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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#1
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882504/media-portrayal-of-a-landmark-neuroscience-experiment-on-free-will
#2
Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle, Veljko Dubljevic
The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet's et al.'s (Brain 106(Pt 3):623-642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted as posing a serious challenge to the existence of free will...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875379/the-decision-neuroscience-perspective-on-suicidal-behavior-evidence-and-hypotheses
#3
Alexandre Y Dombrovski, Michael N Hallquist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870413/complementarity-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavior-from-laterality-to-multimodal-neuroimaging
#4
REVIEW
Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
Although, overwhelmingly, behavior is similar in males and females, and, correspondingly, the brains are similar, sex differences permeate both brain and behavioral measures, and these differences have been the focus of increasing scrutiny by neuroscientists. This Review describes milestones from more than 3 decades of research in brain and behavior. This research was necessarily bound by available methodology, and we began with indirect behavioral indicators of brain function such as handedness. We proceeded to the use of neuropsychological batteries and then to structural and functional neuroimaging that provided the foundations of a cognitive neuroscience-based computerized neurocognitive battery...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867833/audience-effects-what-can-they-tell-us-about-social-neuroscience-theory-of-mind-and-autism
#5
REVIEW
Antonia F de C Hamilton, Frida Lind
An audience effect arises when a person's behaviour changes because they believe someone else is watching them. Though these effects have been known about for over 110 years, the cognitive mechanisms of the audience effect and how it might vary across different populations and cultures remains unclear. In this review, we examine the hypothesis that the audience effect draws on implicit mentalising abilities. Behavioural and neuroimaging data from a number of tasks are consistent with this hypothesis. We further review data suggest that how people respond to audiences may vary over development, personality factors, cultural background and clinical diagnosis including autism and anxiety disorder...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867832/a-neuroimaging-point-of-view-on-the-diversity-of-social-cognition-evidence-for-extended-influence-of-experience-and-emotion-related-factors-on-face-processing
#6
REVIEW
Nathalie George
Faces are key social stimuli that convey a wealth of information essential for person perception and adaptive interpersonal behaviour. Studies in the domain of cognitive, affective, and social neuroscience have put in light that the processing of faces recruits specific visual regions and activates a distributed set of brain regions related to attentional, emotional, social, and memory processes associated with the perception of faces and the extraction of the numerous information attached to them. Studies using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have allowed localizing these brain regions and characterizing their functional properties...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#7
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865787/the-emerging-social-neuroscience-of-justice-motivation
#8
REVIEW
Jean Decety, Keith J Yoder
Humans from a very early age are deeply sensitive to issues of justice and fairness, both in their own lives and in the lives of others. Most people are highly motivated to pursue justice and condemn injustice. Where does this concern for justice come from? Here we integrate findings in evolution, development, psychology, behavioral economics, and social neuroscience to highlight multiple potential drivers of justice motivation. We argue that justice motivation arises from complementary rapid heuristics and deliberation, each utilizing distinct and interacting neural circuitry...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852344/neuroscience-fiction-as-eidol%C3%A3-social-reflection-and-neuroethical-obligations-in-depictions-of-neuroscience-in-film
#9
Rachel Wurzman, David Yaden, James Giordano
Neuroscience and neurotechnology are increasingly being employed to assess and alter cognition, emotions, and behaviors, and the knowledge and implications of neuroscience have the potential to radically affect, if not redefine, notions of what constitutes humanity, the human condition, and the "self." Such capability renders neuroscience a compelling theme that is becoming ubiquitous in literary and cinematic fiction. Such neuro-SciFi (or "NeuroS/F") may be seen as eidolá: a created likeness that can either accurately-or superficially, in a limited way-represent that which it depicts...
November 17, 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820680/a-developmental-social-neuroscience-model-for-understanding-loneliness-in-adolescence
#10
Nichol M L Wong, Patcy Yeung, Tatia M C Lee
Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world...
November 7, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815576/the-ideomotor-recycling-theory-for-tool-use-language-and-foresight
#11
REVIEW
Arnaud Badets, François Osiurak
The present theoretical framework highlights a common action-perception mechanism for tool use, spoken language, and foresight capacity. On the one hand, it has been suggested that human language and the capacity to envision the future (i.e. foresight) have, from an evolutionary viewpoint, developed mutually along with the pressure of tool use. This co-evolution has afforded humans an evident survival advantage in the animal kingdom because language can help to refine the representation of future scenarios, which in turn can help to encourage or discourage engagement in appropriate and efficient behaviours...
November 4, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810009/neurotechnology-and-society-strengthening-responsible-innovation-in-brain-science
#12
Hermann Garden, Diana M Bowman, Sebastian Haesler, David E Winickoff
Technological advances have the potential to dramatically increase our understanding of the human brain, treat and cure injury and disease, and enhance our general well-being. While advances in neuroscience hold great promise, they also raise profound ethical, legal, and social questions. In this vein, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) convened an international workshop in September 2016 to explore responsible research and innovation in brain science.
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806413/-psychiatry-between-neurosciences-and-social-sciences
#13
E Kumbier, R Wandschneider, J Thome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799080/the-role-of-orgasm-in-the-development-and-shaping-of-partner-preferences
#14
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias, Nafissa Ismail, James G Pfaus
BACKGROUND: The effect of orgasm on the development and shaping of partner preferences may involve a catalysis of the neurochemical mechanisms of bonding. Therefore, understanding such process is relevant for neuroscience and psychology. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out using the terms Orgasm, Sexual Reward, Partner Preference, Pair Bonding, Brain, Learning, Sex, Copulation. RESULTS: In humans, concentrations of arousing neurotransmitters and potential bonding neurotransmitters increase during orgasm in the cerebrospinal fluid and the bloodstream...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798251/when-appearance-does-not-match-accent-neural-correlates-of-ethnicity-related-expectancy-violations
#15
Karolina Hansen, Melanie C Steffens, Tamara Rakić, Holger Wiese
Most research on ethnicity in neuroscience and social psychology has focused on visual cues. However, accents are central social markers of ethnicity and strongly influence evaluations of others. Here, we examine how varying auditory (vocal accent) and visual (facial appearance) information about others affects neural correlates of ethnicity-related expectancy violations. Participants listened to standard German and Turkish-accented speakers and were subsequently presented with faces whose ethnic appearance was either congruent or incongruent to these voices...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795619/conceptualizing-social-attention-in-developmental-research
#16
Brenda Salley, John Colombo
The term social attention has become widely used during the last decade, appearing within behavioral neuroscience and developmental neurocognitive literatures to characterize a variety of activities and cognitive processes that emerge in the presence of conspecifics. We provide here an overview of the current status of social attention as a construct, as reflected in its appearance in research studies, and we offer a framework for characterizing the extant literature based on the functions of social attention processes: as behavior for social communication, as motivation to engage in social communication, and as a form of basic visual attention in the context of other social agents...
November 2016: Social Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791054/human-amygdala-engagement-moderated-by-early-life-stress-exposure-is-a-biobehavioral-target-for-predicting-recovery-on-antidepressants
#17
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Erin Green, Trisha Suppes, Alan F Schatzberg, Trevor Hastie, Charles B Nemeroff, Leanne M Williams
Amygdala circuitry and early life stress (ELS) are both strongly and independently implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Importantly, animal models have revealed that the contribution of ELS to the development and maintenance of depression is likely a consequence of structural and physiological changes in amygdala circuitry in response to stress hormones. Despite these mechanistic foundations, amygdala engagement and ELS have not been investigated as biobehavioral targets for predicting functional remission in translational human studies of depression...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778344/research-review-neural-response-to-threat-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-after-child-maltreatment-a-quantitative-meta-analysis
#18
Tyler C Hein, Christopher S Monk
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is common and has long-term consequences for affective function. Investigations of neural consequences of maltreatment have focused on the amygdala. However, developmental neuroscience indicates that other brain regions are also likely to be affected by child maltreatment, particularly in the social information processing network (SIPN). We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to: confirm that maltreatment is related to greater bilateral amygdala activation in a large sample that was pooled across studies; investigate other SIPN structures that are likely candidates for altered function; and conduct a data-driven examination to identify additional regions that show altered activation in maltreated children, teens, and adults...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774079/music-ensemble-as-a-resilient-system-managing-the-unexpected-through-group-interaction
#19
Donald Glowinski, Fabrizio Bracco, Carlo Chiorri, Didier Grandjean
The present contribution provides readers from diverse fields of psychology with a new and comprehensive model for the understanding of the characteristics of music ensembles. The model is based on a novel heuristic approach whose key construct is resilience, intended here as the ability of a system to adapt to external perturbations and anticipate future events. The paper clarifies the specificity of music ensemble as an original social and creative activity, and how some mechanisms, at an individual (cognitive) and group (coordination) level, are enacted in a particular way that endows these groups with exceptional capacity for resilience...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769726/issues-or-identity-cognitive-foundations-of-voter-choice
#20
Libby Jenke, Scott A Huettel
Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such models explain macroscopic features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that policy positions and social identities do not combine in merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter preferences...
November 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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