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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927938/mice-learn-to-avoid-regret
#1
Brian M Sweis, Mark J Thomas, A David Redish
Regret can be defined as the subjective experience of recognizing that one has made a mistake and that a better alternative could have been selected. The experience of regret is thought to carry negative utility. This typically takes two distinct forms: augmenting immediate postregret valuations to make up for losses, and augmenting long-term changes in decision-making strategies to avoid future instances of regret altogether. While the short-term changes in valuation have been studied in human psychology, economics, neuroscience, and even recently in nonhuman-primate and rodent neurophysiology, the latter long-term process has received far less attention, with no reports of regret avoidance in nonhuman decision-making paradigms...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922197/the-neural-basis-of-and-a-common-neural-circuitry-in-different-types-of-pro-social-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Jun Luo
Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917235/classification-of-gabaergic-neuron-subtypes-from-the-globus-pallidus-using-wild-type-and-transgenic-mice
#3
Karina P Abrahao, David M Lovinger
KEY POINTS: Classifying different subtypes of neurons in deep brain structures is a challenge and is crucial to better understanding brain function. Understanding the diversity of neurons in the Globus Pallidus, a brain region positioned to influence afferent and efferent information processing within basal ganglia, could help to explain a variety of brain functions. We present a classification of neurons from the GP using electrophysiological data from wild type mice and confirmation using transgenic mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886177/ventral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-social-decision-making
#4
REVIEW
Patricia L Lockwood, Marco K Wittmann
Studies in the field of social neuroscience have recently made use of computational models of decision-making to provide new insights into how we learn about the self and others during social interactions. Importantly, these studies have increasingly drawn attention to brain areas outside of classical cortical "social brain" regions that may be critical for social processing. In particular, two portions of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and perigenual cingulate cortex, have been linked to social and self learning signals, respectively...
June 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864097/the-role-of-physical-activity-in-recovery-from-concussion-in-youth-a-neuroscience-perspective
#5
Julia Schmidt, Cristina Rubino, Lara A Boyd, Naznin Virji-Babul
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concussion is a major public health concern and one of the least understood neurological injuries. Children and youth are disproportionally affected by concussion, and once injured, take longer to recover. Current guidelines recommend a period of physical and cognitive rest with a gradual progressive return to activity. Although there is limited high-quality evidence (eg, randomized controlled trials) on the benefit of physical activity and exercise after concussion, most studies report a positive impact of exercise in facilitating recovery after concussion...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863790/neuroimaging-neuromodulation-and-population-health-the-neuroscience-of-chronic-disease-prevention
#6
REVIEW
Peter A Hall, Warren K Bickel, Kirk I Erickson, Dylan D Wagner
Preventable chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the majority of countries throughout the world, and this trend will continue for the foreseeable future. The potential to offset the social, economic, and personal burdens associated with such conditions depends on our ability to influence people's thought processes, decisions, and behaviors, all of which can be understood with reference to the brain itself. Within the health neuroscience framework, the brain can be viewed as a predictor, mediator, moderator, or outcome in relation to health-related phenomena...
June 4, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803961/persuasion-and-influence-what-makes-a-successful-persuader
#7
REVIEW
Elisa C Baek, Emily B Falk
What makes people successful at influencing others? In this review, we focus on the role of the persuader (i.e., person who attempts to influence a recipient), drawing from findings in neuroscience to highlight key drivers that contribute to persuaders' decisions to share information, and variables that distinguish successful persuaders from those who are less successful. We review evidence that people's motivations to share are guided in the brain by value-based decision making, with self-relevance and social-relevance as two key motivational inputs to the value computation...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752468/foraging-for-foundations-in-decision-neuroscience-insights-from-ethology
#8
REVIEW
Dean Mobbs, Pete C Trimmer, Daniel T Blumstein, Peter Dayan
Modern decision neuroscience offers a powerful and broad account of human behaviour using computational techniques that link psychological and neuroscientific approaches to the ways that individuals can generate near-optimal choices in complex controlled environments. However, until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the extent to which the structure of experimental environments relates to natural scenarios, and the survival problems that individuals have evolved to solve. This situation not only risks leaving decision-theoretic accounts ungrounded but also makes various aspects of the solutions, such as hard-wired or Pavlovian policies, difficult to interpret in the natural world...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744995/what-difference-do-brain-images-make-in-us-criminal-trials
#9
Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Edward Lamb
One of the early concerns regarding the use of neuroscience data in criminal trials is that even if the brain images are ambiguous or inconclusive, they still might influence a jury in virtue of the fact that they appear easy to understand. By appearing visually simple, even though they are really statistically constructed maps with a host of assumptions built into them, a lay jury or a judge might take brain scans to be more reliable or relevant than they actually are. Should courts exclude brain scans for being more prejudicial than probative? Herein, we rehearse a brief history of brain scans admitted into criminal trials in the United States, then describe the results of a recent analysis of appellate court decisions that referenced 1 or more brain scans in the judicial decision...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744316/mental-healthcare-act-2017-need-to-wait-and-watch
#10
Abhisek Mishra, Abhiruchi Galhotra
Mental health is different from general health as in certain circumstances mentally ill people may not be in a position to make decisions on their own. Those who suffer rarely get access to appropriate medical treatment as their families try to hide their condition out of a sense of shame. Over 300 million people are estimated to suffer from depression, equivalent to 4.4% of the world's total population. According to a study conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, 1 in 40 and 1 in 20 people are suffering from the past and current episodes of depression in India...
April 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721680/the-decision-decoding-toolbox-ddtbox-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis-toolbox-for-event-related-potentials
#11
Stefan Bode, Daniel Feuerriegel, Daniel Bennett, Phillip M Alday
In recent years, neuroimaging research in cognitive neuroscience has increasingly used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate higher cognitive functions. Here we present DDTBOX, an open-source MVPA toolbox for electroencephalography (EEG) data. DDTBOX runs under MATLAB and is well integrated with the EEGLAB/ERPLAB and Fieldtrip toolboxes (Delorme and Makeig 2004; Lopez-Calderon and Luck 2014; Oostenveld et al. 2011). It trains support vector machines (SVMs) on patterns of event-related potential (ERP) amplitude data, following or preceding an event of interest, for classification or regression of experimental variables...
May 2, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709209/anxiety-depression-and-decision-making-a-computational-perspective
#12
Sonia J Bishop, Christopher Gagne
In everyday life, the outcomes of our actions are rarely certain. Further, we often lack the information needed to precisely estimate the probability and value of potential outcomes as well as how much effort will be required by the courses of action under consideration. Under such conditions of uncertainty, individual differences in the estimation and weighting of these variables, and in reliance on model-free versus model-based decision making, have the potential to strongly influence our behavior. Both anxiety and depression are associated with difficulties in decision making...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#13
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691954/children-s-neural-processing-of-moral-scenarios-provides-insight-into-the-formation-and-reduction-of-in-group-biases
#14
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Jean Decety
Survival is dependent on sociality within groups which ensure sustenance and protection. From an early age, children show a natural tendency to sort people into groups and discriminate among them. The computations guiding evaluation of third-party behaviors are complex, requiring integration of intent, consequences, and knowledge of group affiliation. This study examined how perceiving third-party morally laden behavior influences children's likelihood to exhibit or reduce group bias. Following a minimal group paradigm assignment, young children (4-7 years) performed a moral evaluation task where group affiliations and moral actions were systematically juxtaposed, so that they were exposed to disproportionately antisocial in-group and prosocial out-group scenarios...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662432/frontal-brain-asymmetry-and-willingness-to-pay
#15
Thomas Z Ramsøy, Martin Skov, Maiken K Christensen, Carsten Stahlhut
Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627761/following-the-patient-s-orders-recommending-vs-offering-choice-in-neurology-outpatient-consultations
#16
Paul Chappell, Merran Toerien, Clare Jackson, Markus Reuber
The UK's Royal College of Surgeons (2016) has argued that health professionals must replace a 'paternalistic' approach to consent with 'informed choice'. We engage with these guidelines through analysis of neurology consultations in two UK-based neuroscience centres, where informed choice has been advocated for over a decade. Based on 223 recorded consultations and related questionnaire data (collected in 2012), we used conversation analysis (CA) to identify two practices for offering choice: patient view elicitors (PVEs) and option-lists...
May 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614924/parental-consent-and-access-to-oral-health-care-for-adolescents
#17
Susana J Calderon, Caroline Mallory, Michelle Malin
While most states allow minors 12 years and older to consent to services for contraception, prenatal care, or sexually transmitted infections, the same adolescents are required to have parental consent for even preventive oral health care. Many adolescents are denied access to preventive oral health care because of the challenge of securing parental consent for care when parents are unwilling, unable, or unavailable to consent. Our purpose is to examine the barriers to preventive oral health care for U.S. adolescents related to parental consent laws, explore the issues surrounding these laws, and recommend policy changes...
January 1, 2018: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604631/artificial-neural-network-detects-human-uncertainty
#18
Alexander E Hramov, Nikita S Frolov, Vladimir A Maksimenko, Vladimir V Makarov, Alexey A Koronovskii, Juan Garcia-Prieto, Luis Fernando Antón-Toro, Fernando Maestú, Alexander N Pisarchik
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are known to be a powerful tool for data analysis. They are used in social science, robotics, and neurophysiology for solving tasks of classification, forecasting, pattern recognition, etc. In neuroscience, ANNs allow the recognition of specific forms of brain activity from multichannel EEG or MEG data. This makes the ANN an efficient computational core for brain-machine systems. However, despite significant achievements of artificial intelligence in recognition and classification of well-reproducible patterns of neural activity, the use of ANNs for recognition and classification of patterns in neural networks still requires additional attention, especially in ambiguous situations...
March 2018: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561234/more-than-action-the-dorsal-pathway-contributes-to-the-perception-of-3-d-structure
#19
Erez Freud, Amanda K Robinson, Marlene Behrmann
An evolving view in cognitive neuroscience is that the dorsal visual pathway not only plays a key role in visuomotor behavior but that it also contributes functionally to the recognition of objects. To characterize the nature of the object representations derived by the dorsal pathway, we assessed perceptual performance in the context of the continuous flash suppression paradigm, which suppresses object processing in the ventral pathway while sparing computation in the dorsal pathway. In a series of experiments, prime stimuli, which were rendered imperceptible by the continuous flash suppression, still contributed to perceptual decisions related to the subsequent perceptible target stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554962/neurochemical-changes-in-basal-ganglia-affect-time-perception-in-parkinsonians
#20
REVIEW
Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
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