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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#1
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446961/a-biopsychosocial-model-of-violence-when-sleepwalking-review-and-reconceptualisation
#2
REVIEW
Helen M Stallman, Andrea Bari
SUMMARY: Violence towards others during sleepwalking is relatively uncommon, but can result in serious injury or even death. Much of the research in this field has focused on the forensic consequences of violence during sleepwalking without sufficient attention to an understanding of the risk factors for violence during sleepwalking and the development of prevention and interventions based on these risk factors. This paper reviews the characteristics of impulsive violence in general and reconceptualises violence during sleepwalking as an extension of this prior vulnerability...
March 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444197/understanding-the-linkages-between-social-safety-nets-and-childhood-violence-a-review-of-the-evidence-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Amber Peterman, Anastasia Naomi Neijhoft, Sarah Cook, Tia M Palermo
As many as one billion children experience violence every year, and household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations. Social safety nets (SSNs) are a main policy tool to address poverty and vulnerability, and there is substantial evidence demonstrating positive effects on children's health and human capital. This paper reviews evidence and develops a framework to understand linkages between non-contributory SSNs and the experience of childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries...
April 22, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443367/preventing-risky-behaviours-among-young-adolescents-in-eastern-democratic-republic-of-congo-a-qualitative-study
#4
Anjalee Kohli, Mitima Mpanano Remy, Arsene Kajabika Binkurhorhwa, Clovis Murhula Mitima, Alfred Bacikenge Mirindi, Nadine Bufole Mwinja, Jean Heri Banyewesize, Gisele Mushengezi Ntakwinja, Nancy A Perrin, Nancy Glass
This qualitative study explores and describes adolescent risk behaviours, specifically consumption of alcohol and use of violence; the perceived consequences of these behaviours on future well-being and relationships; and collaboratively identifies the essential components of a prevention intervention for risk behaviours (alcohol use, violence) among young adolescents while strengthening the protective individual and relationship factors in post-conflict Democratic Republic of Congo. One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 male and female youth, 20 parents/guardians and 20 stakeholders in three rural villages of South Kivu Province...
April 26, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441975/seek-test-treat-substance-using-women-in-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-south-africa
#5
Wendee M Wechsberg, Charles van der Horst, Jacqueline Ndirangu, Irene A Doherty, Tracy Kline, Felicia A Browne, Jennifer M Belus, Robin Nance, William A Zule
BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa who use alcohol and other drugs face multiple barriers to HIV care. These barriers make it difficult for women to progress through each step in the HIV treatment cascade from diagnosis to treatment initiation and adherence. This paper examines correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV status, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Outreach workers recruited sexually active Black African women who used substances in Pretoria as part of a U...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438524/trajectories-of-mental-health-related-service-use-among-adolescents-with-histories-of-early-externalizing-problems
#6
Yuko Okado, Emily Ewing, Christina Rowley, Damon E Jones
PURPOSE: To inform efforts to reduce costly service utilization, the present study examined longitudinal trajectories of mental health-related outpatient and residential service use among at-risk youth with a history of early externalizing problems. METHODS: A cohort of 809 children in the Fast Track Project, a multisite longitudinal study of children at risk for conduct disorder, were followed prospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade. They resided in high-risk areas with high rates of poverty, crime, and violence...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435538/scaling-up-a-multifaceted-violence-prevention-package-county-level-impact-of-the-north-carolina-youth-violence-prevention-center
#7
Paul R Smokowski, Katie L Cotter, Shenyang Guo, Caroline Bill Robertson Evans
OBJECTIVE: Multifaceted approaches to youth-violence prevention package evidence-based programs into initiatives that yield large-scale impact. This study assessed the impact of a package of evidence-based violence prevention programs, implemented as part of the North Carolina Youth Violence Prevention Center, on county-level violence indicators. METHOD: Using growth-curve modeling, the target county was compared to all other counties in North Carolina and a comparison county...
2017: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435184/mining-electronic-health-records-data-domestic-violence-and-adverse-health-effects
#8
Gunnur Karakurt, Vishal Patel, Kathleen Whiting, Mehmet Koyutürk
Intimate partner violence (IPV) often culminates in acute physical injury, sexual assault, and mental health issues. It is crucial to understand the healthcare habits of victims to develop interventions that can drastically improve a victim's quality of life and prevent future abuse. The objective of this study is to mine de-identified and aggregated Electronic Health Record data to identify women's health issues that are potentially associated with IPV. In this study we compared health issues of female domestic abuse victims to female non-domestic abuse victims...
January 2017: Journal of Family Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434241/-facilitating-role-of-traumatic-experiences-in-art
#9
József Gerevich
Traumatic experiences can not only have unfavourable consequences, they can also contribute, with a kind of creative twist, to the development of the person affected by the trauma. The artistic responses to traumas can be examined on the basis of the different types of trauma. This study reports on an investigation focusing on six types of trauma: emotional deprivation/neglect; near-death experience; becoming the victim of violence; war; accident/sickness and emotional frustration. Examples taken from the history of art indicate that works of art can draw attention to the traumatic experiences of the artists with frequently repeated motifs and portrayal techniques (sun, mother image, objects referring to the person lost, motifs of violence or symbols of violence, artistic manifestations of an exaggerated self-image, surreal visions, dry irony, substituting other objects for the beloved person), or a sudden change of style and subject that can express a heightened interest in human suffering (Lovis Corinth)...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432418/-because-we-feel-we-have-to-do-something-barriers-in-the-prevention-of-violence-and-key-areas-requiring-action-a%C3%A2-qualitative-interview-study-with-professional-nurses-and-managers-in-the-field-of-elderly-care
#10
Melanie Siegel, Yuliya Mazheika, Regina Mennicken, Stefanie Ritz-Timme, Hildegard Graß, Britta Gahr
BACKGROUND: In recent years, politics and society have shown an increasing interest in the prevention of violence. Despite the scientific studies and prevention programs that have been conducted over the past few years, there is no indication that the prevalence of violence in elderly care is falling. A high number of unreported cases may still be assumed. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the barriers in transferring research knowledge into practice. Furthermore, it dealt with the requirements of an interventional approach which is practical and which effectively addresses the barriers...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431382/childhood-maltreatment-preceding-depressive-disorder-at-age-18-years-a-prospective-brazilian-birth-cohort-study
#11
Erika Alejandra Giraldo Gallo, Christian Loret De Mola, Fernando Wehrmeister, Helen Gonçalves, Christian Kieling, Joseph Murray
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is linked with increased risk for mental illness in adolescence and adulthood. However, little evidence is available on whether different forms of maltreatment have specific effects, and no prospective studies in low- or middle-income countries have addressed this issue. METHODS: Participants in a population-based, birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (N=3715) self-reported exposure to maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence) in confidential questionnaires at age 15 years, and were assessed for major depression in interviews at age 18 years, using the MINI...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427380/the-stepping-stones-and-creating-futures-intervention-to-prevent-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-in-durban-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-control-trial-and-baseline-characteristics
#12
Andrew Gibbs, Laura Washington, Samantha Willan, Nolwazi Ntini, Thobani Khumalo, Nompumelelo Mbatha, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Nwabisa Shai, Esnat Chirwa, Michael Strauss, Giulia Ferrari, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427363/a-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-suicide-in-el-salvador
#13
Carlos Carcach
BACKGROUND: In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426291/the-structure-of-policy-networks-for-injury-and-violence-prevention-in-15-us-cities
#14
Jenine K Harris, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Bobbi J Carothers, Patrick Fowler
OBJECTIVES: Changes in policy can reduce violence and injury; however, little is known about how partnerships among organizations influence policy development, adoption, and implementation. To understand partnerships among organizations working on injury and violence prevention (IVP) policy, we examined IVP policy networks in 15 large US cities. METHODS: In summer 2014, we recruited 15 local health departments (LHDs) to participate in the study. They identified an average of 28...
May 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426115/health-problems-of-newly-arrived-migrants-and-refugees-in-europe
#15
Dr Androula Pavli, Dr Helena Maltezou
Background.: The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. Methods.: A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421391/epidemiology-of-suicide-attempts-among-youth-transitioning-to-adulthood
#16
Martie P Thompson, Kevin Swartout
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for older adolescents and young adults. Although empirical literature has identified important risk factors of suicidal behavior, it is less understood if changes in risk factors correspond with changes in suicide risk. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed if there were different trajectories of suicidal behavior as youth transition into young adulthood and determined what time-varying risk factors predicted these trajectories. This study used four waves of data spanning approximately 13 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419796/-third-working-conditions-and-health-survey-in-navarre-spain-main-findings
#17
Vega García
OBJECTIVE: To describe health problems and working conditions perceived by workers of Navarra, Spain. METHODS: Conduct of the Third Survey of Working Conditions and Health in Navarre. We administered the Seventh Spanish National Survey of Working Conditions questionnaire by personal interviews conducted in the workers' homes between October 2014 and December 2014, and using a three-stage stratified sampling approach, by economic activity, work establishment size and gender...
April 2017: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413921/preventing-the-onset-of-child-sexual-abuse-by-targeting-young-adolescents-with-universal-prevention-programming
#18
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Cindy M Schaeffer, Catherine P Bradshaw, Kenneth A Feder
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth's first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense...
May 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413210/acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-a-case-of-fatal-child-abuse
#19
R Rahimi, Z F Zulkifli, E Omar, H Ismail, S Md Noor
Child abuse is a worldwide problem. The four major types of abuse include physical abuse, child neglect, psychological maltreatment and sexual violence. We describe a fatal case of child abuse which presented with numerous old and recent soft tissue injuries all over the body. The injuries on the legs have immobilized the victim for quite some time, giving rise to deep vein thrombosis, leading to death as a result of acute pulmonary thromboembolism. This case demonstrates presence of both elements of abuse and neglect in one victim...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412887/preventing-and-de-escalating-aggressive-behavior-among-adult-psychiatric-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#20
Bradley N Gaynes, Carrie L Brown, Linda J Lux, Kimberly A Brownley, Richard A Van Dorn, Mark J Edlund, Emmanuel Coker-Schwimmer, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Brian Sheitman, Theodore Zarzar, Meera Viswanathan, Kathleen N Lohr
OBJECTIVE: The project goal was to compare the effectiveness of strategies to prevent and de-escalate aggressive behaviors among psychiatric patients in acute care settings, including interventions for reducing use of seclusion and restraint. METHODS: Relevant databases were systematically reviewed for comparative studies of violence prevention and de-escalation strategies involving adult psychiatric patients in acute care settings. Studies (trials and cohort studies) were required to report on aggression or seclusion or restraint outcomes...
April 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
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