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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918602/population-pharmacokinetics-and-optimal-sampling-strategy-for-model-based-precision-dosing-of-melphalan-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Kana Mizuno, Min Dong, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Sharat Chandra, Parinda A Mehta, Scott McConnell, Elias J Anaissie, Alexander A Vinks
BACKGROUND: High-dose melphalan is an important component of conditioning regimens for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The current dosing strategy based on body surface area results in a high incidence of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal and liver toxicity. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing will individualize exposure and help minimize overexposure-related toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and optimal sampling strategy...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918476/effects-of-stocking-density-on-lipid-deposition-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-in-amur-sturgeon-acipenser-schrenckii
#2
Yuanyuan Ren, Haishen Wen, Yun Li, Jifang Li, Feng He, Meng Ni
To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m(3), MSD 8.0 kg/m(3), and HSD 11.0 kg/m(3)) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P < 0...
September 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918356/what-is-the-price-for-the-duchenne-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
Firooz Salami, Mirjam Niklasch, Britta K Krautwurst, Thomas Dreher, Sebastian I Wolf
Duchenne gait is characterized by trunk lean towards the affected stance limb with the pelvis stable or elevated on the swinging limb side during single limb stance phase. We assessed the relationship between hip abduction moments and trunk kinetics in patients with cerebral palsy showing excessive lateral trunk motion. Data of 18 subjects with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 20 aged matched typically developing subjects (TD) were collected retrospectively. Criteria for patient selection were barefoot walking without aid presenting with excessive lateral trunk motion...
September 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#4
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916887/appropriate-imaging-utilization-in-japan-a-survey-of-accredited-radiology-training-hospitals
#5
Kanako K Kumamaru, Sadayuki Murayama, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Takeshi Nojo, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Mariko Goto, Eriko Maeda, Junko Echigo, Shigeyoshi Soga, Shinya Fujii, Yutaka Tanami, Tetsuhiko Okabe, Masahiro Okada, Jiro Munechika, Hideki Ota, Mototaka Miyake, Hiroshi Honda, Shigeki Aoki
PURPOSE: To survey whether imaging is being performed appropriately in Japan, and to survey whether radiologists intervene to ensure imaging requests are appropriate. METHODS: An online survey was sent to radiologists at accredited radiology training hospitals. The survey included the radiologists' perspectives on whether imaging is performed appropriately at their institutions and whether they intervene if the indication for imaging is inappropriate/ambiguous. RESULTS: The response rate was 87...
September 15, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914501/andrology-of-male-to-female-transsexuals-influence-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-on-testicular-function
#6
REVIEW
F Schneider, S Kliesch, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross-sex hormone therapy in trans-women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi-center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913658/liver-specific-reconstitution-of-ceacam1-reverses-the-metabolic-abnormalities-caused-by-its-global-deletion-in-male-mice
#7
Lucia Russo, Harrison T Muturi, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Thomas A Bowman, Hye Lim Noh, Sezin Dagdeviren, Godwin Y Dogbey, Jason K Kim, Garrett Heinrich, Sonia M Najjar
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Mice with global null mutation (Cc1 (-/-)) or with liver-specific inactivation (L-SACC1) of Cc1 (also known as Ceacam1) gene display hyperinsulinaemia resulting from impaired insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and obesity. Because increased lipolysis contributes to the metabolic phenotype caused by transgenic inactivation of CEACAM1 in the liver, we aimed to further investigate the primary role of hepatic CEACAM1-dependent insulin clearance in insulin and lipid homeostasis...
September 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912648/a-motivational-model-of-physical-education-and-links-to-enjoyment-knowledge-performance-total-physical-activity-and-body-mass-index
#8
Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt
The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE) including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI) were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls) in North-East Finland...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911362/assessment-of-the-quality-of-anti-tuberculosis-medicines-in-almaty-kazakhstan-2014
#9
D Nabirova, G Schmid, R Yusupova, M Kantarbayeva, S I Ismailov, D Moffett, R W O Jähnke, J P Nuorti
SETTING: In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a survey of the quality of four anti-tuberculosis drugs in the former Soviet Union countries. Kazakhstan had the highest proportion of substandard drugs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs used in Kazakhstan in 2014. DESIGN: Fourteen anti-tuberculosis drugs from the Almaty Interdistrict TB Dispensary were randomly selected and screened for quality using Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab™ testing...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911110/two-tailed-rt-qpcr-a-novel-method-for-highly-accurate-mirna-quantification
#10
Peter Androvic, Lukas Valihrach, Julie Elling, Robert Sjoback, Mikael Kubista
MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that serve as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They are stable in body fluids and pose great potential to serve as biomarkers. Here, we present a highly specific, sensitive and cost-effective system to quantify miRNA expression based on two-step RT-qPCR with SYBR-green detection chemistry called Two-tailed RT-qPCR. It takes advantage of novel, target-specific primers for reverse transcription composed of two hemiprobes complementary to two different parts of the targeted miRNA, connected by a hairpin structure...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905266/septin-structure-and-filament-assembly
#11
REVIEW
Napoleão Fonseca Valadares, Humberto d' Muniz Pereira, Ana Paula Ulian Araujo, Richard Charles Garratt
Septins are able to polymerize into long apolar filaments and have long been considered to be a component of the cytoskeleton alongside intermediate filaments (which are also apolar in nature), microtubules and actin filaments (which are not). Their central guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain, which is essential for stabilizing the filament itself, is flanked by N- and C-terminal domains for which no direct structural information is yet available. In most cases, physiological filaments are built from a number of different septin monomers, and in the case of mammalian septins this is most commonly either three or four...
September 13, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904194/a-distinct-mechanism-for-the-formation-of-the-ribonucleoprotein-complex-of-the-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus
#12
Yu Guo, Baocheng Liu, Zhenzhen Ding, Guobang Li, Meizi Liu, Dantong Zhu, Yuna Sun, Shishang Dong, Zhiyong Lou
The tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) belongs to the Tospovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family and represents the sole plant-infecting group within bunyavirus. TSWV encodes a nucleocapsid protein (N) which encapsidates the RNA genome to form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In addition, the N has multiple roles during the infection of plant cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of the full-length TSWV N. The N features a body domain consisting of an N- and C-lobe. These lobes clamp a positively charged groove which may constitute the RNA binding site...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904008/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-clinical-and-pharmacogenetic-aspects-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-polymorphism
#13
Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Edna Jesus Litenski Barbosa, Per-Arne Svensson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Camilla A M Glad
Pharmacogenetics aims to maximize the beneficial effects of a medical therapy by identifying genetic finger prints from responders and non-responders and, thereby, improving safety and efficacy profile of the drug. Most subjects who are deficient in growth hormone (GHD) are candidates for recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy. To date, it is well established that even after adjustments for several clinical variables, such as age, gender, body composition and the age at onset of the GHD, response to rhGH treatment is highly variable among individuals, part of which is believed to be due to genetic factors within the GH system...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901668/dilatation-of-the-ductus-arteriosus-by-diazoxide-in-fetal-and-neonatal-rats
#14
Katsuaki Toyoshima, Kazuo Momma, Tetsuko Ishii, Toshio Nakanishi
BACKGROUND: Diazoxide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, is the main therapeutic agent for treating hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. We aimed to determine the in vivo ductus-dilating effects of diazoxide in fetal and neonatal rats. METHODS: Near-term rat pups delivered via a cesarean section were housed at 33°C. After rapid whole-body freezing, The ductus arteriosus (DA) diameter was measured using a microscope and a micrometer. Full-term pregnant rats (gestational day 21) were intraperitoneally injected with diazoxide (10 and 100 mg/kg) 4 h before delivery, and the neonatal DA diameter was measured at 0, 30, or 60 min after birth...
September 13, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901052/noninvasive-three-dimensional-full-field-body-sensor-for-surface-deformation-monitoring-of-human-body-in-vivo
#15
Zhenning Chen, Xinxing Shao, Xiaoyuan He, Jialin Wu, Xiangyang Xu, Jinlin Zhang
Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900928/cardiovascular-and-hemostatic-disorders-soce-and-ca-2-handling-in-platelet-dysfunction
#16
Jose J Lopez, Gines M Salido, Juan A Rosado
Among the Ca(2+) entry mechanisms in platelets, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) plays a prominent role as it is necessary to achieve full activation of platelet functions and replenish intracellular Ca(2+) stores. In platelets, as in other non-excitable cells, SOCE has been reported to involve the activation of plasma membrane channels by the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1. Despite electrophysiological studies are not possible in human platelets, indirect analyses have revealed that the Ca(2+)-permeable channels involve Orai1 and, most likely, TRPC1 subunits...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900572/return-to-running-following-a-knee-disarticulation-amputation-a-case-report
#17
Angela R Diebal-Lee, Robert S Kuenzi, Christopher A Rábago
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The evolution of running-specific prostheses has empowered athletes with lower extremity amputations to run farther and faster than previously thought possible; but running with proper mechanics is still paramount to an injury-free, active lifestyle. The purpose of this case report was to describe the successful alteration of intact limb mechanics from a Rearfoot Striking (RFS) to a Non-Rearfoot Striking (NRFS) pattern in an individual with a knee disarticulation amputation, the associated reduction in Average Vertical Loading Rate (AVLR), and the improvement in functional performance following the intervention...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900185/anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibodies-restore-memory-acquisition-in-a-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Alfonso Martin-Peña, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder triggered by the accumulation of soluble assemblies of the amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide. Despite remarkable advances in understanding the pathogenesis of AD, the development of palliative therapies is still lacking. Engineered anti-Aβ42 antibodies are a promising strategy to stall the progression of the disease. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies increase brain penetration and offer flexible options for delivery while maintaining the epitope targeting of full antibodies...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900125/mergeable-nervous-systems-for-robots
#19
Nithin Mathews, Anders Lyhne Christensen, Rehan O'Grady, Francesco Mondada, Marco Dorigo
Robots have the potential to display a higher degree of lifetime morphological adaptation than natural organisms. By adopting a modular approach, robots with different capabilities, shapes, and sizes could, in theory, construct and reconfigure themselves as required. However, current modular robots have only been able to display a limited range of hardwired behaviors because they rely solely on distributed control. Here, we present robots whose bodies and control systems can merge to form entirely new robots that retain full sensorimotor control...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899825/long-term-performance-and-user-satisfaction-with-implanted-neuroprostheses-for-upright-mobility-after-paraplegia-two-to-14-year-follow-up
#20
Ronald J Triolo, Stephanie Nogan Bailey, Kevin M Foglyano, Rudi Kobetic, Lisa M Lombardo, Michael E Miller, Gilles Pinault
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the long-term (LT) (>2 years) effects of lower extremity (LE) neuroprostheses (NPs) for standing, transfers, stepping and seated stability after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Single-subject design case series with participants acting as their own concurrent controls, including retrospective data review. SETTING: Hospital-based clinical biomechanics laboratory with experienced (>20 years in the field) research biomedical engineers, physical therapist and medical monitoring review...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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