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Qiu-Dong Jiang, Ye-Ming Wu, Hui Zhang, Pei Liu, Jun Chen, Jin-Ao Duan
The study was carried out to investigate the pharmacokinetics and in vitro/in vivo correlation of ibuprofen with essential oils as penetration enhancers (PE) following transdermal administration. With Azone as the positive control, ibuprofen hydrogels containing Chuanxiong oil, Angelica oil or Cinnamon oil as PE were prepared and administered to the rat abdominal skin. Then the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen following transdermal administration were investigated and compared. In comparison with negative control (no PE was added), the relative bioavailability values with the addition of Chuanxiong oil, Angelica oil, Cinnamon oil and Azone as PE were determined to be 161...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Kristine Marceau, Leslie A Brick, Hollis C Karoly, Alexandre A Todorov, Rohan H Palmer, Andrew C Heath, Valerie S Knopik
OBJECTIVE: Given the controversy surrounding the question of whether there are direct or causal effects of exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) on offspring outcomes such as substance use during the adolescent years, we sought to test, on a preliminary basis, within- and between-family associations of SDP and initiation of substance use early in adolescence (by age 15 years) using a discordant sibling design. METHOD: We used a sibling-comparison approach in a sample of 173 families drawn from the state of Missouri, wherein mothers were discordant for smoking behaviors between two different pregnancies, to test for associations of SDP and initiation of substance use in a younger adolescent cohort...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Gerasimia Tsasi, Theofilos Mailis, Artemis Daskalaki, Eleni Sakadani, Panagis Razis, Yiannis Samaras, Helen Skaltsa
Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period...
September 18, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Haider Rahman, Marina Kim, Galen Leung, Jesse A Green, Seymour Katz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions...
September 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
S Amat, D Baines, T W Alexander
The objectives of this study were to develop a new assay for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) in vapor-phase and to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities of commercial EOs against BRPs. To achieve the first objective, a microtube cap containing 100 μl of EO was embedded in an agar plate. An agar plug (diameter 13 mm) inoculated with a bacterial suspension containing10(8) CFU ml(-1) was then placed over the cap and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Subsequently, bacteria were recovered from the agar plug by immersion in 5 ml of broth for 10 min, followed by vortexing for 30 s, and the broths were then plated for enumeration...
September 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Chao Lv, Xing Yuan, Hua-Wu Zeng, Run-Hui Liu, Wei-Dong Zhang
Cinnamaldehyde is a main ingredient of cinnamon oils from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, which has been widely used in food and traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells were investigated. Exposure to 4mM glutamate altered the GSH, MDA levels and SOD activity, caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulted in the induction of oxidative stress in PC12 cell, ultimately induced cell death...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Serban M Maierean, Maria-Corina Serban, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Sorin Ursoniu, Alexandru Serban, Peter Penson, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND: Cinnamon is a rich botanical source of polyphenols, whose positive effects on blood lipid concentrations have been hypothesized, but have not been conclusively studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to systematically review and evaluate the effect of administration of cinnamon on blood lipid concentrations. METHODS: We assessed 13 randomized controlled trials with 750 participants investigating the effect of cinnamon supplementation on blood lipid concentrations...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Behrouz Talaei, Atieh Amouzegar, Shamim Sahranavard, Mehdi Hedayati, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of a daily intake of three grams of cinnamon over eight weeks on glycemic indicators, advanced glycation end products, and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial study, 44 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 57 ± 8 years, were randomly assigned to take either a three g/day cinnamon supplement (n = 22) or a placebo (n = 22) for eight weeks. We measured the fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobinbA1c, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), carboxymethyl lysine, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde levels at the beginning and the end of the study...
September 8, 2017: Nutrients
Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Hubert Plovier, Céline Druart, Amandine Everard, Marcus Ståhlman, Moez Rhimi, Kleopatra Chira, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Nathalie M Delzenne, Emmanuelle Maguin, Angèle Guilbot, Amandine Brochot, Philippe Gerard, Fredrik Bäckhed, Patrice D Cani
Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols have a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to assess the metabolic outcomes of two polyphenol-containing extracts from cinnamon bark (CBE) and grape pomace (GPE) on C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Both CBE and GPE were able to decrease fat mass gain and adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a HFD without reducing food intake. This was associated with reduced liver steatosis and lower plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
María J Marquine, Anne Heaton, Neco Johnson, Monica Rivera-Mindt, Mariana Cherner, Cinnamon Bloss, Todd Hulgan, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Pariya Fazeli, Susan Morgello, Donald Franklin, Scott Letendre, Ron Ellis, Ann C Collier, Christina M Marra, David B Clifford, Benjamin B Gelman, Ned Sacktor, David Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Igor Grant, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. METHODS: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Adelina Thomas, Humphrey D Mazigo, Alphaxard Manjurano, Domenica Morona, Eliningaya J Kweka
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. METHODS: The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification...
September 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Susana Ribes, Ana Fuentes, Pau Talens, Jose Manuel Barat
The combination of antifungal agents (cinnamon bark oil, zinc gluconate and trans-ferulic acid) in oil-in-water emulsions to control the fungal spoilage of strawberry jams, minimising essential oil's sensory impact, was evaluated in this work. The in vitro assays of free antifungal agents were performed against five fungal strains; meanwhile, the emulsions assays were conducted against Aspergillus niger given its strong resistance and its relevance in strawberry products. The emulsion formulated with 0.08mg/g of essential oil was able to inhibit mould growth after the incubation period...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Stephanie Krüger, Luisa Winheim, Gertrud E Morlock
A sensitive quantitative screening of coumarin in 43 commercially available cinnamons and cinnamon-containing foods was developed via HPTLC. Complex samples like cinnamon, tea, breakfast cereals, milk rice, jam, cinnamon stars and buns were extracted with methanol only. Separation was performed on silica gel with a mixture of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ammonia. The specific detection via derivatization with an ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution resulted in fluorescent coumarin zones, measured at 365/>400nm after stabilization...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Reyhaneh Sohrabi, Nasim Pazgoohan, Hasan Rezaei Seresht, Bahareh Amin
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the putative antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of the cinnamon essential oil when administered acute (for 3 doses) and sub-acute (for 14 days) to mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an acute experimental study, forced swim test (FST) was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior of animals treated with the intraperitoneal (IP) essential oil of cinnamon in triple doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg). In a sub-acute study (14 days in 24-hr intervals) antidepressant-like effects of essential oil (0...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Yanan Wang, Xibai Zeng, Yahai Lu, Lingyu Bai, Shiming Su, Cuixia Wu
Although specific soil properties controlling the arsenic (As) aging process have been studied extensively, few investigations have attempted to determine how soil types influence As bioavailability and fractionations in soils. Nine types of soil were selected from typical grain producing areas in China, and the bioavailability and fractionations of As during aging were measured. Results showed that available As in all soils rapidly decreased in the first 30 days and slowly declined thereafter. In spiked soils, As easily became less available and less toxic in low pH soils compared to high pH soils, demonstrating the importance of soil pH on As availability...
August 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Xiuhong Ding, Renqing Wang, Yuncong Li, Yandong Gan, Shuwei Liu, Jiulan Dai
To better understand the Hg(II) adsorption by some typical soils and explore the insights about the binding between Hg(II) and soils, a batch of adsorption and characteristic experiments was conducted. Results showed that Hg(II) adsorption was well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich. The maximum adsorption amount of cinnamon soil (2094.73 mg kg(-1)) was nearly tenfold as much as that of saline soil (229.49 mg kg(-1)). The specific adsorption of Hg(II) on four soil surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) owing to the change of elemental bonding energy after adsorption...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Floriana Lai, Cathrine E Fagernes, Nicholas J Bernier, Gabrielle M Miller, Philip L Munday, Fredrik Jutfelt, Göran E Nilsson
The continuous increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere resulting in ocean acidification has been reported to affect brain function in some fishes. During adulthood, cell proliferation is fundamental for fish brain growth and for it to adapt in response to external stimuli, such as environmental changes. Here we report the first expression study of genes regulating neurogenesis and neuroplasticity in brains of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), cinnamon anemonefish (Amphiprion melanopus) and spiny damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) exposed to elevated CO2 The mRNA expression levels of the neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) and doublecortin (DCX) were upregulated in three-spined stickleback exposed to high-CO2 compared with controls, while no changes were detected in the other species...
August 2017: Biology Letters
Daiane S Dos Santos, Jhonatan P Boito, Roberto C V Santos, Priscilla M Quatrin, Aline Ferreira Ourique, João H Dos Reis, Roger R Gebert, Patrícia Glombowsky, Vanderlei Klauck, Aline A Boligon, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of pure and nanostructured cinnamon oil to control the infestation and reproductive efficiency of Rhipicephalus microplus on dairy cows. In vitro (stage I)-engorged female ticks were immersed in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10% of cinnamon oil on its pure form, and 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0% of the nanostructured form. 10% cinnamon oil (pure form) showed 100% efficacy, whereas concentrations of 1 and 5% were 62 and 97% efficacious, respectively. Nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing cinnamon oil at 5% showed 95 and 97% efficacy, respectively...
August 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Stella W Nowotarska, Krzysztof Nowotarski, Irene R Grant, Christopher T Elliott, Mendel Friedman, Chen Situ
The antimicrobial modes of action of six naturally occurring compounds, cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, carvacrol, 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, previously found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) reported to infect food animals and humans and to be present in milk, cheese, and meat, were investigated. The incubation of Map cultures in the presence of all six compounds caused phosphate ions to leak into the extracellular environment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
August 24, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Candace Necyk, Leyanna Zubach-Cassano
The prevalence of natural health product (NHP) use in Canada is extensive. Patients with chronic diseases, including diabetes, use NHPs at a higher rate than the general population. Many NHPs exert hypoglycemic effects, among other effects relevant to diabetes management. To provide a practical, clinical review of NHPs with such effects targeted to pharmacists, a literature search was performed to collect data on the efficacy and safety profiles of 10 commonly used NHPs that exert antidiabetic properties. The following NHPs are included in this clinical review: alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, magnesium, bitter melon, cinnamon, fenugreek, gymnema, milk thistle, Reishi mushroom and white mulberry...
August 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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