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sodium replacement

Macc Rigdon, Yen-Con Hung, Alexander M Stelzleni
Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes...
October 14, 2016: Meat Science
Sylvia L R Wood, Jeanine M Rhemtulla, Oliver T Coomes
In the study of shifting cultivation systems, fallow duration is seen as the key determinant of vegetation and soil dynamics: long fallows renew soil fertility, biomass and biodiversity. However, long fallow systems are increasingly replaced around the world with short-medium fallow systems, and awareness is growing of the need to look across multiple (not just single) crop-fallow cycles to accurately understand observed soil and vegetation patterns. In a study from Peru that builds on field-level land-use histories (50+ years), we found that over multiple crop-fallow cycles, farmer's cropping practices mattered more than fallow duration for biodiversity and soil fertility...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Libin Yang, Kunyang Wang, Gu Du, Wenxin Zhu, Liang Cui, Chengxiao Zhang, Xuping Sun, Abdullah M Asiri
Hydrogen has been considered as an ideal energy carrier for replacing fossil fuels to mitigate global energy crises. Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is simple and effective for hydrogen production but needs active and durable catalysts to accelerate the kinetics. In this paper, we demonstrate that cobalt phosphide nanowall arrays supported on carbon cloth (CoP NAs/CC) efficiently catalyze the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NaBH4 with an activation energy of 42.1 kJ mol(-1) in alkaline media. These monolithic CoP NAs/CC show a maximum hydrogen generation rate of [Formula: see text] and are robust with superior durability and reusability...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rik Olde Engberink, Thomas Van den Hoek, Nicky Van Noordenne, Bert-Jan Van den Born, Liffert Vogt
OBJECTIVE: Lowering salt intake has been shown to decrease blood pressure (BP). However, data from large cohort studies on salt intake and cardiovascular and renal outcomes are inconsistent. These studies have estimated long-term salt intake using 1 baseline measurement, which may be inaccurate. In this retrospective cohort study, the effect of using successive and multiple 24h samples on the relation between salt intake and long-term outcome was investigated. DESIGN AND METHOD: We selected adult subjects with an eGFR > 60 mL/min and at least 1 outpatient 24h urine sample >300 mL between 1998-1999...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chao Chu, Yumeng Cao, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Salt reduction are crucial in the management of hypertension. Over the past few decades, Series of national activities and studies focusing on salt reduction and salt intake education were promoted by the Chinese government. However, the current status of dietary sodium and potassium intake of Chinese population is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the status of dietary salt and potassium intake in the Chinese population through summarizing the previous studies from 1998 to 2011 and then propose appropriate initiatives...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Norm Campbell
Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Martin D Hoffman, Kristin J Stuempfle, Taylor Valentino
BACKGROUND: Ultramarathon runners commonly believe that sodium replacement is important for prevention of muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, and nausea during prolonged continuous exercise. The purpose of this study was to measure total sodium intake to determine if these beliefs are supported. METHODS: Participants of a 161-km ultramarathon (air temperature reaching 39 °C) provided full dietary information during the race, underwent body weight measurements before and after the race, completed a post-race questionnaire about muscle cramping and nausea or vomiting during the race, and had post-race plasma sodium concentration measured...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Denes Kaic Alves do Rosário, Yhan da Silva Mutz, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis Peixoto, Syllas Borburema Silva Oliveira, Raquel Vieira de Carvalho, Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro, Jackline Freitas Brilhante de São José, Patrícia Campos Bernardes
New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Masami Shibukawa, Daiki Nobushima, Shoko Sakuma, Mari Sasaki, Keisuke Nakamura, Yuma Matsutani, Kazunori Saitoh, Shingo Saito
A green extraction spectrophotometric method was presented for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in soil and sediment samples. This method is based on the selective extraction of cadmium as its iodide complex by aqueous biphasic extraction composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium sulfate, and a subsequent sensitive determination by spectrophotometry using 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol. This extraction method is simple and environmentally benign, since the organic solvents used for the traditional liquid-liquid extractions are replaced by the non-toxic polymer and inorganic salt...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Z H Wang, W W Sun, Y L Han, Z Ma
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of four solutions [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), sodium lactate Ringer's injection (SLRI), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and NaCl] on the transfection of the human protein kinase C-a antisense oligonucleotide (PKC-a ASO) aprinocarsen in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Specifically, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as the growth solutions for A549 cells, and OPTI-MEM was used as the PKC-a ASO diluent for transfection. Additionally, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as both the growth solutions and diluents for transfection...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Gabriel Masset, Kevin C Mathias, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Undine Lehmann, Mike Gibney, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Approximately 20% of US children and adolescents consume pizza on any given day; and pizza intake is associated with higher intakes of energy, sodium, and saturated fat. The reformulation of pizza products has yet to be evaluated as a viable option to improve diets of the US youth. This study modeled the effect on nutrient intakes of two potential pizza reformulation strategies based on the standards established by the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS)...
2016: PloS One
Surachai Kotirum, Bunchai Chongmelaxme, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
To analyze the cost-utility of oral dabigatran etexilate, enoxaparin sodium injection, and no intervention for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after total hip or knee replacement (THR/TKR) surgery among Thai patients. A cost-utility analysis using a decision tree model was conducted using societal and healthcare payers' perspectives to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering a 3-month time horizon. Costs were adjusted to year 2014. The willingness-to-pay threshold of THB 160,000 (USD 4926) was used...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Obinna C Okeke, Joshua S Boateng
Composite wafers and films comprising HPMC and sodium alginate (SA) were formulated for nicotine (NIC) replacement therapy via the buccal route. Magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) was added in different concentration ratios (0.25, 0.5, 0.75) to stabilize NIC and its effect on mechanical properties, internal and surface morphology, physical form, thermal properties, swelling, mucoadhesion, drug content and release behaviour of the formulations was investigated. MAS changed the physico-mechanical properties of the composite formulations causing a decrease in mechanical hardness, collapsed wafer pores, increased roughness of film surface, increase in crystallinity and decreased mucoadhesion of the wafers...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
D V Yanykin, A A Khorobrykh, M D Mamedov, V V Klimov
Recently, it has been shown that the addition of 1M trehalose leads to the increase of the rate of oxygen photoconsumption associated with activation of electron transport in the reaction center of photosystem 2 (PS2) in Mn-depleted PS2 membranes (apo-WOC-PS2) [37]. In the present work the effect of trehalose on photoinhibition of apo-WOC-PS2 preparations (which are characterized by a high sensitivity to the donor side photoinhibition of PS2) was investigated. The degree of photoinhibition was estimated by the loss of the capability of exogenous electron donor (sodium ascorbate) to reactivate the electron transport (measured by light-induced changes of chlorophyll fluorescence yield (∆F)) in apo-WOC-PS2...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Tolgahan Kocadağlı, Vural Gökmen
Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Raveendhara R Bannuru, Christopher R Brodie, Matthew C Sullivan, Timothy E McAlindon
OBJECTIVE: Though there is no consensus on its efficacy, knee osteoarthritis is symptomatically managed with intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA). Recent reports suggest that IAHA may delay the need for total knee replacement, with the magnitude of delay proportional to the number of injection series. However, the safety of repeated injection series is reported to vary between commercial products. This report describes a systematic review of safety data on repeated treatment courses of SUPARTZ...
October 2016: Cartilage
Oliver T R Toovey, Ian R Edmond, Nikolaos Makris
A 47-year-old woman presented with seizures secondary to euvolaemic hyponatraemia. A collateral history revealed recent increased oral fluid intake and increased use of herbal remedies including valerian root over the New Year period. There was no history of psychiatric disease to support psychogenic polydipsia. She responded to careful sodium replacement in the intensive care unit and was discharged with no neurological sequelae.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Rei Abe-Yoshizumi, Keiichi Inoue, Hideaki E Kato, Osamu Nureki, Hideki Kandori
Light-driven outward sodium-pumping rhodopsin (NaR) was recently found in marine bacteria. Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2) actively transports sodium and lithium ions in NaCl and LiCl, respectively, while it pumps protons in KCl. NaR has a conserved NDQ (N112, D116, and Q123 in KR2) motif, and previous studies suggested an important role for N112 in the function of KR2. Here we replaced N112 with 19 different amino acids and studied the molecular properties of the mutants. All mutants exhibited absorption bands from a protonated Schiff base in the λmax range from 508 to 531 nm upon heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, whose ion-pumping activity was measured using pH electrodes...
October 6, 2016: Biochemistry
Shangfei Zhang, Limei Zhu, Jie Yu, Jun Xu, Bin Gao, Changlin Zhou, Shunyi Zhu
Grafting of exogenous bioactive sites or functional motifs onto structurally stable scaffolds to gain new functions represents an important research direction in protein engineering. Some engineered proteins have been developed into therapeutic drugs. MeuNaTxα-3 (abbreviated as MT-3) is a newly characterized scorpion sodium channel toxin-like peptide isolated from the venom of the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which contains a rigid scaffold highly similar to classical scorpion sodium channel toxins and an extension of eight amino acids in its J-loop region...
September 26, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
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