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decision neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#1
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#2
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772103/architecture-function-and-assembly-of-the-mouse-visual-system
#4
Tania A Seabrook, Timothy J Burbridge, Michael C Crair, Andrew D Huberman
Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768457/greater-delay-discounting-among-girls-but-not-boys-with-adhd-correlates-with-cognitive-control
#5
Connor H G Patros, Kristie L Sweeney, E Mark Mahone, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i...
August 2, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706080/power-up-a-reanalysis-of-power-failure-in-neuroscience-using-mixture-modelling
#6
Camilla L Nord, Vincent Valton, John Wood, Jonathan P Roiser
Evidence for endemically low statistical power has recently cast neuroscience findings into doubt. If low statistical power plagues neuroscience, this reduces confidence in reported effects. However, if statistical power is not uniformly low, such blanket mistrust might not be warranted. Here, we provide a different perspective on this issue, analysing data from an influential paper reporting a median power of 21% across 49 meta-analyses (Button et al., 2013). We demonstrate, using Gaussian mixture modelling, that the sample of 730 studies included in that analysis comprises several subcomponents; therefore the use of a single summary statistic is insufficient to characterise the nature of the distribution...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700651/metric-based-vs-peer-reviewed-evaluation-of-a-research-output-lesson-learnt-from-uk-s-national-research-assessment-exercise
#7
Kushwanth Koya, Gobinda Chowdhury
PURPOSE: There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692700/noise-multisensory-integration-and-previous-response-in-perceptual-disambiguation
#8
Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Sensory information about the state of the world is generally ambiguous. Understanding how the nervous system resolves such ambiguities to infer the actual state of the world is a central quest for sensory neuroscience. However, the computational principles of perceptual disambiguation are still poorly understood: What drives perceptual decision-making between multiple equally valid solutions? Here we investigate how humans gather and combine sensory information-within and across modalities-to disambiguate motion perception in an ambiguous audiovisual display, where two moving stimuli could appear as either streaming through, or bouncing off each other...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675111/outcomes-of-tracheostomy-with-concomitant-and-delayed-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-the-neuroscience-critical-care-unit
#9
Christa O'Hana S Nobleza, Vinciya Pandian, Ravirasmi Jasti, David H Wu, Marek A Mirski, Romergryko G Geocadin
BACKGROUND: In patients with severe neurologic conditions, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is typically performed either alone or with a tracheostomy. The characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving PEG concomitantly with a tracheostomy (CTPEG) and those receiving delayed PEG (DPEG) after a tracheostomy were compared. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a 24-bed neuroscience critical care unit (NCCU) at a tertiary care hospital. Consecutive patients admitted to the NCCU from April 2007 to July 2013 who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy by the percutaneous tracheostomy team were included and grouped according to the timing of PEG placement: CTPEG versus DPEG...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#10
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial pFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#11
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630524/a-martingale-analysis-of-first-passage-times-of-time-dependent-wiener-diffusion-models
#12
Vaibhav Srivastava, Samuel F Feng, Jonathan D Cohen, Naomi Ehrich Leonard, Amitai Shenhav
Research in psychology and neuroscience has successfully modeled decision making as a process of noisy evidence accumulation to a decision bound. While there are several variants and implementations of this idea, the majority of these models make use of a noisy accumulation between two absorbing boundaries. A common assumption of these models is that decision parameters, e.g., the rate of accumulation (drift rate), remain fixed over the course of a decision, allowing the derivation of analytic formulas for the probabilities of hitting the upper or lower decision threshold, and the mean decision time...
April 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630450/concurrent-talking-in-immersive-virtual-reality-on-the-dominance-of-visual-speech-cues
#13
Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Antonella Maselli, Dinei Florencio, Nikolai Smolyanskiy, Zhengyou Zhang
Humans are good at selectively listening to specific target conversations, even in the presence of multiple concurrent speakers. In our research, we study how auditory-visual cues modulate this selective listening. We do so by using immersive Virtual Reality technologies with spatialized audio. Exposing 32 participants to an Information Masking Task with concurrent speakers, we find significantly more errors in the decision-making processes triggered by asynchronous audiovisual speech cues. More precisely, the results show that lips on the Target speaker matched to a secondary (Mask) speaker's audio severely increase the participants' comprehension error rates...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#14
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559955/a-plausible-neural-circuit-for-decision-making-and-its-formation-based-on-reinforcement-learning
#15
Hui Wei, Dawei Dai, Yijie Bu
A human's, or lower insects', behavior is dominated by its nervous system. Each stable behavior has its own inner steps and control rules, and is regulated by a neural circuit. Understanding how the brain influences perception, thought, and behavior is a central mandate of neuroscience. The phototactic flight of insects is a widely observed deterministic behavior. Since its movement is not stochastic, the behavior should be dominated by a neural circuit. Based on the basic firing characteristics of biological neurons and the neural circuit's constitution, we designed a plausible neural circuit for this phototactic behavior from logic perspective...
June 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553839/a-primer-on-foraging-and-the-explore-exploit-trade-off-for-psychiatry-research
#16
REVIEW
M A Addicott, J M Pearson, M M Sweitzer, D L Barack, M L Platt
Foraging is a fundamental behavior, and many types of animals appear to have solved foraging problems using a shared set of mechanisms. Perhaps the most common foraging problem is the choice between exploiting a familiar option for a known reward and exploring unfamiliar options for unknown rewards-the so-called explore-exploit trade-off. This trade-off has been studied extensively in behavioral ecology and computational neuroscience, but is relatively new to the field of psychiatry. Explore/exploit paradigms can offer psychiatry research a new approach to studying motivation, outcome valuation, and effort-related processes, which are disrupted in many mental and emotional disorders...
May 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521154/-the-world-is-upside-down-the-innsbruck-goggle-experiments-of-theodor-erismann-1883-1961-and-ivo-kohler-1915-1985
#17
Pierre Sachse, Ursula Beermann, Markus Martini, Thomas Maran, Markus Domeier, Marco R Furtner
The "Innsbruck Goggle Experiments" on long-term wearing of reversing mirrors, prismatic and half prismatic goggles, and colored half goggles represent a milestone in research on adaptation (adapting to the introduced "disturbance") and after-effects (after removal of the "disturbance"). By means of these goggles it is, for example, possible to invert or distort the visual field (such as flipping top and bottom or left and right), as well as to observe how individuals learn to change the image back to vertical or recognize left and right...
April 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521125/beyond-hat-in-hand-science-advocacy-is-foundational-for-policy-decisions
#18
Nathaniel Kendall-Taylor, Pat Levitt
Beyond those to whom neuroscientists typically communicate exciting discoveries-that is, those who can provide more funding for researchers-there are important audiences that are positioned to use neuroscience findings to affect policy and improve societal outcomes. Showing the utility of research that policymakers, service providers, and the public can use to make decisions will enhance views of the value of scientific research. The ingredients of successful communications between neuroscientists and other stakeholders are different from those that characterize effective communications between scientists...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482854/medical-decision-making-in-children-and-adolescents-developmental-and-neuroscientific-aspects
#19
REVIEW
Petronella Grootens-Wiegers, Irma M Hein, Jos M van den Broek, Martine C de Vries
BACKGROUND: Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent...
May 8, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#20
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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