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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#1
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#2
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420150/virtual-reality-for-research-in-social-neuroscience
#3
Thomas D Parsons, Andrea Gaggioli, Giuseppe Riva
The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time...
April 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406379/the-neural-basis-of-independence-versus-interdependence-orientations-a-voxel-based-morphometric-analysis-of-brain-volume
#5
Fei Wang, Kaiping Peng, Magdalena Chechlacz, Glyn W Humphreys, Jie Sui
Sociocultural research has established independence and interdependence as two fundamental ways of thinking about oneself and the social world. Recent neuroscience studies further demonstrate that these orientations modulate brain activity in various self- and socially related tasks. In the current study, we explored whether the traits of independence and interdependence are reflected in anatomical variations in brain structure. We carried out structural brain imaging on a large sample of healthy participants ( n = 265) who also completed self-report questionnaires of cultural orientations...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405964/the-neuroscience-of-people-watching-how-the-human-brain-makes-sense-of-other-people-s-encounters
#6
REVIEW
Susanne Quadflieg, Kami Koldewyn
Neuroscientific investigations interested in questions of person perception and impression formation have traditionally asked their participants to observe and evaluate isolated individuals. In recent years, however, there has been a surge of studies presenting third-party encounters between two (or more) individuals as stimuli. Owing to this subtle methodological change, the brain's capacity to understand other people's interactions and relationships from limited visual information--also known as people watching--has become a distinct topic of inquiry...
April 12, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403660/value-based-choice-an-integrative-neuroscience-informed-model-of-health-goals
#7
Elliot T Berkman
OBJECTIVE: Traditional models of health behaviour focus on the roles of cognitive, personality and social-cognitive constructs (e.g. executive function, grit, self-efficacy), and give less attention to the process by which these constructs interact in the moment that a health-relevant choice is made. Health psychology needs a process-focused account of how various factors are integrated to produce the decisions that determine health behaviour. DESIGN: I present an integrative value-based choice model of health behaviour, which characterises the mechanism by which a variety of factors come together to determine behaviour...
April 13, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400206/elucidation-of-developmental-patterns-of-marmoset-corpus-callosum-through-a-comparative-mri-in-marmosets-chimpanzees-and-humans
#8
Tomoko Sakai, Yuji Komaki, Junichi Hata, Junko Okahara, Norio Okahara, Takashi Inoue, Akichika Mikami, Mie Matsui, Kenichi Oishi, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
The corpus callosum (CC) is present in all primate brains and is the major white matter tract connecting the cerebral hemispheres for integration of sensory, motor and higher-order cognitive information. The midsagittal area of the CC has frequently been used as a sensitive biomarker of brain development. Although the marmoset has been considered as an alternative non-human primate model for neuroscience research, the developmental patterns of the CC have not been explored. The present longitudinal study of magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that marmosets show a rapid increase of CC during infancy, followed by a slow increase during the juvenile stage, as observed in chimpanzees and humans...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384621/the-affective-tie-that-binds-examining-the-contribution-of-positive-emotions-and-anxiety-to-relationship-formation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#9
Charles T Taylor, Sarah L Pearlstein, Murray B Stein
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; Mage=23...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378784/social-brains-and-divides-the-interplay-between-social-dominance-orientation-and-the-neural-sensitivity-to-hierarchical-ranks
#10
Romain Ligneul, Romuald Girard, Jean-Claude Dreher
Ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, dominance hierarchies emerge through social competition and underlie the control of resources. Confronting the disruptive influence of socioeconomic inequalities, human populations tend to split into groups who legitimize existing dominance hierarchies and groups who condemn them. Here, we hypothesized that variations in the neural sensitivity to dominance ranks partly underpins this ideological split, as measured by the social dominance orientation scale (SDO). Following a competitive task used to induce dominance representations about three opponents (superior, equal and inferior), subjects were passively presented the faces of these opponents while undergoing fMRI...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377991/animal-models-in-psychiatric-research-the-rdoc-system-as-a-new-framework-for-endophenotype-oriented-translational-neuroscience
#11
REVIEW
Elmira Anderzhanova, Thomas Kirmeier, Carsten T Wotjak
The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375770/neuromodulation-and-strategic-action-choice-in-drosophila-aggression
#12
Kenta Asahina
In this review, I discuss current knowledge and outstanding questions on the neuromodulators that influence aggressive behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. I first present evidence that Drosophila exchange information during an agonistic interaction and choose appropriate actions based on this information. I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic of neuromodulation is that it can configure a neural circuit dynamically, enabling one circuit to generate multiple outcomes...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375767/zebrafish-behavior-opportunities-and-challenges
#13
Michael B Orger, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
A great challenge in neuroscience is understanding how activity in the brain gives rise to behavior. The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model to address this challenge, thanks to the capacity, at the larval stage, for precise behavioral measurements, genetic manipulations, and recording and manipulation of neural activity noninvasively and at single-neuron resolution throughout the whole brain. These techniques are being further developed for application in freely moving animals and juvenile stages to study more complex behaviors including learning, decision making, and social interactions...
April 3, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374144/david-an-open-source-platform-for-real-time-transformation-of-infra-segmental-emotional-cues-in-running-speech
#14
Laura Rachman, Marco Liuni, Pablo Arias, Andreas Lind, Petter Johansson, Lars Hall, Daniel Richardson, Katsumi Watanabe, Stéphanie Dubal, Jean-Julien Aucouturier
We present an open-source software platform that transforms emotional cues expressed by speech signals using audio effects like pitch shifting, inflection, vibrato, and filtering. The emotional transformations can be applied to any audio file, but can also run in real time, using live input from a microphone, with less than 20-ms latency. We anticipate that this tool will be useful for the study of emotions in psychology and neuroscience, because it enables a high level of control over the acoustical and emotional content of experimental stimuli in a variety of laboratory situations, including real-time social situations...
April 3, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344853/snap-a-general-purpose-network-analysis-and-graph-mining-library
#15
Jure Leskovec, Rok Sosič
Large networks are becoming a widely used abstraction for studying complex systems in a broad set of disciplines, ranging from social network analysis to molecular biology and neuroscience. Despite an increasing need to analyze and manipulate large networks, only a limited number of tools are available for this task. Here, we describe Stanford Network Analysis Platform (SNAP), a general-purpose, high-performance system that provides easy to use, high-level operations for analysis and manipulation of large networks...
October 2016: ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344565/from-attire-to-assault-clothing-objectification-and-de-humanization-a-possible-prelude-to-sexual-violence
#16
Bhuvanesh Awasthi
In the context of objectification and violence, little attention has been paid to the perception neuroscience of how the human brain perceives bodies and objectifies them. Various studies point to how external cues such as appearance and attire could play a key role in encouraging objectification, dehumanization and the denial of agency. Reviewing new experimental findings across several areas of research, it seems that common threads run through issues of clothing, sexual objectification, body perception, dehumanization, and assault...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341151/mice-heterozygous-for-an-inactivated-allele-of-the-schizophrenia-associated-brd1-gene-display-selective-cognitive-deficits-with-translational-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#17
Per Qvist, Anto P Rajkumar, John P Redrobe, Mette Nyegaard, Jane H Christensen, Ole Mors, Gregers Wegener, Michael Didriksen, Anders D Børglum
Schizophrenia is a debilitating brain disorder characterized by disturbances of emotion, perception and cognition. Cognitive impairments predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and are detectable even in the prodromal stage of the disorder. However, our understanding of the underlying neurobiology is limited and procognitive treatments remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that mice heterozygous for an inactivated allele of the schizophrenia-associated Brd1 gene (Brd1(+/)(-) mice) display behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia, including impaired social cognition and long-term memory...
March 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#18
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334381/mirroring-the-social-aspects-of-speech-and-actions-the-role-of-the-insula
#19
G Di Cesare, M Marchi, A Errante, F Fasano, G Rizzolatti
Action and speech may take different forms, being expressed, for example, gently or rudely. These aspects of social communication, named vitality forms, have been little studied in neuroscience. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of insula in processing action and speech vitality forms. In speech runs, participants were asked to listen or imaging themselves to pronounce action verbs gently or rudely. In action runs, they were asked to observe or imaging themselves to perform actions gently or rudely...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327220/the-social-neuroscience-of-biases-in-in-and-out-group-face-processing
#20
Sylvia Terbeck
The validity and reliability of stereotypes in social perception confirms traditional early social psychological research. Already in 1954 Gordon Allport stated that stereotypes might have a "kernel of truth." Recent research in social neuroscience, however, contradicts Lee Jussims' (2012) claim that the application of stereotypes increases accuracy in person perception. Person perception is inaccurate as it is insufficient when it involves only one factor (even if that factor was a reliable predictor).
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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