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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#1
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203854/distributed-neural-representation-of-saliency-controlled-value-and-category-during-anticipation-of-rewards-and-punishments
#2
Zhihao Zhang, Jennifer Fanning, Daniel B Ehrlich, Wenting Chen, Daeyeol Lee, Ifat Levy
An extensive literature from cognitive neuroscience examines the neural representation of value, but interpretations of these existing results are often complicated by the potential confound of saliency. At the same time, recent attempts to dissociate neural signals of value and saliency have not addressed their relationship with category information. Using a multi-category valuation task that incorporates rewards and punishments of different nature, we identify distributed neural representation of value, saliency, and category during outcome anticipation...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193776/bayesian-statistical-approaches-to-evaluating-cognitive-models
#3
REVIEW
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
November 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190328/the-computational-anatomy-of-visual-neglect
#4
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and-in cognitive neuroscience-offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside)...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180789/the-computations-that-support-simple-decision-making-a-comparison-between-the-diffusion-and-urgency-gating-models
#5
Nathan J Evans, Guy E Hawkins, Udo Boehm, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Scott D Brown
We investigate a question relevant to the psychology and neuroscience of perceptual decision-making: whether decisions are based on steadily accumulating evidence, or only on the most recent evidence. We report an empirical comparison between two of the most prominent examples of these theoretical positions, the diffusion model and the urgency-gating model, via model-based qualitative and quantitative comparisons. Our findings support the predictions of the diffusion model over the urgency-gating model, and therefore, the notion that evidence accumulates without much decay...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163069/notes-on-the-recent-history-of-neuroscience-in-africa
#6
REVIEW
Vivienne A Russell
Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134192/problems-and-progress-regarding-sex-bias-and-omission-in-neuroscience-research
#7
Tyler R Will, Stephanie B Proaño, Anly M Thomas, Lindsey M Kunz, Kelly C Thompson, Laura A Ginnari, Clay H Jones, Sarah-Catherine Lucas, Elizabeth M Reavis, David M Dorris, John Meitzen
Neuroscience research has historically ignored female animals. This neglect comes in two general forms. The first is sex bias, defined as favoring one sex over another; in this case, male over female. The second is sex omission, which is the lack of reporting sex. The recognition of this phenomenon has generated fierce debate across the sciences. Here we test whether sex bias and omission are still present in the neuroscience literature, whether studies employing both males and females neglect sex as an experimental variable, and whether sex bias and omission differs between animal models and journals...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#8
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118213/volition-and-action-in-the-human-brain-processes-pathologies-and-reasons
#9
Itzhak Fried, Patrick Haggard, Biyu J He, Aaron Schurger
Humans seem to decide for themselves what to do, and when to do it. This distinctive capacity may emerge from an ability, shared with other animals, to make decisions for action that are related to future goals, or at least free from the constraints of immediate environmental inputs. Studying such volitional acts proves a major challenge for neuroscience. This review highlights key mechanisms in the generation of voluntary, as opposed to stimulus-driven actions, and highlights three issues. The first part focuses on the apparent spontaneity of voluntary action...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079687/optogenetic-inhibition-reveals-distinct-roles-for-basolateral-amygdala-activity-at-discrete-timepoints-during-risky-decision-making
#11
Caitlin A Orsini, Caesar M Hernandez, Sarthak Singhal, Kyle B Kelly, Charles J Frazier, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Decision making is a multifaceted process, consisting of several distinct phases that likely require different cognitive operations. Previous work showed that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate for decision making involving risk of punishment; however, it is unclear how the BLA is recruited at different stages of the decision process. To this end, the current study used optogenetics to inhibit the BLA during specific task phases in a model of risky decision making (Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) in which rats choose between a small, "safe" reward and a large reward accompanied by varying probabilities of footshock punishment...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067130/a-decision-making-model-based-on-a-spiking-neural-circuit-and-synaptic-plasticity
#12
Hui Wei, Yijie Bu, Dawei Dai
To adapt to the environment and survive, most animals can control their behaviors by making decisions. The process of decision-making and responding according to cues in the environment is stable, sustainable, and learnable. Understanding how behaviors are regulated by neural circuits and the encoding and decoding mechanisms from stimuli to responses are important goals in neuroscience. From results observed in Drosophila experiments, the underlying decision-making process is discussed, and a neural circuit that implements a two-choice decision-making model is proposed to explain and reproduce the observations...
October 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066963/can-neuroscience-assist-us-in-constructing-better-patterns-of-economic-decision-making
#13
REVIEW
George Lăzăroiu, Aurel Pera, Ramona O Ștefănescu-Mihăilă, Nela Mircică, Octav Negurită
We draw on outstanding research (Sanfey et al., 2006; McCabe, 2008; Bernheim, 2009; Camerer, 2013; Radu and McClure, 2013; Declerck and Boone, 2016) to substantiate that neuroeconomics covers the investigation of the biological microfoundations of economic cognition and economic conduct, attempts to prove that a superior grasp of how choices are made brings about superior expectations regarding which options are selected, preserves the strictness of economic analysis in defining value-based decision, and associates imaging techniques with economic pattern to explain how individuals decide on a strategy taking into account various possible choices...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066078/computational-neuroscience-across-the-lifespan-promises-and-pitfalls
#14
REVIEW
Wouter van den Bos, Rasmus Bruckner, Matthew R Nassar, Rui Mata, Ben Eppinger
In recent years, the application of computational modeling in studies on age-related changes in decision making and learning has gained in popularity. One advantage of computational models is that they provide access to latent variables that cannot be directly observed from behavior. In combination with experimental manipulations, these latent variables can help to test hypotheses about age-related changes in behavioral and neurobiological measures at a level of specificity that is not achievable with descriptive analysis approaches alone...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054778/validation-of-prognostic-models-to-predict-early-mortality-in-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-a-singapore-stroke-database
#15
Julian Xinguang Han, Angela An Qi See, Nicolas Kon Kam King
OBJECTIVE: Numerous scores have been developed for prognostication of outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Prediction models must be validated internally and externally before they are considered widely applicable. We aim to independently externally validate and compare three prediction models (ICH score, ICH grading scale (ICH-GS) and simplified ICH (sICH)) in our population, which has not been previously done. METHODS: We reviewed 1338 patients with spontaneous ICH consecutively admitted to the National Neuroscience Institute (NNI), Singapore, between January 2009 and November 2013...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#16
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038381/has-molecular-imaging-delivered-to-drug-development
#17
REVIEW
Philip S Murphy, Neel Patel, Timothy J McCarthy
Pharmaceutical research and development requires a systematic interrogation of a candidate molecule through clinical studies. To ensure resources are spent on only the most promising molecules, early clinical studies must understand fundamental attributes of the drug candidate, including exposure at the target site, target binding and pharmacological response in disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to quantitatively characterize these properties in small, efficient clinical studies. Specific benefits of molecular imaging in this setting (compared to blood and tissue sampling) include non-invasiveness and the ability to survey the whole body temporally...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966147/understanding-psychiatric-disorder-by-capturing-ecologically-relevant-features-of-learning-and-decision-making
#18
REVIEW
Jacqueline Scholl, Miriam Klein-Flügge
Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961060/persuasion-influence-and-value-perspectives-from-communication-and-social-neuroscience
#19
Emily Falk, Christin Scholz
Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. Wenext review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943722/from-faces-to-prosocial-behavior-cues-tools-and-mechanisms
#20
Ralph Adolphs, Anita Tusche
In this review we ask how looking at people's faces can influence prosocial behaviors towards them. Components of this process have often been studied by disparate literatures: one focused on perception and judgment of faces, using both psychological and neuroscience approaches; and a second focused on actual social behaviors, as studied in behavioral economics and decision science. Bridging these disciplines requires a more mechanistic account of how processing of particular face attributes or features influences social judgments and behaviors...
June 1, 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
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