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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#1
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038381/has-molecular-imaging-delivered-to-drug-development
#2
REVIEW
Philip S Murphy, Neel Patel, Timothy J McCarthy
Pharmaceutical research and development requires a systematic interrogation of a candidate molecule through clinical studies. To ensure resources are spent on only the most promising molecules, early clinical studies must understand fundamental attributes of the drug candidate, including exposure at the target site, target binding and pharmacological response in disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to quantitatively characterize these properties in small, efficient clinical studies. Specific benefits of molecular imaging in this setting (compared to blood and tissue sampling) include non-invasiveness and the ability to survey the whole body temporally...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966147/understanding-psychiatric-disease-by-capturing-ecologically-relevant-features-of-learning-and-decision-making
#3
REVIEW
Jacqueline Scholl, Miriam Klein-Flügge
Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961060/persuasion-influence-and-value-perspectives-from-communication-and-social-neuroscience
#4
Emily Falk, Christin Scholz
Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. Wenext review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943722/from-faces-to-prosocial-behavior-cues-tools-and-mechanisms
#5
Ralph Adolphs, Anita Tusche
In this review we ask how looking at people's faces can influence prosocial behaviors towards them. Components of this process have often been studied by disparate literatures: one focused on perception and judgment of faces, using both psychological and neuroscience approaches; and a second focused on actual social behaviors, as studied in behavioral economics and decision science. Bridging these disciplines requires a more mechanistic account of how processing of particular face attributes or features influences social judgments and behaviors...
June 1, 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939991/when-three-is-greater-than-five-eeg-and-fmri-signatures-of-errors-in-numerical-and-physical-comparisons
#6
Ewa Beldzik, Aleksandra Domagalik, Magda Gawlowska, Tadeusz Marek, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja
Unravelling the neural mechanisms, which determine performance accuracy, is one of the key concepts in cognitive neuroscience. When compared to correct responses, shorter reaction times are commonly observed behavioural feature of errors committed in typical conflict tasks. Yet, little is known about the origins of this phenomenon. In this study, EEG and fMRI experiments were conducted using the numerical version of the Stroop paradigm, which yielded unique behavioural outcomes. Particularly, errors in numerical comparison had shorter reaction times than correct trials, whereas physical comparison resulted in the opposite pattern...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894545/comparing-performances-of-intelligent-classifier-algorithms-for-predicting-type-of-pain-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Nasrolah Nasr HeidarAbadi, Laleh Hakemi, Pirhossein Kolivand, Reza Safdari, Marjan Ghazi Saeidi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In this study, performances of classification techniques were compared in order to predict type of pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Pain is one of the main problems in people with spinal cord injury. Identifying the optimal classification technique will help improve decision support systems in clinical settings. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective analysis was performed in 253 patients. We compared performances of "Bayesian Networks", "Decision Tree", neural networks: "Multi-Layer Perceptron" (MLP), and "Support Vector Machines" (SVM)...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889923/social-risky-decision-making-reveals-gender-differences-in-the-tpj-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#8
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk...
September 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877482/high-yield-methods-for-accurate-two-alternative-visual-psychophysics-in-head-fixed-mice
#9
Christopher P Burgess, Armin Lak, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Peter Zatka-Haas, Charu Bai Reddy, Elina A K Jacobs, Jennifer F Linden, Joseph J Paton, Adam Ranson, Sylvia Schröder, Sofia Soares, Miles J Wells, Lauren E Wool, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Research in neuroscience increasingly relies on the mouse, a mammalian species that affords unparalleled genetic tractability and brain atlases. Here, we introduce high-yield methods for probing mouse visual decisions. Mice are head-fixed, facilitating repeatable visual stimulation, eye tracking, and brain access. They turn a steering wheel to make two alternative choices, forced or unforced. Learning is rapid thanks to intuitive coupling of stimuli to wheel position. The mouse decisions deliver high-quality psychometric curves for detection and discrimination and conform to the predictions of a simple probabilistic observer model...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835184/physician-failure-to-stratify-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#10
Mitchell D Jacobs, Allison Greco, Umer Mukhtar, Jonathan Dunn, Michael L Scharf
OBJECTIVES: In 2011, the AHA recommended risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Failure to risk stratify may cause under recognition of intermediate-risk PE and its attendant short- and long-term consequences. We sought to determine if patients hospitalized with acute PE were appropriately risk stratified according to the 2011 AHA Scientific Statement within our hospital system and whether differences exist in adherence to risk stratification by hospital or treating hospital service...
August 30, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827699/attraction-effect-in-risky-choice-can-be-explained-by-subjective-distance-between-choice-alternatives
#11
Peter N C Mohr, Hauke R Heekeren, Jörg Rieskamp
Individuals make decisions under risk throughout daily life. Standard models of economic decision making typically assume that people evaluate choice options independently. There is, however, substantial evidence showing that this independence assumption is frequently violated in decision making without risk. The present study extends these findings to the domain of decision making under risk. To explain the independence violations, we adapted a sequential sampling model, namely Multialternative Decision Field Theory (MDFT), to decision making under risk and showed how this model can account for the observed preference shifts...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#12
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#13
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
October 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772103/architecture-function-and-assembly-of-the-mouse-visual-system
#15
Tania A Seabrook, Timothy J Burbridge, Michael C Crair, Andrew D Huberman
Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768457/greater-delay-discounting-among-girls-but-not-boys-with-adhd-correlates-with-cognitive-control
#16
Connor H G Patros, Kristie L Sweeney, E Mark Mahone, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i...
August 2, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706080/power-up-a-reanalysis-of-power-failure-in-neuroscience-using-mixture-modeling
#17
Camilla L Nord, Vincent Valton, John Wood, Jonathan P Roiser
Recently, evidence for endemically low statistical power has cast neuroscience findings into doubt. If low statistical power plagues neuroscience, then this reduces confidence in the reported effects. However, if statistical power is not uniformly low, then such blanket mistrust might not be warranted. Here, we provide a different perspective on this issue, analyzing data from an influential study reporting a median power of 21% across 49 meta-analyses (Button et al., 2013). We demonstrate, using Gaussian mixture modeling, that the sample of 730 studies included in that analysis comprises several subcomponents so the use of a single summary statistic is insufficient to characterize the nature of the distribution...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700651/metric-based-vs-peer-reviewed-evaluation-of-a-research-output-lesson-learnt-from-uk-s-national-research-assessment-exercise
#18
Kushwanth Koya, Gobinda Chowdhury
PURPOSE: There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692700/noise-multisensory-integration-and-previous-response-in-perceptual-disambiguation
#19
Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Sensory information about the state of the world is generally ambiguous. Understanding how the nervous system resolves such ambiguities to infer the actual state of the world is a central quest for sensory neuroscience. However, the computational principles of perceptual disambiguation are still poorly understood: What drives perceptual decision-making between multiple equally valid solutions? Here we investigate how humans gather and combine sensory information-within and across modalities-to disambiguate motion perception in an ambiguous audiovisual display, where two moving stimuli could appear as either streaming through, or bouncing off each other...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675111/outcomes-of-tracheostomy-with-concomitant-and-delayed-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-the-neuroscience-critical-care-unit
#20
Christa O'Hana S Nobleza, Vinciya Pandian, Ravirasmi Jasti, David H Wu, Marek A Mirski, Romergryko G Geocadin
BACKGROUND: In patients with severe neurologic conditions, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is typically performed either alone or with a tracheostomy. The characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving PEG concomitantly with a tracheostomy (CTPEG) and those receiving delayed PEG (DPEG) after a tracheostomy were compared. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a 24-bed neuroscience critical care unit (NCCU) at a tertiary care hospital. Consecutive patients admitted to the NCCU from April 2007 to July 2013 who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy by the percutaneous tracheostomy team were included and grouped according to the timing of PEG placement: CTPEG versus DPEG...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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