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Measurement and performance

Jing Qian, Sy Han Chiou, Jacqueline E Maye, Folefac Atem, Keith A Johnson, Rebecca A Betensky
In several common study designs, regression modeling is complicated by the presence of censored covariates. Examples of such covariates include maternal age of onset of dementia that may be right censored in an Alzheimer's amyloid imaging study of healthy subjects, metabolite measurements that are subject to limit of detection censoring in a case-control study of cardiovascular disease, and progressive biomarkers whose baseline values are of interest, but are measured post-baseline in longitudinal neuropsychological studies of Alzheimer's disease...
June 22, 2018: Biometrics
Valeria Filippou, Charalampos Tsoumpas
PURPOSE: Printing technology, capable of producing three-dimensional (3D) objects, has evolved in recent years and provides potential for developing reproducible and sophisticated physical phantoms. 3D printing technology can help rapidly develop relatively low cost phantoms with appropriate complexities, which are useful in imaging or dosimetry measurements. The need for more realistic phantoms is emerging since imaging systems are now capable of acquiring multimodal and multiparametric data...
June 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Tomaž Šolc, Mihael Mohorčič, Carolina Fortuna
Lack of unallocated spectrum and increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless networks is forcing new devices and technologies to share frequency bands. Spectrum sensing is a key enabler for frequency sharing and there is a large body of existing work on signal detection methods. However a unified methodology that would be suitable for objective comparison of detection methods based on experimental evaluations is missing. In this paper we propose such a methodology comprised of seven steps that can be applied to evaluate methods in simulation or practical experiments...
2018: PloS One
Kosuke Takeuchi, Masahiro Takemura, Masatoshi Nakamura, Fumiko Tsukuda, Shumpei Miyakawa
Takeuchi, K, Takemura, M, Nakamura, M, Tsukuda, F, and Miyakawa, S. Effects of active and passive warm-ups on range of motion, strength, and muscle passive properties in ankle plantarflexor muscles. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of active and passive warm-ups on flexibility and strength of calf muscles. Fourteen healthy males (age: 23.1 ± 2.6 years, height: 172.7 ± 5.6 cm, and body mass: 64.5 ± 7.0 kg) performed 3 types of warm-ups respectively for 10 minutes in a random order: an active warm-up by pedaling a cycling ergometer, an active warm-up doing repeated isometric contractions, and a passive warm-up in a hot water bath...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Robert W Salatto, Jose A Arevalo, Lee E Brown, Lenny D Wiersma, Jared W Coburn
Salatto, RW, Arevalo, JA, Brown, LE, Wiersma, LD, and Coburn, JW. Caffeine's effects on an upper-body resistance exercise workout. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on an upper-body resistance exercise workout. Fifteen men (mean ± SD: age, 23.1 ± 1.9 years; body mass, 89.1 ± 13.9 kg; height, 175 ± 6.1 cm) volunteered to come to the laboratory 3 times. During visit 1, 1-repetition maximum (RM) values were determined for the barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, and dumbbell bench press exercises...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
David L Carey, Kay M Crossley, Rod Whiteley, Andrea Mosler, Kok-Leong Ong, Justin Crow, Meg E Morris
PURPOSE: To evaluate common modelling strategies in training load and injury risk research when modelling continuous variables and interpreting continuous risk estimates; and present improved modelling strategies. METHOD: Workload data were pooled from Australian football (n=2,550) and soccer (n=23,742) populations to create a representative sample of acute:chronic workload ratio observations for team sports. Injuries were simulated in the data using three pre-defined risk profiles (U-shaped, flat and S-shaped)...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ryan P McGrath, Brenda M Vincent, I-Min Lee, William J Kraemer, Mark D Peterson
PURPOSE: To determine the time-varying associations between 1) decreased handgrip strength and disabilities in each activity of daily living (ADL) function, and 2) disaggregated ADL limitations and time to mortality in older adults. METHODS: A United States nationally-representative sample of 17,747 older adults from the Health and Retirement Study were followed for eight-years. Maximal handgrip strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Ability to perform ADLs were self-reported...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
John Goetschius, Jay Hertel, Susan Saliba, Stephen F Brockmeier, Joseph M Hart
PURPOSE: To examine knee and hip biomechanics during walking and jogging in groups of ACLR patients at early, mid, and late time frames post-surgery and healthy controls. METHODS: Participants included individuals with a history of primary, unilateral ACLR, stratified into Early (1.4±0.4 years post, n=18), Mid (3.3±0.6 years post, n=20), and Late (8.5±2.8 years post, n=20) ACLR groups based on time post-surgery, and a healthy control group (n=20). Walking and jogging motion capture analysis of knee and hip kinetics and kinematics were measured in the sagittal and frontal planes...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hugo Hauraix, Benjamin Goislard de Monsabert, Alexis Herbaut, Eric Berton, Laurent Vigouroux
INTRODUCTION: Because the hand joints possess a broad range of motion, the muscle length can vary importantly which might result in significant variations of the muscle force-generating capacities. However, facing the complexity of this musculoskeletal system, no study has examined the effect of hand muscles length change on muscle force. This study aimed to characterize the force-length relationship of muscles involved in wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion. METHODS: Eleven participants performed two sessions: i) one for the wrist flexor muscles, and ii) one for the finger flexor muscles...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Dee Luo, Penny Wang, Fengxin Lu, Josephine Elias, Jeffrey A Sparks, Yvonne C Lee
BACKGROUND: Mobile health applications (apps) have the potential to help individuals with chronic illnesses learn about, monitor, and manage their condition, but these apps are largely unexamined, with the state and direction of development unclear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of publicly available apps, directed toward individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); described their current features; and determined areas of unmet need. METHODS: We searched the iTunes and Google Play App Stores for the term "arthritis" and reviewed the descriptions of these apps for specific mentions of RA...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Danielle Lovett-Carter, Amritpal S Jawanda, Ailish Hannigan
OBJECTIVES: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) poses a threat to athletes' capacity to compete. This review aims to estimate the rate of return to sport after hip arthroscopy for treatment of FAI as well as identify factors that may affect athletes' outcomes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: Four databases (EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched in July 2015 by 2 reviewers. Studies were required to include athletes who were treated with hip arthroscopy for symptomatic FAI and also report return to sport as an outcome...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Daiki Kato, Takashi Suto, Hideaki Obata, Shigeru Saito
BACKGROUND: Although endogenous analgesia plays an important role in controlling pain states, chronic pain patients exhibit decreased endogenous analgesia compared to healthy individuals. In rats, noxious stimulus-induced analgesia (NSIA), which is an indicator of endogenous analgesia, diminished 6 weeks after spinal nerve ligation (SNL6W). A recent study in rats with deleted noradrenergic fibers demonstrated that the noradrenergic fibers were essential to NSIA. It has also been reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor increased spinal noradrenergic fibers...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Luciana Moisés Camilo, Gabriel Casulari Motta-Ribeiro, Mariana Barcellos de Ávila, Luis Felipe Santos Cruz Paula, Mariana Boechat de Abreu, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Walter Araujo Zin
BACKGROUND: Recruitment maneuver and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be used to counteract intraoperative anesthesia-induced atelectasis. Variable ventilation can stabilize lung mechanics by avoiding the monotonic tidal volume and protect lung parenchyma as tidal recruitment is encompassed within the tidal volume variability. METHODS: Forty-nine (7 per group) male Wistar rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. A recruitment maneuver followed by stepwise decremental PEEP titration was performed while continuously estimating respiratory system mechanics using recursive least squares...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in ischemia reperfusion (IR)-mediated functional and neuronal impairment. Therefore, strategies employing antioxidants to reverse the damage due to IR are being investigated. Allium schoenoprasum L. is a culinary medicine whose antioxidant properties are well documented but whose neuroprotective potential has not been examined. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. schoenoprasum leaf extract (ASLE) on functional deficit against IR-induced cerebral injury in mice...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Xiang-Fan Chen, Xiao-Li Li, Jin-Xin Liu, Jing Xu, Yan-Yan Zhao, Min Yang, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to study the osteo-preservative effects of captopril, an inhibitor on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), on bone mass, micro-architecture and histomorphology as well as the modulation of captopril on skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and regulators for bone metabolism in mice with bilateral orchidectomy. METHODS: The orchidectomized (ORX) mice were orally administered with vehicle or captopril at low dose (10 mg/kg) and high dose (50 mg/kg) for six weeks...
February 7, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Marco Giovannini, Huaqing Ren, Jian Cao, Kornel Ehmann
Core needle biopsies are widely adopted medical procedures that consist in the removal of biological tissue to better identify a lesion or an abnormality observed through a physical exam or a radiology scan. These procedures can provide significantly more information than most medical tests and they are usually performed on bone lesions, breast masses, lymph nodes and the prostate. The quality of the samples mainly depends on the forces exerted by the needle during the cutting process. The reduction of these forces is critical to extract high-quality tissue samples...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Lukas Kain, Orestis G Andriotis, Peter Gruber, Martin Frank, Marica Markovic, David Grech, Vedran Nedelkovski, Martin Stolz, Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Philipp J Thurner
Mechanical assessment of biological materials and tissue-engineered scaffolds is increasingly focusing at lower length scale levels. Amongst other techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has gained popularity as an instrument to interrogate material properties, such as the indentation modulus, at the microscale via cantilever-based indentation tests equipped with colloidal probes. Current analysis approaches of the indentation modulus from such tests require the size and shape of the colloidal probe as well as the spring constant of the cantilever...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Shenshen Li, James A Blumenthal, Chuan Shi, Danielle Millican, Xian Li, Xin Du, Anushka Patel, Pei Gao, Elizabeth Delong, Pallab K Maulik, Runlin Gao, Xin Yu, Yangfeng Wu
Depression and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are both common public health challenges. Patients with ACS often develop depression, which in turn adversely affects prognosis. Low-cost, sustainable, and effective service models that integrate depression care into the management of ACS patients to reduce depression and improve ACS outcomes are critically needed. Integrating Depression Care in ACS patients in Low Resource Hospitals in China (I-CARE) is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of an 11-month integrated care (IC) intervention compared to usual care (UC) in management of ACS patients...
May 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
Adrien Lons, Florian Boureau, Elodie Drumez, Gilles Pasquier, Sophie Putman
INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopic meniscectomy and medial meniscal repair are frequent procedures, liable to be complicated by iatrogenic cartilage lesions, especially in tight knee. Medial collateral ligament pie-crusting was developed to counter this, but, although the technique is employed, its impact on medial laxity has not been precisely determined. We therefore conducted a prospective observational study to compare radiographic laxity preoperatively versus 6 weeks following pie-crusting...
June 19, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Wai-Kay Seto, Yasuhiro Asahina, Todd T Brown, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Carol Stanciu, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Fehmi Tabak, Tuan T Nguyen, Wan-Long Chuang, Tetsuro Inokuma, Fusao Ikeda, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, François Habersetzer, Alnoor Ramji, Audrey H Lau, Vithika Suri, John F Flaherty, Hongyuan Wang, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Shrikant Mukewar, Maurizia R Brunetto, Scott Fung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) reduces bone mineral density (BMD). Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, has shown non-inferior efficacy to TDF in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with improved bone effects at 48 weeks. We performed a randomized trial to evaluate the bone safety of TAF compared with TDF over 2 years, assessing baseline risk factors for bone loss, were evaluated after 2 years of treatment...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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