacinthe Dion, Martine Hébert, Karine Côté
BACKGROUND: Adolescents in a dating relationship can interact anytime using information and communication technologies. Yet, despite associated potential benefits, this availability of means to reach out to their partner may also exacerbate possible conflictual exchanges, including dating violence through technology. This study aimed to document the prevalence of cyber dating violence (CDV) victimization and perpetration among teenagers. It also explored self-esteem and psychological distress in participants having been perpetrators, victims, or perpetrator-victims, compared with those not having experienced CDV...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Henning Hachtel, Cieran Harries, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff
OBJECTIVE: People affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of offending violently. This study aims to investigate risk factors in relation to the peri-diagnostic period and possible predictors of post-diagnostic violence of people diagnosed for the first time in the public mental health system. METHODS: The study compared various risk factors for post-diagnostic violence in patients ( n = 1453) diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Jackson Katz
This article outlines the origins, philosophy, and pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) program, which has played a significant role in the gender violence prevention field since its inception in 1993. MVP was one of the first large-scale programs to target men for prevention efforts, as well as the first to operate systematically in sports culture and the U.S. military. MVP also introduced the "bystander" approach to the field. MVP employs a social justice, gender-focused approach to prevention...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Jackson Katz
In this article, the author responds to three commentaries about his article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy, and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model," published in this volume. Topics covered in the commentaries and response include questions about evaluation and evidence for program effectiveness; the necessity for gender violence prevention education to be gender transformative and part of a comprehensive, multilevel prevention approach, especially for adolescents; and the degree to which Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP), as a "social justice"-oriented program, incorporates intersectional and anti-oppression frameworks and perspectives...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Ann L Coker
This response to Katz's commentary is based on our team's experiences and findings in bystander intervention design and evaluation among male and female adolescents in several high school settings. Three themes emerged in reflecting on "what worked" in our large evaluation in light of Katz's commentary. First, our field needs data from multiple rigorous bystander intervention evaluations. Second, bystander interventions must be acceptable to the population receiving the intervention. Third, engaging all adolescent and young adults in prevention independent of sex or sexual orientation is essential to reduce sexual violence including harassment and bullying...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth Wilmerding, Mari Knuth-Bouracee, Jeffrey L Edleson
This article offers reflections on the article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model" by Jackson Katz in this issue of Violence Against Women. The authors rely on their unique perspectives in varying roles at the University of California (UC) Berkeley, as well as on relevant social science and social justice research. The article explores five themes of violence prevention and anti-oppression work: leadership, social justice, gender identity, issues of identity and status, and diffusion of innovation...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Wendy E Pollock, Susan J McDonald, Angela J Taft
INTRODUCTION: Preventing and reducing violence against women (VAW) and maternal mortality are Sustainable Development Goals. Worldwide, the maternal mortality ratio has fallen about 44% in the last 25 years, and for one maternal death there are many women affected by severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) requiring management in the intensive care unit (ICU). These women represent the most critically ill obstetric patients of the maternal morbidity spectrum and should be studied to complement the review of maternal mortality...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
James F Leckman, Pia Rebello Britto
This special issue of New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development features four review articles from authoritative leaders in the field. These articles highlight how far our field has come over the past five decades, as well as how much further effort is needed to refine, adapt, and implement - in a sustainable fashion - responsive parenting and nurturing care programs of proven value across the globe.
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Yvette Efevbera, Dana C McCoy, Alice J Wuermli, Theresa S Betancourt
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Rima Salah
Today millions of children are trapped in situations of war, conflict, violence and displacement. Science shows that violence has a detrimental effect on the development of young children. It, also, heralds in a new era, with opportunities to contribute to sustaining peace and prevention of violence, through investment in early childhood development. The commentary argues that we have every opportunity to make a transformative shift and raise the voice of science to join the voice of "we the peoples.....
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Rebecca W Stubbs, Chloe Morozoff, Shreya Shirude, Jürgen Unützer, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali H Mokdad, Christopher J L Murray
Importance: Substance use disorders, including alcohol use disorders and drug use disorders, and intentional injuries, including self-harm and interpersonal violence, are important causes of early death and disability in the United States. Objective: To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by county from alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence in the United States. Design and Setting: Validated small-area estimation models were applied to deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the US Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database to estimate county-level mortality rates from 1980 to 2014 for alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Hye Jin Yoo, Eunyoung E Suh, Soon Haeng Lee, Jin Hee Hwang, Ji Hye Kwon
PURPOSE: It is difficult to develop a good defense system that can prevent nurses from experiencing physical and verbal violence from patients and families in intensive care units, which are closed spaces. This study aimed to identify intensive care nurses' experience of violence from patients and families and investigate their coping methods, if there are any, in a tertiary hospital in South Korea. METHODS: This study used a mixed methods design utilizing both a survey for collecting quantitative data and individual interviews for a qualitative one...
March 10, 2018: Asian Nursing Research
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Derek S Brown, Xiangming Fang, Ahmed Hassan, James A Mercy
The present study provides an estimate of the U.S. economic impact of child sexual abuse (CSA). Costs of CSA were measured from the societal perspective and include health care costs, productivity losses, child welfare costs, violence/crime costs, special education costs, and suicide death costs. We separately estimated quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses. For each category, we used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. All costs were estimated in U.S. dollars and adjusted to the reference year 2015...
March 10, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Joseph R Cohen, Ryan C Shorey, Suvarna V Menon, Jeff R Temple
OBJECTIVES: With our study we aimed to (1) understand what factors uniquely conferred risk for physical and sexual forms of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and (2) create a screening algorithm to quantify perpetration risk on the basis of these factors. METHODS: A total of 1031 diverse public high school students living in Southeast Texas participated in our study (56% female; 29% African American, 28% white, and 31% Hispanic). Self-report measures concerning TDV and associated risk factors were completed annually for 6 years...
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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