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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443381/pharmacological-management-of-narcolepsy-with-and-without-cataplexy
#1
Ulf Kallweit, Claudio L Bassetti
Introduction Narcolepsy is an orphan neurological disease and presents with sleep- wake, motoric, neuropsychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most commonly caused by an immune-mediated process including genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons. Narcolepsy has a major impact on workableness and quality of life. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the temporal available treatment options for narcolepsy (type 1 and 2) in adults, including authorization status by regulatory agencies...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#2
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#3
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414657/death-by-propofol
#4
James H Diaz, Alan David Kaye
Since its introduction in 1986, propofol ( two, 6-diisopropylphenol) , an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent, has been utilized for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia and conscious sedation in over 80 percent of cases; largely replacing thiopental ( sodium pentothal) over a decade ago. Unrestricted as a controlled substance, propofol's abuse potential emerged quickly and was highlighted by the death of pop singer, Michael Jackson, in 2009. In order to assess the epidemiological features of fatal propofol abuse, a descriptive analysis of the scientific literature was conducted using Internet search engines...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410932/outcome-analysis-of-colistin-treated-burn-center-patients
#5
Rachel E Wilkinson, David M Hill, William L Hickerson
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous colistimethate sodium (CMS) use in burn center patients is increasing due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. However, optimal dosing strategies and factors that may contribute to treatment failure are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that may contribute to treatment failure in colistin-treated burn center patients. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included burn center patients that received ≥48h of intravenous CMS between June 1, 2009 and June 30, 2014...
April 11, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409034/increased-intracranial-pressure-during-hemodialysis-in-a-patient-with-anoxic-brain-injury
#6
Anton Lund, Mette B Damholt, Ditte G Strange, Jesper Kelsen, Hasse Møller-Sørensen, Kirsten Møller
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402119/impact-of-electrolyte-on-adsorption-at-the-air-water-interface-for-ternary-surfactant-mixtures-above-the-critical-micelle-concentration
#7
Jessica R Liley, Robert K Thomas, Jeffrey Penfold, Ian M Tucker, Jordan T Petkov, Paul Stevenson, John R P Webster
The composition of the air-water adsorbed layer of the ternary surfactant mixture, octaethylene monododecyl ether, C12E8, sodium dodecyl 6-benzenesulfonate, LAS, and sodium dioxyethylene glycol monododecyl sulfate, SLES, and of each of the binary mixtures, with varying amounts of electrolyte, has been studied by neutron reflectivity. The measurements were made above the mixed critical micelle concentration. In the absence of electrolyte adsorption is dominated by the nonionic component C12E8 but addition of electrolyte gradually changes this so that SLES and LAS dominate at higher electrolyte concentrations...
April 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402076/studies-on-supplementary-desalted-mother-liquor-on-digestibility-of-nutrients-ruminal-fermentation-and-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-in-thai-native-cattle
#8
Takashi Sakai, Wanna Angthong, Motoharu Takeda, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Hajime Kumagai
Four Thai native steers were used to determine the adequate levels of supplementary desalted mother liquor (DML) for energy and nitrogen balances and ruminal fermentation. The crude protein and sodium chloride contents of DML were 25.5% and 60.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. A 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted by adding different amounts of DML to three experimental diets (T1: 1.1%, T2: 2.2%, T3: 3.4% sodium chloride concentration with supplementary DML on a DM basis) and comparing their effects with those of a control diet (C) containing 1...
April 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386071/tbirk-is-a-signature-sequence-free-potassium-channel-from-trypanosoma-brucei-locating-to-acidocalcisomes
#9
Michael E Steinmann, Remo S Schmidt, Peter Bütikofer, Pascal Mäser, Erwin Sigel
Potassium channels from prokaryotes and eukaryotes are usually recognized by a typical amino acid sequence TXTGY(F)G representing the ionic selectivity filter. Using a screening approach with ion channel family profiles but without the above motif, we identified a gene in Trypanosoma brucei that exhibits homology to inward rectifying potassium channels. We report here cloning of this ion channel named TbIRK. The protein is localized to acidocalcisomes in procyclic and in bloodstream form parasites. Functional properties of this channel were established after expression in Xenopus oocytes...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385801/mechanisms-controlling-glucose-induced-glp-1-secretion-in-human-small-intestine
#10
Emily W Sun, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven L Due, David A Wattchow, Christopher K Rayner, Adam M Deane, Richard L Young, Damien J Keating
Intestinal glucose stimulates secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The mechanisms underlying this pathway have not been fully investigated in humans. In this study, we showed that a 30 minute intraduodenal glucose infusion activated half of all duodenal L cells in humans. This infusion was sufficient to increase plasma GLP-1. With an ex vivo model using human gut tissue specimens, we showed a dose-responsive GLP-1 secretion in ileum at 200mM glucose or above. In ex vivo tissue from duodenum and ileum, but not colon, 300mM glucose potently stimulated GLP-1 release...
April 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384974/a-comparative-study-of-the-quality-of-apical-seal-in-resilon-epiphany-se-following-intra-canal-irrigation-with-17-edta-10-citric-acid-and-mtad-as-final-irrigants-a-dye-leakage-study-under-vacuum
#11
Saravana Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Vidya Saraswathi, Nidambur Vasudev Ballal, Shashi Rashmi Acharya, J Sivakumar Sampath, Sandeep Singh
INTRODUCTION: Adequate apical sealing ability of the root canal filling material is an essential requisite for a successful endodontic therapy. Various endodontic irrigants are used for the removal of smear layer before obturating with a solid core material, thereby, reducing microleakage and improving apical seal. Resilon, a synthetic material was developed as an alternative to replace the conventional gutta-percha (standard root canal filling material) and traditional sealers for the obturation of endodontically treated teeth...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373697/phytic-acid-as-alternative-setting-retarder-enhanced-biological-performance-of-dicalcium-phosphate-cement-in-vitro
#12
Susanne Meininger, Carina Blum, Martha Schamel, Jake E Barralet, Anita Ignatius, Uwe Gbureck
Dicalcium phosphate cement preparation requires the addition of setting retarders to meet clinical requirements regarding handling time and processability. Previous studies have focused on the influence of different setting modifiers on material properties such as mechanical performance or injectability, while ignoring their influence on biological cement properties as they are used in low concentrations in the cement pastes and the occurrence of most compounds in human tissues. Here, analyses of both material and biological behavior were carried out on samples with common setting retardants (citric acid, sodium pyrophosphate, sulfuric acid) and novel (phytic acid)...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370934/synthesis-and-identification-of-key-biosynthetic-intermediates-for-the-formation-of-the-tricyclic-skeleton-of-saxitoxin
#13
Shigeki Tsuchiya, Yuko Cho, Renpei Yoshioka, Keiichi Konoki, Kazuo Nagasawa, Yasukatsu Oshima, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues are potent voltage-gated sodium channel blockers biosynthesized by freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. We previously identified genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates of STX at early stages, Int-A' and Int-C'2, in these microorganisms. However, the mechanism to form the tricyclic skeleton of STX was unknown. To solve this problem, we screened for unidentified intermediates by analyzing the results from previous incorporation experiments with (15) N-labeled Int-C'2...
May 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359676/transplantation-of-the-decellularized-tracheal-allograft-in-animal-model-rabbit
#14
Reza Ershadi, Mohamadbagher Rahim, Siavash Jahany, Siamak Rakei
BACKGROUND: It has been difficult to perform tracheal allotransplantation without immunosuppression. To determine whether decellularized trachea can be used in tracheal replacement, we evaluated the viability of decellularized tracheal allografts in a rabbit model of immunosuppressant-free transplantation. METHOD: Half allograft (Group 1, n = 7) was harvested from adult New Zealand white rabbits, subjected to a detergent-enzymatic method (containing sodium deoxycholate/DNase lavations) of decellularization for as many cycles as needed, and the other half was stored in phosphate-buffered saline at 4°C as a control (Group 2, n = 7)...
March 27, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359367/nutritional-regulation-of-coupling-factor-6-a-novel-vasoactive-and-proatherogenic-peptide
#15
REVIEW
Tomohiro Osanai, Kasumi Mikami, Maiko Kitajima, Mayumi Urushizaka, Kumiko Kawasaki, Toshiko Tomisawa, Chieko Itaki, Yuka Noto, Koji Magota, Hirofumi Tomita
High sodium, high glucose, and obesity are important risk factors for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVDs), stroke, and cancer. Coupling factor 6 (CF6) is released from vascular endothelial cells and functions as a circulating peptide that inhibits prostacyclin and nitric oxide generation by intracellular acidosis. High glucose elevates CF6 by activation of protein kinase C and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, whereas CF6 causes type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in a high glucose vicious cycle...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350743/home-based-drainage-of-refractory-ascites-by-a-permanent-tunneled-peritoneal-catheter-can-safely-replace-large-volume-paracentesis
#16
Philipp Solbach, Christoph Höner Zu Siederdissen, Richard Taubert, Szilvia Ziegert, Kerstin Port, Andrea Schneider, Katja Hueper, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer, Elmar Jaeckel
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Refractory ascites has a poor prognosis. Recurrent large-volume paracentesis is the current standard of care; however, it results in circulatory dysfunction and renal dysfunction, and hospitalization is commonly required. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement is not an option in a substantial number of patients because of contraindications. The placement of a tunneled peritoneal drainage catheter has been shown to be effective in patients with malignant ascites...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350175/-the-safety-of-sodium-reduction-in-the-food-supply-a-cross-discipline-balancing-act-workshop-proceedings
#17
Christine Taylor, Michael Doyle, Densie Webb
This workshop, jointly presented by the ILSI North America Technical Committees on Food Microbiology and Sodium, aimed to provide greater knowledge and appreciation of the opportunities and challenges facing the food industry in answering the public health community's call to reduce sodium levels in the food supply. One major challenge is finding effective substitutes for the various antimicrobial and functional roles that sodium plays across different food categories. Sodium plays a critical role in retarding the growth of pathogens and food spoilage bacteria...
March 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345900/fluorescence-and-radiolabeling-of-lys-4-nle-17-30-hpp-yields-molecular-tools-for-the-npy-y4-receptor
#18
Stefanie Dukorn, Timo Littmann, Max Keller, Kilian Kuhn, Chiara Cabrele, Paul Baumeister, Günther Bernhardt, Armin Buschauer
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y4 receptor (Y4R) is involved in energy homeostasis and considered a potential drug target for the treatment of obesity. Only a few molecular tools, i.e., radiolabeled and fluorescent ligands, for the investigation of the Y4R were reported. Previously, [Lys(4)]hPP proved to be an appropriate full-length PP analog to prepare a fluorescent ligand by derivatization at the ε-amino group. To preclude oxidation upon long-term storage, we replaced the two methionine residues in [Lys(4)]hPP by norleucine and prepared the corresponding [(3)H]propionylated ([(3)H]12) and cyanine labeled (13) peptides, which were characterized and compared with a set of reference compounds in binding (Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5 receptors) and functional (luciferase gene reporter, beta-arrestin-1,2) Y4R assays...
April 5, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342598/effect-of-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-of-alfalfa-hay-on-lactating-dairy-cows-feeding-behavior-fiber-digestibility-and-lactation-performance
#19
M Fustini, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, E Bonfante, L Mammi, M T Pacchioli, G C J Sniffen, R J Grant, K W Cotanch, A Formigoni
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340620/stable-high-level-expression-of-factor-viii-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-in-improved-elongation-factor-1-alpha-based-system
#20
Nadezhda A Orlova, Sergey V Kovnir, Alexandre G Gabibov, Ivan I Vorobiev
BACKGROUND: Recombinant factor VIII (FVIII), used for haemophilia A therapy, is one of the most challenging among the therapeutic proteins produced in heterologous expression systems. Deletion variant of FVIII, in which the entire domain B is replaced by a short linker peptide, was approved for medical use. Efficacy and safety of this FVIII deletion variant are similar to full-length FVIII preparations while the level of production in CHO cells is substantially higher. Typical levels of productivity for CHO cell lines producing deletion variant FVIII-BDD SQ, described elsewhere, are 0...
March 24, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
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