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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#1
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334182/evaluation-of-different-applications-of-ethanedinitrile-c2n2-in-various-fumigation-chambers-for-control-of-monochamus-alternatus-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-naturally-infested-logs
#2
Byung-Ho Lee, Chung-Gyoo Park, Yonglin Ren
Monochamus alternatus Hopeis is an important vector of nematode pests of timber in Korea, particularly Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle. Previously, we reported that ethanedinitrile (C2N2) has the potential to replace methyl bromide and metam sodium to control M. alternatus larvae and B. xylophilus under low-temperature (<5 °C) conditions. Herein, we report on fumigation trials of C2N2 over a 3-yr period (February 2013-October 2015) conducted at higher temperatures. The trials were conducted under 24 different conditions that incorporated varying fumigation chamber types (plastic sheeting-enclosed chambers of differing construction or an ISO shipping container, interior size: 5...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332116/sweating-rate-and-sweat-sodium-concentration-in-athletes-a-review-of-methodology-and-intra-interindividual-variability
#3
REVIEW
Lindsay B Baker
Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326739/a-case-of-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-with-intermittent-seizures-as-the-first-presentation
#4
(no author information available yet)
Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a congenital disease with isolated growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). The typical clinical manifestations of PSIS are growth retardation, hypoglycemia or delayed pubertal development. However, few reports showed cases of PSIS were diagnosed with acute epileptic seizures accompanied by hyponatremia. Here, we report an 18-year-old female presenting with episodes of intermittent seizures for 13 years. The electrolyte examination on many occasions has shown hyponatremia, even as low as 99...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326449/functional-analysis-of-the-minimal-twin-arginine-translocation-system-components-from-streptococcus-thermophilus-cgmcc-7-179-in-escherichia-coli-de3
#5
Chenchen Zhang, Tingting Guo, Yongping Xin, Susu Zhang, Xudong Ouyang, Ruixia Gu, Jian Kong
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system, which is used for folded protein secretion, is rare in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Previously, a Tat system composed of TatAS and TatCS subunits (the subscript S denotes a Streptococcus thermophilus origin) was identified in S. thermophilus CGMCC 7.179. In the present study, the tatA S and tatC S genes were cloned and functionally analyzed in Escherichia coli DE3 tat-deficient mutants. The E. coli tatABCDE-deficient mutant complemented with tatC S A S exhibited shortened cellular chains, but its ability to grow in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was not restored, suggesting that the S...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#6
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
March 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318264/structure-of-polystyrene-sulfonate-surfactant-mixtures-at-air-water-interfaces-and-their-role-as-building-blocks-for-macroscopic-foam
#7
Felix Schulze-Zachau, Björn Braunschweig
Air/water interfaces were modified by oppositely charged poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures and were studied on a molecular level with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), tensiometry, surface dilatational rheology and ellipsometry. In order to deduce structure property relations, our results on the interfacial molecular structure and lateral interactions of PSS(-)/CTA(+) complexes were compared to the stability and structure of macroscopic foam as well as to bulk properties...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303605/performance-of-scoring-systems-to-predict-mortality-of-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Yi-Xiang Zheng, Xiao Zhong, Ya-Jun Li, Xue-Gong Fan
BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has characteristic feature of multisystem organ failure, rapid progression and low early transplant-free survival. AIM: We performed a meta-analysis to determine the accuracy of five scoring systems in predicting mortality of ACLF patients. METHODS: A systematic database search was performed and retrieved articles were graded according to methodological quality. Collated data was meta-analyzed by hierarchical summarized receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model and bivariate model to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of scoring systems RESULT: Of 4223 studies identified, 26 studies involving 4732 ACLF patients were included...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302179/balanced-crystalloids-versus-saline-in-the-intensive-care-unit-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-multiple-crossover-trial
#9
Matthew W Semler, Wesley H Self, Li Wang, Daniel W Byrne, Jonathan P Wanderer, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Joanna L Stollings, Avinash B Kumar, Antonio Hernandez, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Addison K May, Edward D Siew, Andrew D Shaw, Gordon R Bernard, Todd W Rice
BACKGROUND: Saline, the intravenous fluid most commonly administered to critically ill adults, contains a high chloride content, which may be associated with acute kidney injury and death. Whether using balanced crystalloids rather than saline decreases the risk of acute kidney injury and death among critically ill adults remains unknown. METHODS: The Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) is a pragmatic, cluster-level allocation, cluster-level crossover trial being conducted between 1 June 2015 and 30 April 2017 in five intensive care units at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA...
March 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294613/surface-adsorption-in-ternary-surfactant-mixtures-above-the-critical-micelle-concentration-the-effects-of-asymmetry-on-the-composition-dependence-of-the-excess-free-energy
#10
Jessica Liley, Robert K Thomas, Jeff Penfold, Ian M Tucker, Jordan T Petkov, Paul Stevenson, John Robert Peter Webster
The composition of the adsorbed layer of a ternary surfactant mixture at the air-water interface has been studied by neutron reflectivity. The adsorption of the ternary mixture of octaethylene monododecyl ether, C12E8, sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate, LAS, and sodium dioxyethylene glycol monododecyl sulphate, SLES, and of each of the binary mixtures, at solution concentrations greater than the mixed critical micelle concentration (CMC) are highly non-ideal. In the ternary mixture the surface adsorption is dominated by the C12E8 and LAS, and there is little SLES at the interface...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294445/the-challenge-of-nutritional-profiling-of-a-protein-free-feed-module-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#11
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Enteral tube feeding for children with organic acidaemias (OA) is recommended. Protein restriction, providing minimum safe levels of protein intake, is advocated. Standard paediatric tube feeding formulae provide more than the minimum safe protein requirements and are unsuitable in OA without modification. Modified paediatric enteral feeds consist of several modular ingredients. The aim of this prospective longitudinal interventional study was to assess the efficacy of a premeasured novel protein-free module developed for children aged over 12 months compared to conventional practice...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283939/high-dose-of-radioactive-iodine-per-se-has-no-effect-on-glucose-metabolism-in-thyroidectomized-rats
#12
Roghaieh Samadi, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Babak Shafiei, Sevda Gheibi, Fereidoun Azizi, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Thyroid concentrates radioactive iodine by sodium-iodide symporter; this is used for treating hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Pancreas expresses NIS and radioactive iodine uptake may damage pancreatic beta-cells and predispose patients to type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether radioactive iodine is associated with glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 10/each); control, thyroidectomized, thyroidectomized-treated with 131-I (TX+I), and thyroidectomized-treated with 131-I and L-thyroxine (TX+I+T4)...
March 10, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281241/decellularized-cryopreserved-allografts-as-off-the-shelf-allogeneic-alternative-for-heart-valve-replacement-in-vitro-assessment-before-clinical-translation
#13
Laura Iop, Adolfo Paolin, Paola Aguiari, Diletta Trojan, Elisa Cogliati, Gino Gerosa
Cryopreserved allogeneic conduits are the elective biocompatible choice among currently available substitutes for surgical replacement in end-stage valvulopathy. However, degeneration occurs in 15 years in adults or faster in children, due to recipient's immunological reactions to donor's antigens. Here, human aortic valves were decellularized by TRICOL, based on Triton X-100 and sodium cholate, and submitted to standard cryopreservation (TRICOL-human aortic valves (hAVs)). Tissue samples were analyzed to study the effects of the combined procedure on original valve architecture and donor's cell removal...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277648/sample-stacking-provides-three-orders-of-magnitude-sensitivity-enhancement-in-sds-capillary-gel-electrophoresis-of-adeno-associated-virus-capsid-proteins
#14
Chao-Xuan Zhang, Michael M Meagher
Size-based protein analysis utilizing only 25 ng of total proteins has been realized by sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS CGE) with head-column field-amplified sample stacking as an online sample preconcentration technique. This method has been used as a replacement of SDS-PAGE for purity analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) therapeutic products of different serotypes and transgenes. A limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL (3.3 pM) capsid proteins was achieved with convenient UV absorbance detection at 214 nm, equivalent to 20 pg of protein (330 attomole) loaded in the autosampler vial...
March 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277643/insights-into-the-dual-electrode-characteristics-of-layered-na0-5ni0-25mn0-75o2-materials-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#15
Manikandan Palanisamy, Hyun Woo Kim, Seongwoo Heo, Eungje Lee, Youngsik Kim
Sodium-ion batteries are now close to replacing lithium-ion batteries because they provide superior alternative energy storage solutions that are in great demand, particularly for large-scale applications. To that end, the present study is focused on the properties of a new type of dual-electrode material, Na0.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2, synthesized using a mixed hydroxy-carbonate route. Cyclic voltammetry confirms that redox couples, at high and low voltage ranges, are facilitated by the unique features and properties of this dual-electrode, through sodium ion deintercalation/intercalation into the layered Na0...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272346/a-greener-quick-and-comprehensive-extraction-approach-for-lc-ms-of-multiple-mycotoxins
#16
Andreas Breidbach
In food/feed control, mycotoxin analysis is often still performed "one analyte at a time". Here a method is presented which aims at making mycotoxin analysis environmentally friendlier through replacing acetonitrile by ethyl acetate and reducing chemical waste production by analyzing four mycotoxins together, forgoing sample extract clean-up, and minimizing solvent consumption. For this, 2 g of test material were suspended in 8 mL water and 16 mL ethyl acetate were added. Extraction was accelerated through sonication for 30 min and subsequent addition of 8 g sodium sulfate...
March 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270158/replacing-american-snacks-with-tree-nuts-increases-consumption-of-key-nutrients-among-us-children-and-adults-results-of-an-nhanes-modeling-study
#17
Colin D Rehm, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND: Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). OBJECTIVE: To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary measures of diet quality...
March 7, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259740/coarse-grained-empirical-potential-structure-refinement-application-to-a-reverse-aqueous-micelle
#18
A K Soper, K J Edler
Conventional atomistic computer simulations, involving perhaps up to 10(6)atoms, can achieve length-scales on the order of a few 10s of nm. Yet many heterogeneous systems, such as colloids, nano-structured materials, or biological systems, can involve correlations over distances up 100s of nm, perhaps even 1μm in some instances. For such systems it is necessary to invoke coarse-graining, where single atoms are replaced by agglomerations of atoms, usually represented as spheres, in order for the simulation to be performed within a practical computer memory and time scale...
March 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259073/food-by-products-as-potential-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-additives-in-chill-stored-raw-lamb-patties
#19
A I Andrés, M J Petrón, J D Adámez, M López, M L Timón
The aim of this work was to study the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts obtained from tomato (TOM), red grape (GRA), olive (OLI) and pomegranate (POM) by-products as well as to evaluate the effect of their addition into lamb meat patties (1000mg/kg) in order to improve shelf life. A negative (CON) and a positive control (sodium ascorbate, ASC) were also included in the experiment. Results for radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and reducing power indicated that GRA and OLI extracts could inhibit oxidation more efficiently than POM and TOM extracts (P<0...
February 16, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257818/novel-alternating-current-electrospinning-of-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-acetate-succinate-hpmcas-nanofibers-for-dissolution-enhancement-the-importance-of-solution-conductivity
#20
Attila Balogh, Balázs Farkas, Ádám Pálvölgyi, András Domokos, Balázs Démuth, György Marosi, Zsombor Kristóf Nagy
Novel high-yield alternating current electrospinning (ACES) as well as direct current (DCES) methods were investigated to prepare high quality hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) fibers for the dissolution enhancement of poorly soluble spironolactone (SPIR). Although HPMCAS is of great pharmaceutical importance as a carrier of marketed solid dispersion-based products, it was found to be unprocessable using electrospinning. Addition of small amounts of polyethylene oxide as aid polymer provided smooth fibers with DCES but strongly beaded products with ACES...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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