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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909569/economic-burden-of-stroke-a-systematic-review-on-post-stroke-care
#1
S Rajsic, H Gothe, H H Borba, G Sroczynski, J Vujicic, T Toell, Uwe Siebert
OBJECTIVES: Stroke is a leading cause for disability and morbidity associated with increased economic burden due to treatment and post-stroke care (PSC). The aim of our study is to provide information on resource consumption for PSC, to identify relevant cost drivers, and to discuss potential information gaps. METHODS: A systematic literature review on economic studies reporting PSC-associated data was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus/Elsevier and Cochrane databases, Google Scholar and gray literature ranging from January 2000 to August 2016...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909437/clarification-of-governance-relevant-to-the-sustainable-management-of-marine-species-and-habitats-within-the-united-kingdom-an-overview-of-regional-national-and-international-authorities-advisories-legislation-and-designation-types-with-summary-schematic-tool
#2
C L Mackenzie, J Vad, R MacPherson
Marine management developments are occurring across the United Kingdom with the major aim to ensure economic growth and security of marine resources via the provision of legislative guidelines for sustainable management of activities within the marine environment. Many of these directives also provide guidance for maintaining ecologically valuable and/or endangered species and habitats that exist alongside, and may also support, marine activities/use. Marine governance is largely guided by several key directives laid out and implemented by governing authorities of Europe, the United Kingdom and those countries comprising the United Kingdom, and in line with several international conventions...
June 17, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909354/screening-emergency-department-patients-for-opioid-drug-use-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Preet Kaur Sahota, Siri Shastry, Dana B Mukamel, Linda Murphy, Narisu Yang, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy
INTRODUCTION: The opioid drug epidemic is a major public health concern and an economic burden in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the reliability and validity of screening instruments used in emergency medicine settings to detect opioid use in patients and to assess psychometric data for each screening instrument. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and ClinicalTrials...
May 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909335/selecting-sustainable-alternatives-for-cruise-ships-in-venice-using-multi-criteria-decision-analysis
#4
Marco Pesce, Stefano Terzi, Raid Issa Mahmoud Al-Jawasreh, Claudia Bommarito, Loris Calgaro, Stefano Fogarin, Elisabetta Russo, Antonio Marcomini, Igor Linkov
The rapid growth of cruise ship tourism increases the use of historic port cities as strategic hubs for cruise ship operators. Benefits derived from increased tourism for the municipality and cruise ships are often at odds with the environmental and social impacts associated with continued historical port use. This study illustrates the use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) for weighing of various criteria and metrics related to the environment, economy, and social sustainability for the selection of a sustainable cruise line route...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909334/robotic-bees-for-crop-pollination-why-drones-cannot-replace-biodiversity
#5
Simon G Potts, Peter Neumann, Bernard Vaissière, Nicolas J Vereecken
The notion that robotic crop pollination will solve the decline in pollinators has gained wide popularity recently (Fig. 1), and in March 2018 Walmart filed a patent for autonomous robot bees. However, w present six arguments showing that this is a technically and economically inviable 'solution' at present and poses substantial ecological and moral risks: (1) despite recent advances, robotic pollination is far from being able to replace bees to pollinate crops efficiently; (2) using robots is very unlikely to be economically viable; (3) there would be unacceptably high environmental costs; (4) wider ecosystems would be damaged; (5) it would erode the values of biodiversity; and, (6) relying on robotic pollination could actually lead to major food insecurity...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909310/comparison-of-pm-2-5-chemical-composition-and-sources-at-a-rural-background-site-in-central-europe-between-1993-1994-1995-and-2009-2010-effect-of-legislative-regulations-and-economic-transformation-on-the-air-quality
#6
Petra Pokorná, Jaroslav Schwarz, Radovan Krejci, Erik Swietlicki, Vladimír Havránek, Vladimír Ždímal
From December 1993 to January 1995 and from October 2009 to October 2010, a total of 320 and 365 daily samples of the PM2.5 were collected at a rural background site (National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice) in Central Europe. The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for 29 and 26 elements respectively by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and water-soluble inorganic ions by Ion Chromatography (IC) in 2009/2010. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to the chemical composition of PM2.5 to determine its sources...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909200/epigenetic-control-of-variation-and-stochasticity-in-metabolic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Ilaria Panzeri, John Andrew Pospisilik
BACKGROUND: The alarming rise of obesity and its associated comorbidities represents a medical burden and a major global health and economic issue. Understanding etiological mechanisms underpinning susceptibility and therapeutic response is of primary importance. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic diseases are complex trait disorders with only partial genetic heritability, indicating important roles for environmental programing and epigenetic effects. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: We will highlight some of the reasons for the scarce predictability of metabolic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909166/nanoparticle-plant-interaction-implications-in-energy-environment-and-agriculture
#8
REVIEW
Prabhat Kumar Rai, Vanish Kumar, SangSoo Lee, Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Sik Ok, Daniel C W Tsang
In the recent techno-scientific revolution, nanotechnology has gained popularity at a rapid pace in different sectors and disciplines, specifically environmental, sensing, bioenergy, and agricultural systems. Controlled, easy, economical, and safe synthesis of nanomaterials is desired for the development of new-age nanotechnology. In general, nanomaterial synthesis techniques, such as chemical synthesis, are not completely safe or environmentally friendly due to harmful chemicals used or to toxic by-products produced...
June 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909097/physiological-responses-of-suaeda-glauca-and-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metals
#9
Xu Zhang, Min Li, Huanhuan Yang, Xinxin Li, Zhaojie Cui
The over discharge of mine tailing cause consequent heavy metal pollution. Phytoremediation as one of the most viable and efficient method for this problem has aroused much attention. In this research, the growth and physiological responses of Suaeda glauca and Arabidopsis thaliana plants were investigated, and the soil conditions (pH and enzyme activity) were evaluated further under varied levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn). The results showed that heavy metals could inhibit the growth of plants...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909060/quantification-of-bone-microstructure-in-the-wrist-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#10
Karen Mys, Filip Stockmans, Evie Vereecke, G Harry van Lenthe
Due to the rising life expectancy, bone diseases (e.g. osteoporosis, osteoarthritis) and trauma (e.g. fracture) have become an important socio-economic burden. Accurate visualization and quantification of the bone microstructure in vivo is seen as an important step to enhance diagnosis and treatment. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) has become the gold standard in three-dimensional (3D) imaging of trabecular bone structure. Yet, usage is limited to ex vivo analyses, hence, it cannot be used to evaluate bone and bone adaptive responses in a patient...
June 14, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909037/biosynthesis-molecular-modeling-and-statistical-optimization-of-xylanase-from-a-mangrove-associated-actinobacterium-streptomyces-variabilis-mab3-using-box-behnken-design-with-its-bioconversion-efficacy
#11
Muthusamy Sanjivkumar, Tamilselvan Silambarasan, Ramasamy Balagurunathan, Grasian Immanuel
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the biosynthesis, molecular modeling and statistical optimization of xylanase production through Box-Behnken design by a mangrove associated actinobacterium Streptomyces variabilis (MAB3). Initially, the production of xylanase by the selected strain was carried through submerged fermentation using birchwood xylan as substrate. Further the xylanase production was statistically optimized through Box-Behnken design. It showed 5.30 fold increase of xylanase production by the isolate compared to 'one factor at a time approach' in the presence of the basal medium containing birchwood xylan (2...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908730/arctic-source-for-elevated-atmospheric-mercury-hg-0-in-the-western-bering-sea-in-the-summer-of-2013
#12
V V Kalinchuk, V F Mishukov, A S Astakhov
Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 ) in the marine boundary layer of the western Bering Sea were performed using an automatic mercury analyzer RA 915+ (Ltd. "Lumex", St. Petersburg, Russia) aboard the Russian research vessel Academician M.A. Lavrentev from 3 to 20 August 2013. Hg0 concentrations varied from 0.3 to 2.1ng/m3 (n=4783); the average value (1.1±0.3ng/m3 ) was lower than both the background range of the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7ng/m3 ) and average values previously observed in the Bering Sea, and corresponded to the background concentrations of the Southern Hemisphere (1...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908397/estimating-global-ecosystem-service-values-and-its-response-to-land-surface-dynamics-during-1995-2015
#13
Srikanta Sannigrahi, Sandeep Bhatt, Shahid Rahmat, Saikat Kumar Paul, Somnath Sen
Changes in land use due to the industrial revolution, increasing population, ever-increasing desire for economic growth is a global concern. The aforementioned changes can have a significant impact on global and regional ecosystem services which are indispensable for human well-being and their subsistence. This study identifies several approaches (Costanza et al., de Groot et al., and Xie et al.) to estimate the value of global terrestrial ecosystem services. High resolution (300 m) land use products provided by European Space Agency-Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) were used to quantify the global ecosystem service values (ESV) for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 respectively...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908336/positive-reinforcement-targeting-abstinence-in-substance-misuse-praise-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-rct-process-evaluation-of-contingency-management
#14
N Metrebian, T Weaver, S Pilling, J Hellier, S Byford, J Shearer, L Mitcheson, M Astbury, P Bijral, N Bogdan, O Bowden-Jones, E Day, J Dunn, E Finch, S Forshall, A Glasper, G Morse, S Akhtar, J Bajaria, C Bennett, E Bishop, V Charles, C Davey, R Desai, C Goodfellow, F Haque, N Little, H McKechnie, J Morris, F Mosler, J Mutz, R Pauli, D Poovendran, E Slater, J Strang
There are approximately 256,000 heroin and other opiate users in England of whom 155,000 are in treatment for heroin (or opiate) addiction. The majority of people in treatment receive opiate substitution treatment (OST) (methadone and buprenorphine). However, OST suffers from high attrition and persistent heroin use even whilst in treatment. Contingency management (CM) is a psychological intervention based on the principles of operant conditioning. It is delivered as an adjunct to existing evidence based treatments to amplify patient benefit and involves the systematic application of positive reinforcement (financial or material incentives) to promote behaviours consistent with treatment goals...
June 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908323/novel-myxobolus-and-ellipsomyxa-species-cnidaria-myxozoa-parasiting-brachyplatystoma-rousseauxii-siluriformes-pimelodidae-in-the-amazon-basin-brazil
#15
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Antônio A M Maia, Lincoln L Corrêa, Jerri L Bartholomew, Edson A Adriano
We describe two novel myxosporean parasites from Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, an economically important freshwater catfish from the Amazon basin, Brazil. Myxobolus tapajosi n. sp., was found in the gill filaments of 23.5% of 17 fish, with myxospores round to oval in frontal view and biconvex in lateral view: length 15 (13.5-17) μm and width 10.7 (9.6-11.4) μm; polar capsules equal, length 5.8 (4.6-7.1) μm and width 3 (2.3-3.8) μm containing polar tubules with 6-7 turns. Ellipsomyxa amazonensis n. sp. myxospores were found floating freely or inside plasmodia in the gall bladder of 23...
June 13, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908311/longitudinal-study-of-neonatal-brain-tissue-volumes-in-preterm-infants-and-their-ability-to-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#16
REVIEW
L Gui, S Loukas, F Lazeyras, P S Hüppi, D E Meskaldji, C Borradori Tolsa
Premature birth has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the relation between such outcomes and brain growth in the neonatal period has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigates longitudinal brain development between birth and term-equivalent age (TEA) by quantitative imaging in a cohort of premature infants born between 26 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA), to provide insight into the relation of brain growth with later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 84 prematurely born infants acquired shortly after birth and TEA were automatically segmented into cortical gray matter (CGM), unmyelinated white matter (UWM), subcortical gray matter (SGM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908308/efficacy-of-whole-cell-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-mice-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Mona Mohammadzadeh, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Abbas Keshtkar, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly reduced the rate of invasive pneumococcal diseases through the use of vaccine serotypes, infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major public health hazard. Serotype-independent vaccines that are economically viable species of common protein antigens such as whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) are needed. Considering the ongoing debate about the effectiveness of WCVs, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine the efficacy of WCVs against colonization in mice...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908169/a-modified-pcr-rflp-method-to-determine-genetic-diversity-of-giardia-lamblia-human-isolates-based-on-triosephosphate-isomerase-tpi-gene
#18
Ferial Rahimian, Javid Sadraei, Majid Pirestani, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar
An infection of digestive system, Giardiasis, caused by tiny parasites called Giardia lamblia (also known Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis). Giardia sp. is the most common intestinal parasite of humans and other animals throughout the world. Isolates of G. lamblia are classified into eight assemblages based on isoenzyme and DNA analyses. Assemblages A and B infect humans and a broad range of other hosts. The purpose of this study was to genotype human isolates of G. lamblia by PCR-RFLP in Karaj city...
June 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907845/ethnic-disparities-in-childhood-bmi-trajectories-and-obesity-and-potential-causes-among-29-250-us-children-findings-from-the-early-childhood-longitudinal-study-birth-and-kindergarten-cohorts
#19
Jungwon Min, Xiaozhong Wen, Hong Xue, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Study sex- and ethnic-specific childhood BMI growth trajectories of US children, and explore the potential causes of ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories, including household socio-economic status (SES) and parenting practice using nationally representative longitudinal data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: BMI trajectory curves between 7 months to 16 years of age were fitted using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions using pooled 10-year (1998-2008) longitudinal data collected from 29,254 children from two US nationally representative cohorts-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B, 2001) and Kindergarten (ECLS-K, 1998-99)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907743/when-optimization-for-governing-human-environment-tipping-elements-is-neither-sustainable-nor-safe
#20
Wolfram Barfuss, Jonathan F Donges, Steven J Lade, Jürgen Kurths
Optimizing economic welfare in environmental governance has been criticized for delivering short-term gains at the expense of long-term environmental degradation. Different from economic optimization, the concepts of sustainability and the more recent safe operating space have been used to derive policies in environmental governance. However, a formal comparison between these three policy paradigms is still missing, leaving policy makers uncertain which paradigm to apply. Here, we develop a better understanding of their interrelationships, using a stylized model of human-environment tipping elements...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
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