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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340300/shared-mechanisms-in-the-estimation-of-self-generated-actions-and-the-prediction-of-other-s-actions-by-humans
#1
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321077/social-anxiety-disorder-looking-back-and-moving-forward
#2
Matthew P Hyett, Peter M McEvoy
Fifty years have passed since social anxiety disorder (SAD) was first differentiated from other phobias. In the years since research has largely aligned with the zeitgeist of categorical classificatory frameworks, and has spanned identifying causes, maintenance factors and innovative interventions. Despite significant advances in the field, the capacity to conceptualise SAD as an independent entity is limited given the heterogeneity and dimensionality of diagnostic criteria, high rates of comorbidity, and non-specificity of aetiological mechanisms, maintaining factors and approaches to treatment...
January 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319805/the-captive-brain-torture-and-the-neuroscience-of-humane-interrogation
#3
Shane O'Mara
Despite it being abhorrent and illegal, torture is sometimes employed for information gathering. However, the extreme stressors employed during torture force the brain away from the relatively narrow, adaptive range of function it operates within. Torture degrades signal-to-noise ratios of information yield, and increases false positive discovery rates. As a discovery methodology, torture fails basic tests of veridical, reliable, and replicable information discovery. Torture fails during interrogation because it is an assault on our core integrated, social, psychological, and neural functioning...
January 3, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319603/population-neuroscience-dementia-epidemiology-serving-precision-medicine-and-population-health
#4
Mary Ganguli, Emiliano Albanese, Sudha Seshadri, David A Bennett, Constantine Lyketsos, Walter A Kukull, Ingmar Skoog, Hugh C Hendrie
Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289027/implantable-wireless-device-platforms-for-neuroscience-research
#5
REVIEW
Philipp Gutruf, John A Rogers
Recently developed classes of ultraminiaturized wireless devices provide powerful capabilities in neuroscience research, as implantable light sources for simulation/inhibition via optogenetics, as integrated microfluidic systems for programmed pharmacological delivery and as multimodal sensors for physiological measurements. These platforms leverage basic advances in biocompatible materials, semiconductor device designs and systems engineering concepts to afford modes of operation that are qualitatively distinct from those of conventional approaches that tether animals to external hardware by means of optical fibers, electrical cables and/or fluidic tubing...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287909/ethological-approach-to-social-isolation-effects-in-behavioral-studies-of-laboratory-rodents
#6
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa
The aim of the present review is to discuss how housing conditions affect behavioral performance in laboratory rodents from an ethological view. Commonly used laboratory rodents such as rats and mice, are originally captured animals that largely retain species-typical natural behaviors, while have fully adapted to a laboratory setting after long-term domestication. Laboratory settings including caging and artificial group housing are a considerable ethological factor influencing rodents' behaviors in commonly employed behavioral test paradigms, including emotional and defensive behaviors, learning and memory, and attention-related behaviors...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287629/neural-processes-of-vocal-social-perception-dog-human-comparative-fmri-studies
#7
REVIEW
Attila Andics, Ádám Miklósi
In this review we focus on the exciting new opportunities in comparative neuroscience to study neural processes of vocal social perception by comparing dog and human neural activity using fMRI methods. The dog is a relatively new addition to this research area; however, it has a large potential to become a standard species in such investigations. Although there has been great interest in the emergence of human language abilities, in case of fMRI methods, most research to date focused on homologue comparisons within Primates...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287628/sex-differences-in-the-brain-implications-for-behavioral-and-biomedical-research
#8
REVIEW
Elena Choleris, Liisa A M Galea, Farida Sohrabji, Karyn M Frick
Biological differences between males and females are found at multiple levels. However, females have too often been under-represented in behavioral neuroscience research, which has stymied the study of potential sex differences in neurobiology and behavior. This review focuses on the study of sex differences in the neurobiology of social behavior, memory, emotions, and recovery from brain injury, with particular emphasis on the role of estrogens in regulating forebrain function. This work, presented by the authors at the 2016 meeting of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, emphasizes varying approaches from several mammalian species in which sex differences have not only been documented, but also become the focus of efforts to understand the mechanistic basis underlying them...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286877/where-the-rubber-hits-the-road-neuroscience-and-social-work
#9
J Yorke, T Bergère
Multidisciplinary scholarly dialogue can bring academics and researchers together and open up new areas of inquiry. This paper is a case study about how two scholars, one in social work and the other in science, have found common ground. It discusses their respective research projects and how 'the rubber hits the road' by exploring why the knowledge of science/neuroscience is important to non-science majors like social workers in their practice, using childhood trauma, to illustrate that. Finally, it makes recommendations regarding the inclusion of science education in social work curricula and offers some ideas for future research...
December 29, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283631/awards-for-distinguished-scientific-early-career-contributions-to-psychology
#10
(no author information available yet)
The Early Career Awards, given for the first time in 1974, recognize the large number of excellent young psychologists. Recipients of this award may not have held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. For purposes of this award, psychology has been divided into 10 areas: animal learning and behavior, comparative; developmental; health; cognition/human learning; psychopathology; behavioral and cognitive neuroscience; perception/motor performance; social; applied research; and individual differences. Five areas are considered each year, with areas rotated in two-year cycles...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275186/neuroimaging-of-person-perception-a-social-visual-interface
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Brooks, Jonathan B Freeman
The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception gives rise to systematic biases in perceptions of another's face and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274500/cortical-hemodynamic-changes-during-the-trier-social-stress-test-a-fnirs-study
#12
David Rosenbaum, Paula Hilsendegen, Mara Thomas, Florian B Haeussinger, Florian G Metzger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ann-Christine Ehlis
The study of the stress response has been of great interest in the last decades due to its relationship to physical and mental health. Along with the technological progress in the neurosciences, different methods of stress induction have been developed for the special requirements regarding the acquisition of neuroimaging data. However, these paradigms often differ from ecologically valid stress inductions such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in substantial ways. In the study at hand, we used the rather robust optical imaging method of functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess brain activation during the TSST and two non-stressful control conditions...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248932/neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-implications-for-early-intervention-a-brief-overview
#13
Kakia Petinou, Despo Minaidou
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and implications for intervention, the current paper reports on research related to the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD and the implication for early intervention with a focus on the importance of joint attention and eye gaze behaviors. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An overview is provided on the available research findings from the fields of social neuroscience and experimental psychology specific to brain development, brain pathology, eye gaze, and joint attention behaviors...
2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242768/neural-correlates-of-social-influence-on-risk-taking-and-substance-use-in-adolescents
#14
Eva H Telzer, Christina R Rogers, Jorien Van Hoorn
Purpose of Review: Adolescents often engage in elevated levels of risk taking that gives rise to substance use. Family and peers constitute the primary contextual risk factors for adolescent substance use. This report reviews how families and peers influence adolescent neurocognitive development to inform their risk taking and subsequent substance use. Recent Findings: Developmental neuroscience using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified regions of the brain involved in social cognition, cognitive control, and reward processing that are integrally linked to social influence on adolescent risk taking...
September 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236813/psychoanalysis-and-neurosciences-fuzzy-outlines-notes-on-the-notion-of-cerebral-plasticity
#15
Maria Jimena Mantilla
"Psychoanalysis versus psychiatry" and "unconscious versus brain" are classic oppositions between different perspectives on the human being and mental suffering. This article draws on certain elements of this discussion and reflects on how new ideas about the brain and biology favor closer interaction between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences. These questions are redefined through the notion of cerebral plasticity, by which the brain is open to interaction with the social environment and the influence of psychoanalytical therapy...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223771/comparative-studies-of-social-buffering-a-consideration-of-approaches-terminology-and-pitfalls
#16
REVIEW
Yasushi Kiyokawa, Michael B Hennessy
KIYOKAWA, Y. and HENNESSY, M.B. Social buffering of stress responses: A consideration of approaches, terminology, and pitfalls…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, .- Over the past decades, there has been an increasing number of investigations of the impact of social variables on neural, endocrine, and immune outcomes. Among these are studies of "social buffering"-or the phenomenon by which affiliative social partners mitigate the response to stressors. Yet, as social buffering studies have become more commonplace, the variety of approaches taken, definitions employed, and divergent results obtained in different species can lead to confusion and miscommunication...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#17
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198528/an-integrative-review-of-the-enjoyment-of-sadness-associated-with-music
#18
REVIEW
Tuomas Eerola, Jonna K Vuoskoski, Henna-Riikka Peltola, Vesa Putkinen, Katharina Schäfer
The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels of explanation - biological, psycho-social, and cultural - to compare and integrate the existing findings in a meaningful way. First, we review the evidence pertinent to experiences of pleasure associated with sad music from the fields of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and endocrinology...
November 23, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197929/transdiagnostic-symptom-clusters-and-associations-with-brain-behavior-and-daily-function-in-mood-anxiety-and-trauma-disorders
#19
Katherine A Grisanzio, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Michelle Yuyun Wang, Abdullah P Rashed Ahmed, Zoe Samara, Leanne M Williams
Importance: The symptoms that define mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders are highly overlapping across disorders and heterogeneous within disorders. It is unknown whether coherent subtypes exist that span multiple diagnoses and are expressed functionally (in underlying cognition and brain function) and clinically (in daily function). The identification of cohesive subtypes would help disentangle the symptom overlap in our current diagnoses and serve as a tool for tailoring treatment choices...
December 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190117/psychobiotics-a-new-approach-for-treating-mental-illness
#20
Snigdha Misra, Debapriya Mohanty
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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