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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904079/application-of-response-surface-methodology-to-estimate-the-design-space-of-pharmaceutical-diluents-for-dispensing-powdered-formulations
#1
Yasunori Miyazaki, Kozo Takayama, Tomonobu Uchino, Yoshiyuki Kagawa
Scientific approaches for dispensation are important for the quality and efficacy of drug treatments. Therefore, for the dispensation of powdered medicines, we have developed a powder blending method using a planetary centrifugal mixer (PCM) to replace the empirical manual method involving a mortar and pestle. The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of pharmaceutical diluents for dispensing powdered medicines, using PCM. The diluents, composed of powdered lactose, crystalline lactose, and corn starch were assigned to a {3,2}-Simplex Lattice design...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898676/dietary-butyrate-helps-to-restore-the-intestinal-status-of-a-marine-teleost-sparus-aurata-fed-extreme-diets-low-in-fish-meal-and-fish-oil
#2
Itziar Estensoro, Gabriel Ballester-Lozano, Laura Benedito-Palos, Fabian Grammes, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Liv-Torunn Mydland, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Juan Fuentes, Vasileios Karalazos, Álvaro Ortiz, Margareth Øverland, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887981/predictors-of-mortality-in-the-critically-ill-cirrhotic-patient-is-the-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-enough
#3
Alagappan Annamalai, Megan Y Harada, Melissa Chen, Tram Tran, Ara Ko, Eric J Ley, Miriam Nuno, Andrew Klein, Nicholas Nissen, Mazen Noureddin
BACKGROUND: Critically ill cirrhotics urgently require liver transplantation but are at high risk for perioperative mortality. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, recently updated to incorporate serum sodium, estimates survival probability in patients with cirrhosis but needs further evaluation in the critically ill. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of intensive care unit (ICU) admission MELD scores and identify clinical risk factors associated with increased mortality...
November 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883326/renal-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-and-kidney-failure
#4
Dimitrios S Goumenos, Evangelos Papachristou, Marios Papasotiriou
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is high as CKD and CHF share underlying risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Cardiac failure leads to renal hypoperfusion and dysfunction and then fluid overload and need for aggressive diuretic therapy. However, development of diuretic resistance represents a significant problem in the management of these patients. The role of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is important for patients who do not response to conservative management of fluid overload facilitating the failing heart to restore function...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881118/electrolyte-disorders-and-aging-risk-factors-for-delirium-in-patients-undergoing-orthopedic-surgeries
#5
Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Juan Xu, Xian-Jiao Wei, Hao-Teng Chang, Guo-Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: At present, the exact mechanism of postoperative delirium has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries and to explore possible related factors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. We used 582 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery between January 2011 and December 2014. The surgeries consisted of 155 cases of internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture (IFIF), 128 cases of femoral head replacement (FHR), 169 cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 130 cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
November 23, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875417/the-utility-of-routinely-obtaining-postoperative-laboratory-studies-following-a-minimally-invasive-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#6
Junyoung Ahn, Dustin H Massel, Benjamin C Mayo, Fady Y Hijji, Ankur S Narain, Khaled Aboushaala, Daniel D Bohl, Islam M Elboghdady, Jacob V DiBattista, Kern Singh
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that there is limited utility in routinely obtaining postoperative laboratory values following minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). BACKGROUND DATA: At many institutions, it is routine to obtain a complete blood count and basic metabolic profile (BMP) following a MIS TLIF. However, the utility of this practice has not been well characterized...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869701/the-role-of-individual-disulfide-bonds-of-%C3%AE-conotoxin-giiia-in-the-inhibition-of-nav1-4
#7
Penggang Han, Kang Wang, Xiandong Dai, Ying Cao, Shangyi Liu, Hui Jiang, Chongxu Fan, Wenjian Wu, Jisheng Chen
μ-Conotoxin GIIIA, a peptide toxin isolated from Conus geographus, preferentially blocks the skeletal muscle sodium channel NaV1.4. GIIIA folds compactly to a pyramidal structure stabilized by three disulfide bonds. To assess the contributions of individual disulfide bonds of GIIIA to the blockade of NaV1.4, seven disulfide-deficient analogues were prepared and characterized, each with one, two, or three pairs of disulfide-bonded Cys residues replaced with Ala. The inhibitory potency of the analogues against NaV1...
November 18, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869391/-first-report-of-the-f1534c-mutation-associated-with-cross-resistance-to-ddt-and-pyrethroids-in-aedes-aegypti-from-colombia
#8
María Claudia Atencia, María De Jesús Pérez, María Cristina Jaramillo, Sandy Milena Caldera, Suljey Cochero, Eduar Elías Bejarano
The main strategy for the control of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is based on the use of insecticides to reduce its populations. However, their use has led to insect resistance to these chemicals. Objective: To determine the presence of the F1534C mutation associated with cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids in A. aegypti in Sincelejo, Colombia. Materials and methods: We studied nine specimens of A. aegypti that showed resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in bioassays developed by the Secretaría de Salud de Sucre...
September 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867961/cardio-renal-protection-with-empagliflozin
#9
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Cardiovascular (CV) and kidney disease are common and significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CV disease is the leading cause of death, morbidly and hospitalisations for people with T2DM. Furthermore, diabetic kidney disease is a major risk factor for CV disease and is the main reason why patients need renal replacement therapy. In this perspective, we highlight the results of the recent landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial which has shown that empagliflozin, a member of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor class of glucose lowering medications, reduces death from CV causes, hospitalisation for heart failure and progression to end stage kidney disease in patients with T2DM and established CV disease...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842836/fabrication-and-characterization-of-a-self-crosslinking-chitosan-hydrogel-under-mild-conditions-without-the-use-of-strong-bases
#10
Yongxiang Xu, Jianmin Han, Hong Lin
Self-crosslinking chitosan hydrogels are a highly suitable material for biomedical applications owing to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, strong bases, such as sodium hydroxide, which are often used in the preparation of such hydrogels, are known to affect biocompatibility and even destroy the bioactive factors or drug payload of the hydrogel. In the present study, strong bases were replaced by sodium chloride (NaCl) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH=7.4), which were used as gelling solutions for hydrogel fabrication via the freeze-melting-neutralization method...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820741/does-fluid-management-affect-the-occurrence-of-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Johan Mårtensson, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the potential impact of different fluid management strategies on renal outcomes in critically ill and postoperative patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Uncritical fluid administration may induce renal compartment syndrome and renal venous congestion, which contribute to kidney dysfunction. In more than 5000 randomized surgical or septic patients, goal-directed therapy did not reduce fluid accumulation, acute kidney injury (AKI) development or need for renal replacement therapy...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815960/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-analgesic-antidiarrheal-and-phytochemical-properties-of-hygrophila-spinosa-t-anders-whole-plant
#12
S M Faysal Bellah, Md Nur Islam, Md Rezaul Karim, Md Masudur Rahaman, Mst Samima Nasrin, Md Atiar Rahman, A S M Ali Reza
BACKGROUND: Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs). METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810996/annals-express-stability-of-ionized-calcium-measurements-at-concentrations-less-than-0-3-mmol-l-by-point-of-care-blood-gas-instruments-application-for-post-filter-calcium-quality-control-in-patients-with-citrate-anticoagulation-during-extracorporeal-circulation
#13
Maria Averina, Raymond Jakobsen
: BackgroundMeasurements of ionized calcium (Ca(2)(+)) at concentrations less than 0.3 mmol/L are required for post-filter control in patients that receive extracorporeal circulation with sodium citrate anticoagulation. This study evaluates the stability of the Ca(2)(+) measurements at such concentrations. MethodsThe stability of the Ca(2)(+) measurements was tested by measuring daily the external standard Qualicheck concentration 3 s7950, Radiometer (0.22-0.25 mmol/L) by blood gas instruments ABL800 and ABL90, Radiometer...
November 3, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810559/interaction-site-for-the-inhibition-of-tarantula-jingzhaotoxin-xi-on-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-kv2-1
#14
Huai Tao, Xia Chen, Meichun Deng, Yucheng Xiao, Yuanyuan Wu, Zhonghua Liu, Sainan Zhou, Yingchun He, Songping Liang
Jingzhaotoxin-XI (JZTX-XI) is a 34-residue peptide from the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao venom that potently inhibits both voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 and voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1. In the present study, we further showed that JZTX-XI blocked Kv2.1 currents with the IC50 value of 0.39 ± 0.06 μM. JZTX-XI significantly shifted the current-voltage (I-V) curves and normalized conductance-voltage (G-V) curves of Kv2.1 channel to more depolarized voltages. Ala-scanning mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that mutants I273A, F274A, and E277A reduced toxin binding affinity by 10-, 16-, and 18-fold, respectively, suggesting that three common residues (I273, F274, E277) in the Kv2...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802880/surface-induced-three-peak-elution-behavior-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-during-cation-exchange-chromatography
#15
Jing Guo, Arch D Creasy, Gregory Barker, Giorgio Carta
A monoclonal antibody exhibits a two- or three-peak elution behavior when loaded on the CEX resin POROS XS and eluted with a salt gradient. Two peaks are observed without a hold step while a third more strongly retained peak becomes noticeable with a hold time as low as 10min. As the hold time is increased further, the first peak gradually disappears, the second peak initially increases and then decreases, and the third peak continuously increases. Dynamic light scattering shows that the third peak contains significant levels of aggregates formed in the column...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790498/massive-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-patient-using-warfarin-at-therapeutic-dose
#16
Sunnetcioglu Aysel, Esen Ramazan, Arisoy Ahmet
Warfarin sodium is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. The efficacy of warfarin therapy depends on maintaining the International Normalised Ratio (INR) within the target range for the indication. A 56-year-old male presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and chest pain, together with pain and swelling in both legs. The patient had been taking warfarin at the therapeutic dose since having undergone an aortic valve replacement four years ago. His vital signs were an arterial pressure of 60/30 heart rate of 138 beats per minute, respiratory rate of 30 per minute and oxygen saturation of 60%...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785497/nanosized-na-emt-and-li-emt-zeolites-selective-sorption-of-water-and-methanol-studied-by-a-combined-ir-and-tg-approach
#17
Hacan Ali Ahmad, Sébastien Thomas, Philippe Bazin, Aurélie Vicente, Christian Fernandez, Hussein Awala, Svetlana Mintova
Nanosized EMT-type zeolite crystals in sodium (Na-EMT) and ion-exchanged lithium (Li-EMT) forms were prepared. The sorption behavior of Li(Na)-EMT samples towards water, methanol and a mixture of both (50 : 50) was studied by combined thermogravimetric and infrared spectroscopic methods. The stability of the samples prior to and after the sorption measurements in two subsequent cycles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption and NMR spectroscopy. The high sorption capacity of the Li-EMT sample towards water was demonstrated...
October 27, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770674/evaluation-of-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-to-replace-traditional-phosphate-enhancement-solutions-effects-on-water-holding-capacity-tenderness-and-sensory-characteristics
#18
Macc Rigdon, Yen-Con Hung, Alexander M Stelzleni
Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes...
October 14, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770604/cropping-history-trumps-fallow-duration-in-long-term-soil-and-vegetation-dynamics-of-shifting-cultivation-systems
#19
Sylvia L R Wood, Jeanine M Rhemtulla, Oliver T Coomes
In the study of shifting cultivation systems, fallow duration is seen as the key determinant of vegetation and soil dynamics: long fallows renew soil fertility, biomass and biodiversity. However, long fallow systems are increasingly replaced around the world with short-medium fallow systems, and awareness is growing of the need to look across multiple (not just single) crop-fallow cycles to accurately understand observed soil and vegetation patterns. In a study from Peru that builds on field-level land-use histories (50+ years), we found that over multiple crop-fallow cycles, farmer's cropping practices mattered more than fallow duration for biodiversity and soil fertility...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767019/cobalt-phosphide-nanowall-arrays-supported-on-carbon-cloth-an-efficient-monolithic-non-noble-metal-hydrogen-evolution-catalyst
#20
Libin Yang, Kunyang Wang, Gu Du, Wenxin Zhu, Liang Cui, Chengxiao Zhang, Xuping Sun, Abdullah M Asiri
Hydrogen has been considered as an ideal energy carrier for replacing fossil fuels to mitigate global energy crises. Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is simple and effective for hydrogen production but needs active and durable catalysts to accelerate the kinetics. In this paper, we demonstrate that cobalt phosphide nanowall arrays supported on carbon cloth (CoP NAs/CC) efficiently catalyze the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NaBH4 with an activation energy of 42.1 kJ mol(-1) in alkaline media. These monolithic CoP NAs/CC show a maximum hydrogen generation rate of [Formula: see text] and are robust with superior durability and reusability...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
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