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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157845/face-perception-in-social-anxiety-visuocortical-dynamics-reveal-propensities-for-hypervigilance-or-avoidance
#1
Lisa M McTeague, Marie-Claude Laplante, Hailey W Bulls, Joshua R Shumen, Peter J Lang, Andreas Keil
BACKGROUND: Theories of aberrant attentional processing in social anxiety, and anxiety disorders more broadly, have postulated an initial hypervigilance or facilitation to clinically relevant threats and consequent defensive avoidance. However, existing objective measurements utilized to explore this phenomenon lack the resolution to elucidate attentional dynamics, particularly covert influences. METHODS: We utilized a continuous measure of visuocortical engagement, the steady-state visual evoked potential in response to naturalistic angry, fearful, happy, and neutral facial expressions...
October 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152894/toward-a-comprehensive-theoretical-model-of-compassion-fatigue-an-integrative-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Siedine K Coetzee, Heather K S Laschinger
This study was an integrative literature review in relation to compassion fatigue models, appraising these models, and developing a comprehensive theoretical model of compassion fatigue. A systematic search on PubMed, EbscoHost (Academic Search Premier, E-Journals, Medline, PsycINFO, Health Source Nursing/Academic Edition, CINAHL, MasterFILE Premier and Health Source Consumer Edition), gray literature, and manual searches of included reference lists was conducted in 2016. The studies (n = 11) were analyzed, and the strengths and limitations of the compassion fatigue models identified...
November 20, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145416/two-is-better-than-one-the-effects-of-strategic-cooperation-on-intra-and-inter-brain-connectivity-by-fnirs
#3
Michela Balconi, Laurent Pezard, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#4
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125408/improving-stroke-transitions-development-and-implementation-of-a-social-work-case-management-intervention
#5
Anne K Hughes, Amanda T Woodward, Michele C Fritz, Mathew J Reeves
Strokes impact over 800,000 people every year. Stroke care typically begins with inpatient care and then continues across an array of healthcare settings. These transitions are difficult for patients and caregivers, with psychosocial needs going unmet. Our team developed a case management intervention for acute stroke patients and their caregivers aimed at improving stroke transitions. The intervention focusses on four aspects of a successful care transition: support, preparedness, identifying and addressing unmet needs, and stroke education...
November 10, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#6
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122031/contempt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-where-the-modularity-of-the-mind-meets-the-modularity-of-the-brain
#7
Danilo Bzdok, Leonhard Schilbach
"Contempt" is proposed to be a unique aspect of human nature, yet a non-natural kind. Its psychological construct is framed as a sentiment emerging from a stratification of diverse basic emotions and dispositional attitudes. Accordingly, "contempt" might transcend traditional conceptual levels in social psychology, including experience and recognition of emotion, dyadic and group dynamics, context-conditioned attitudes, time-enduring personality structure, and morality. This strikes us as a modern psychological account of a high-level, social-affective cognitive facet that joins forces with recent developments in the social neuroscience by drawing psychological conclusions from brain biology...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118128/a-valence-free-definition-of-sociality-as-any-violation-of-inter-individual-independence
#8
Peggy Mason, Haozhe Shan
Well over 90% of studies in biomedical sciences are performed on single animals. While knowledge of the genetics, development and physiology of single individuals accrues, an understanding of the biological mechanisms by which individuals interact has barely budged. Yet many of society's greatest problems derive from an inability of humans to get along with each other. Studies in social neuroscience are primarily observational and rarely employ subjects who physically interact. Thus, social interaction represents a largely unexplored frontier of biology...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111859/effect-of-physical-therapy-management-of-nonspecific-low-back-pain-with-exercise-addiction-behaviors-a-case-series
#9
Sudarshan Anandkumar, Murugavel Manivasagam, Vivian Tie Suk Kee, Uta Meyding-Lamade
This case series describes two patients, aged 35 and 45 years, respectively, who presented with chronic nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) having exercise addiction (EA) behaviors. Diagnosis of EA was based on clinical findings, exercising patterns and withdrawal symptoms along with high scores in the EA inventory. This report is a potential first-time description of the successful physical therapy management of NSLBP associated with EA utilizing pain neuroscience education (with individualized curriculum), mindfulness, breathing, quota-based reduction in exercises and modification of exercises into social participation, pleasure activities and hobbies...
November 7, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110570/so-pretty-the-neural-correlates-of-self-other-vs-familiar-other-attractiveness-comparisons
#11
Gayannée Kedia, Thomas Mussweiler, Ruth Adam, Anja Ischebeck, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
Previous research has demonstrated that comparing two persons activates a frontoparietal network associated with numbers and nonsocial magnitudes. However, it is unclear whether this network is also recruited by comparisons involving the self. Self-reflection engages self-serving motivations (e.g. the maintenance of a positive self-image) and is associated with specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), the anterior insula (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Self-other comparisons may thus rely on distinct neural activity...
November 7, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093934/music-therapy-for-mental-disorder-and-mental-health-the-untapped-potential-of-indian-classical-music
#12
Shantala Hegde
Music is a universal human trait. The healing power of music has been acknowledged in almost all traditions of music. Music therapy is moving from a social-science model focusing on overall health and well-being towards a neuroscience model focusing on specific elements of music and its effect on sensorimotor, language and cognitive functions. The handful of evidence-based music therapy studies on psychiatric conditions have shown promising results. Traditional music, such as Indian classical music, has only recently been evaluated in evidence-based research into music therapy...
May 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#13
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080419/the-neuroscience-of-social-class
#14
REVIEW
Michael Ew Varnum, Shinobu Kitayama
Most evidence regarding the mental characteristics of people with different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds is based on behavioral, implicit, or self-report measures. Recently, however, this literature has been significantly expanded by the application of innovative neuroscience methods to the study of social class (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram). In this paper, we provide an overview of the neuroscience of SES, with a focus on three key sets of findings. First, lower SES is linked to greater attunement to others...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#15
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071534/effect-of-scopolamine-on-mice-motor-activity-lick-behavior-and-reversal-learning-in-the-intellicage
#16
Péter Pelsőczi, György Lévay
Automated homecage monitoring systems are now widely recognized and used tools in cognitive neuroscience. However, few of these studies cover pharmacological interventions. Scopolamine, an anticholinergic memory disrupting agent is frequently used to study learning behavior. We studied the impact of scopolamine treatment in a relevant dose-range on activity, drinking behavior and reversal learning of C57BL/DJ mice in a homecage-like, social environment, using the IntelliCage. Naïve mice were first habituated to the IntelliCage, where they learned to nosepoke in any of the four corners in order to gain access to the water reward...
December 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057199/neural-correlates-of-social-influence-among-cannabis-users
#17
Jodi M Gilman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although peer influence is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of peer influence among cannabis users. The current review summarizes research on the neuroscience of social influence in cannabis users, with the goal of highlighting gaps in the literature and the need for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain regions underlying peer influence may function differently in cannabis users...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#18
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046651/robots-as-intentional-agents-using-neuroscientific-methods-to-make-robots-appear-more-social
#19
REVIEW
Eva Wiese, Giorgio Metta, Agnieszka Wykowska
Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040743/anger-sensitive-networks-characterising-neural-systems-recruited-during-aggressive-social-interactions-using-data-driven-analysis
#20
Frederike Beyer, Ulrike M Krämer, Christian F Beckmann
Social neuroscience uses increasingly complex paradigms to improve ecological validity, as investigating aggressive interactions with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Krämer, Jansma, Tempelmann, & Münte, 2007). Standard analyses for fMRI data typically use general linear models (GLM), which require a priori models of task effects on neural processes. These may inadequately model non-stimulus-locked or temporally overlapping cognitive processes, as mentalizing about other agents.We used the data-driven approach of independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate neural processes involved in a competitive interaction...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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