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social neuroscience

Tyler C Hein, Christopher S Monk
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is common and has long-term consequences for affective function. Investigations of neural consequences of maltreatment have focused on the amygdala. However, developmental neuroscience indicates that other brain regions are also likely to be affected by child maltreatment, particularly in the social information processing network (SIPN). We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to: confirm that maltreatment is related to greater bilateral amygdala activation in a large sample that was pooled across studies; investigate other SIPN structures that are likely candidates for altered function; and conduct a data-driven examination to identify additional regions that show altered activation in maltreated children, teens, and adults...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Donald Glowinski, Fabrizio Bracco, Carlo Chiorri, Didier Grandjean
The present contribution provides readers from diverse fields of psychology with a new and comprehensive model for the understanding of the characteristics of music ensembles. The model is based on a novel heuristic approach whose key construct is resilience, intended here as the ability of a system to adapt to external perturbations and anticipate future events. The paper clarifies the specificity of music ensemble as an original social and creative activity, and how some mechanisms, at an individual (cognitive) and group (coordination) level, are enacted in a particular way that endows these groups with exceptional capacity for resilience...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Libby Jenke, Scott A Huettel
Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such models explain macroscopic features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that policy positions and social identities do not combine in merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter preferences...
September 26, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioural or affective changes in men remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and warrants a careful appraisal of its two sides, namely the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude free-hand operations into a multi-disciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Monica E Ellwood-Lowe, Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Brandon S Coventry, Aravindakshan Parthasarathy, Alexandra L Sommer, Edward L Bartlett
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained widespread use as a general mathematical programming paradigm and seen use in a wide variety of optimization and machine learning problems. In this work, we introduce a new variant on the PSO social network and apply this method to the inverse problem of input parameter selection from recorded auditory neuron tuning curves. The topology of a PSO social network is a major contributor to optimization success. Here we propose a new social network which draws influence from winner-take-all coding found in visual cortical neurons...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Carson, L Ludwig, K Welch
In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Nicola Schiel, Antonio Souto
Callithrix jacchus are small-bodied Neotropical primates popularly known as common marmosets. They are endemic to Northeast Brazil and occur in contrasting environments such as the humid Atlantic Forest and the dry scrub forest of the Caatinga. Common marmosets live in social groups, usually containing only one breeding pair. These primates have a parental care system in which individuals help by providing assistance to the infants even when they are not related to them. Free-ranging groups use relatively small home ranges (0...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Matthias J Wieser, Vladimir Miskovic, Andreas Keil
Like many other primates, humans place a high premium on social information transmission and processing. One important aspect of this information concerns the emotional state of other individuals, conveyed by distinct visual cues such as facial expressions, overt actions, or by cues extracted from the situational context. A rich body of theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that these socioemotional cues are processed by the human visual system in a prioritized fashion, in the service of optimizing social behavior...
October 4, 2016: Psychophysiology
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Marina A Pavlova
As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ana Guinote
Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self ), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Diana Martinez, Michael G Metzen, Maurice J Chacron
Understanding how the brain processes sensory input to generate behavior remains an important problem in neuroscience. Towards this end, it is useful to compare results obtained across multiple species to gain understanding as to the general principles of neural coding. Here we investigated hindbrain pyramidal cell activity in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus albifrons. We found strong heterogeneities when looking at baseline activity. Additionally, ON and OFF-type cells responded to increases and decreases of sinusoidal and noise stimuli, respectively...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kyoko Yoshida, Yasuhiro Go, Itaru Kushima, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Hiroo Imai, Nobuhito Saito, Atsushi Iriki, Norio Ozaki, Masaki Isoda
Atypical neurodevelopment in autism spectrum disorder is a mystery, defying explanation despite increasing attention. We report on a Japanese macaque that spontaneously exhibited autistic traits, namely, impaired social ability as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors, along with our single-neuron and genomic analyses. Its social ability was measured in a turn-taking task, where two monkeys monitor each other's actions for adaptive behavioral planning. In its brain, the medial frontal neurons responding to others' actions, abundant in the controls, were almost nonexistent...
September 2016: Science Advances
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