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sodium replacement

N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Górka, Z M Kowalski, R Zabielski, P Guilloteau
Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ning Xu, Yingying Zheng, Xiaochen Wang, Terry A Krulwich, Yanhe Ma, Jun Liu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is generally regarded as a moderately salt-alkali-tolerant industrial organism. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these specific adaptations. Here, we found that the Mrp1 antiporter played crucial roles in conferring both environmental Na+ -resistance and alkali-tolerance, whereas the Mrp2 antiporter was necessary in coping with high KCl stress at alkaline pH. Furthermore, the Δ mrp1mrp2 double mutant showed most severe growth retardation, and failed to grow under high salt or alkaline conditions...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Daniëlle Vaartjes, Kutty Selva Nandakumar, Rikard Holmdahl, Bruno Raposo
High salt consumption has since long been associated with elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Recently, mouse studies suggested that a high dietary salt intake exacerbates the clinical manifestations of autoimmunity. Using naïve cells ex vivo after pre-exposure of mice to high salt intake, we show that increased salt exposure affects the viability and effector functions of immune cells. CD4+ T cells evidenced a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by increased secretion of IFNγ and IL-17A, when exposed to high salt concentrations in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Immunology
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Todd S Ing, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Yijuan Sun, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Osmotic diuresis results from urine loss of large amounts of solutes distributed either in total body water or in the extracellular compartment. Replacement solutions should reflect the volume and monovalent cation (sodium and potassium) content of the fluid lost. Whereas the volume of the solutions used to replace losses that occurred prior to the diagnosis of osmotic diuresis is guided by the clinical picture, the composition of these solutions is predicated on serum sodium concentration and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations at presentation...
March 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Florence Gunawan, Elizabeth George, Adam Roberts
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment for advanced melanoma, and their use is being increasingly implicated in the development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. We present a case of a 52-year-old man with metastatic melanoma on combination nivolumab and ipilumimab therapy who developed concurrent hypophysitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and diabetes insipidus. He presented prior to third cycle of combination treatment with a headache, myalgias and fatigue. Biochemistry and MRI pituitary confirmed anterior pituitary dysfunction with a TSH: 0...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
J Patel, S Lal, K Nuss, S P Wilshaw, B von Rechenberg, R M Hall, J L Tipper
Less than optimal particle isolation techniques have impeded analysis of orthopaedic wear debris in vivo. The purpose of this research was to develop and test an improved method for particle isolation from tissue. A volume of 0.018 mm3 of clinically relevant CoCrMo, Ti-6Al-4V or Si3 N4 particles was injected into rat stifle joints for seven days of in vivo exposure. Following sacrifice, particles were located within tissues using histology. The particles were recovered by enzymatic digestion of periarticular tissue with papain and proteinase K, followed by ultracentrifugation using a sodium polytungstate density gradient...
March 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Gisah Amaral Carvalho, Gilberto Paz-Filho, Cleo Otaviano Mesa Junior, Hans Graf
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Shuang Zhao, Longyue Shi, Yu Ma, Zhan Wang
In order to find a model solution to simulate actual extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solution in terms of filterability behavior, a series of experiments were conducted in a dead-end unstirred cell with 0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride membranes using binary/ternary mixtures consisting of sodium alginate (SA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and humic acid (HA). Three target parameters (cumulative filtrate volume (CFV), specific cake resistance (αc ) and rejection (R)) were compared and the roles of mixture components were investigated...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Matthew W Semler, Wesley H Self, Jonathan P Wanderer, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Li Wang, Daniel W Byrne, Joanna L Stollings, Avinash B Kumar, Christopher G Hughes, Antonio Hernandez, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Addison K May, Liza Weavind, Jonathan D Casey, Edward D Siew, Andrew D Shaw, Gordon R Bernard, Todd W Rice
BACKGROUND: Both balanced crystalloids and saline are used for intravenous fluid administration in critically ill adults, but it is not known which results in better clinical outcomes. METHODS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial conducted in five intensive care units at an academic center, we assigned 15,802 adults to receive saline (0.9% sodium chloride) or balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A) according to the randomization of the unit to which they were admitted...
March 1, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Liangbao Yang, Borong Yu, Pan Li, Binbin Zhou, Xianghu Tang, Shaofei Li
A sodium chloride crystals-driven spontaneously hot spots structure was demonstrated as SERS-active platform to get reproducible SERS signals and eliminate the need for mapping large areas in comparison with solution phase. During the process of solvent evaporation, the crystals produced in colloids induced silver aggregates assemble around themselves. And the micro-scale crystals can act as the template to obtain optical position, such that the assembled hot area is conventionally located during SERS measurements...
February 26, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
George Thomas, Paul E Drawz
Patients with CKD typically have hypertension. Manual BP measurement in the office setting was used to define hypertension, establish eligibility, and assess BP targets in the epidemiologic studies and early randomized, controlled trials that inform current management of hypertension. Use of automated oscillometric devices has largely replaced manual BP measurement in the office and clinical trials. These newer devices may reduce the white coat effect and facilitate guideline-adherent measurement protocols...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Nana Wang, Yun-Xiao Wang, Xun Xu, Ting Liao, Yi Du, Zhongchao Bai, Shixue Dou
Room-temperature sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been regarded as promising candidates for grid-scale energy storage due to their low cost and the wide distribution of sodium sources. The main scientific challenge for their practical application is to develop suitable anodes with long-term cycling stability and high rate capacity. Here, novel hierarchical 3D porous carbon materials are synthesized through a simple in-situ template carbonization process. Electrochemical examination demonstrates that the carbonization temperature is a key factor that affects Na+ ion storage performance, owing to the consequent differences in surface area, pore volume, and degree of crystallinity...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joel D Kopple, Denis Fouque
Dietary treatment offers many benefits to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are approaching the need for renal replacement therapy. A large number of these benefits are independent of whether diets slow the rate of progression of CKD. These diets are low in protein and many minerals, and provide adequate energy for the CKD patient. The diets can reduce accumulation of potentially toxic metabolic products derived from protein and amino acid degradation, maintain a healthier balance of body water, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and other minerals, and prevent or improve protein-energy wasting...
February 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Adrianna Douvris, Gurpreet Malhi, Swapnil Hiremath, Lauralyn McIntyre, Samuel A Silver, Sean M Bagshaw, Ron Wald, Claudio Ronco, Lindsey Sikora, Catherine Weber, Edward G Clark
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic instability related to renal replacement therapy (HIRRT) may increase the risk of death and limit renal recovery. Studies in end-stage renal disease populations on maintenance hemodialysis suggest that some renal replacement therapy (RRT)-related interventions (e.g., cool dialysate) may reduce the occurrence of HIRRT, but less is known about interventions to prevent HIRRT in critically ill patients receiving RRT for acute kidney injury (AKI). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of RRT-related interventions for reducing HIRRT in such patients across RRT modalities...
February 22, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Helena Kandárová, Hana Bendova, Silvia Letasiova, Kelly P Coleman, Wim H De Jong, Dagmar Jírova
Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Genapol® X-80 (GP), and Y-4 polymer. Dilute saline and sesame seed oil (SSO) solutions of each were evaluated using a 4 and 18 h HPT and the EpiDerm™ SIT-MD RhE assay; results were then compared to existing rabbit skin irritation test data...
February 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
S Pigat, A Connolly, M Cushen, M Cullen, C O'Mahony
This project quantified the impact that voluntary reformulation efforts of the food industry had on the Irish population's nutrient intake. Nutrient composition data on reformulated products were collected from 14 major food companies for two years, 2005 and 2012. Probabilistic intake assessments were performed using the Irish national food consumption surveys as dietary intake data. The nutrient data were weighted by market shares replacing existing food composition data for these products. The reformulation efforts assessed, significantly reduced mean energy intakes by up to 12 kcal/d (adults), 15 kcal/d (teens), 19 kcal/d (children) and 9 kcal/d (pre-schoolers)...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Sarah Bel, Thomas Struyf, Tine Fierens, Griet Jacobs, Christine Vinkx, Mia Bellemans, Stefan Voorspoels, Karin De Ridder
A dietary exposure assessment of food emulsifiers E481 (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate) and E482 (calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate) in the Belgian population was performed. Nationally representative food consumption data from the Belgian National Food Consumption Surveys 2004 (BNFCS2004) and 2014 (BNFCS2014) were used for calculations. A conservative approach (combining individual food consumption data with the maximum permitted level (MPL) of foods (tier 2), was compared with more refined estimates (combining individual food consumption data with actual concentrations measured in food products available on the Belgian market (tier 3))...
February 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
A Paparo, F D van Krüchten, T P Spaniol, J Okuda
The terminal formate complex [(OCHO)Ti(N3N)] (3) containing the trianionic triamido-amine ligand (Me3SiNCH2CH2)3N3- (N3N) was prepared via salt metathesis of [ClTi(N3N)] (1) with sodium formate or alternatively by treatment of the alkyl complex [nBuTi(N3N)] (2) with ammonium formate [HNEt3][OCHO]. Deprotonation of 3 with potassium hexamethyldisilazide gave a polymeric helical chain of the oxo complex {K[OTi(N3N)]}n (4). Reaction of 2 with the trityl salt [Ph3C][B(3,5-Cl2C6H3)4] or the Brønsted acid [HNEt3][B(C6F5)4] gave [(Et2O)Ti(N3N)][BR4] (6[BR4]·Et2O) with R = 3,5-Cl2C6H3 or C6F5...
February 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Gregg D Stoner
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, nonadherence to therapy, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. In children and adolescents, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is often present when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. Physical findings include profound dehydration and neurologic symptoms ranging from lethargy to coma...
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
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