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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346708/role-of-comprehension-on-performance-at-higher-levels-of-bloom-s-taxonomy-findings-from-assessments-of-healthcare-professional-students
#1
Anne-Marie A Verenna, Kim A Noble, Helen E Pearson, Susan M Miller
The first four levels of Bloom's taxonomy were used to create quiz questions designed to assess student learning of the gross anatomy, histology, and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Information on GI histology and physiology was presented to separate samples of medical, dental, and podiatry students in computer based tutorials where the information from the two disciplines was presented either separately or in an integrated fashion. All students were taught GI gross anatomy prior to this study by course faculty as part of the required curriculum of their respective program...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346700/competence-revisited-in-a-rural-context
#2
Randall L Longenecker, Andrea Wendling, Joyce Hollander-Rodriguez, John Bowling, David Schmitz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: General competencies developed in undergraduate and graduate medical education are sometimes promoted as applicable in any practice context. However, rural practice presents challenges and opportunities that may require unique training. The objectives of this national survey of both undergraduate and graduate medical educators and practicing physicians were to further develop a previously published list of competency domains for working in rural communities and to assess their relative importance in education and practice...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346690/using-standardized-patient-assessments-to-evaluate-a-health-literacy-curriculum
#3
Gail S Marion, Jade M Hairston, Stephen W Davis, Julienne K Kirk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients' health literacy is a growing concern as patients are expected to perform more self-care. While many US schools implement health literacy in their curricula, time spent on the topic ranges from 0 to 8 hours and is largely didactic. Evaluation of health literacy skills is not well defined. The effectiveness of a health literacy curriculum for third-year medical students was evaluated by two standardized patients assessments (SPAs). METHODS: All third-year medical students complete a required 4-week clerkship in family medicine...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346689/initial-development-and-validation-of-a-family-medicine-attitudes-questionnaire
#4
Julie Phillips, Jacob Prunuske, Laurie Fitzpatrick, Brian Mavis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although many curricular and policy interventions are designed to influence students' attitudes toward family medicine, assessment of these interventions is limited by lack of a comprehensive, validated measure of students' attitudes. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire that effectively assesses medical student attitudes toward family medicine. METHODS: A 31-item questionnaire was assessed for internal, external, and content validity...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346645/performance-of-an-easy-to-use-prediction-model-for-renal-patient-survival-an-external-validation-study-using-data-from-the-era-edta-registry
#5
Aline C Hemke, Martin B A Heemskerk, Merel van Diepen, Anneke Kramer, Johan de Meester, James G Heaf, José Maria Abad Diez, Marta Torres Guinea, Patrik Finne, Philippe Brunet, Bjørn E Vikse, Fergus J Caskey, Jamie P Traynor, Ziad A Massy, Cécile Couchoud, Jaap W Groothoff, Maurizio Nordio, Kitty J Jager, Friedo W Dekker, Andries J Hoitsma
Background: An easy-to-use prediction model for long-term renal patient survival based on only four predictors [age, primary renal disease, sex and therapy at 90 days after the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT)] has been developed in The Netherlands. To assess the usability of this model for use in Europe, we externally validated the model in 10 European countries. Methods: Data from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry were used...
January 16, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346627/severe-and-protracted-sleep-disruptions-in-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Increasing evidences suggest that the predator threat model is a valid animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, sleep has never been examined in this model. Since sleep disturbances, including insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, are severe and protracted symptoms of PTSD, we hypothesized that mice exposed to predator odor trauma (POT) will display contextual fear conditioning along with severe and protracted sleep disruptions.Adult male C57BL/6J mice, instrumented with wire electrodes [to record hippocampal field potentials (LFP) and nuchal muscle (EMG) activity], were exposed to contextual conditioning using soiled cat litter as unconditional stimulus (US)...
January 13, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346575/abacavir-induces-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-murine-model
#7
Victor Collado-Diaz, Isabel Andujar, Ainhoa Sanchez-Lopez, Samuel Orden, María Amparo Blanch-Ruiz, María Angeles Martinez-Cuesta, Ana Blas-García, Juan V Esplugues, Ángeles Álvarez
Objective and methods: The effects of abacavir were evaluated in a validated model of arterial thrombosis. The role of ATP-P2X7-receptors and the actions of two vascular-damaging agents (diclofenac or rofecoxib) and other NRTIs were also analysed. Results: Abacavir dose-dependently promoted thrombus formation. This effect was reversed by a P2X7-receptor antagonist and was non-existent in P2X7 KO mice. The effects of abacavir were similar to those of diclofenac and rofecoxib...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346512/validation-of-the-pids-idsa-severity-criteria-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Todd A Florin, Cole Brokamp, Rachel Mantyla, Bradley DePaoli, Richard Ruddy, Samir S Shah, Lilliam Ambroggio
Background: The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recommends intensive care unit (ICU) admission or continuous monitoring for children meeting severity criteria. Our objective was to validate these criteria. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of children age 3 months-18 years diagnosed with CAP in a pediatric Emergency Department (ED) from 9/2014-8/2015...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346497/convergent-and-divergent-validity-of-the-grammaticality-and-utterance-length-instrument
#9
Anny Castilla-Earls, Katrina Fulcher-Rood
Purpose: This feasibility study examines the convergent and divergent validity of the Grammaticality and Utterance Length Instrument (GLi), a tool designed to assess the grammaticality and average utterance length of a child's prerecorded story retell. Method: Three raters used the GLi to rate audio-recorded story retells from 100 English-speaking preschool children. To examine convergent validity, the results of the GLi were correlated with 2 language sample measures, mean length of utterance in words and percentage of grammatical utterances, and with the results of the Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test-Third Edition (Dawson, Stout, & Eyer, 2003)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346452/body-shape-indices-are-predictors-for-estimating-fat-free-mass-in-male-athletes
#10
Yohei Takai, Miyuki Nakatani, Toru Aoki, Daisuke Komori, Kazuyuki Oyamada, Kensuke Murata, Eiji Fujita, Takuya Akamine, Yoshihisa Urita, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kanehisa
It is unknown whether body size and body shape parameters can be predictors for estimating whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in male athletes. This study aimed to investigate whether body size and shape variables can be predictors for FFM in male athletes. Using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whole body fat mass (FM) and FFM were determined in 132 male athletes and 14 sedentary males. The sample was divided into two groups: validation (N = 98) and cross-validation (N = 48) groups. Body height (BH), body mass (BM), and waist circumference at immediately above the iliac crest (W) were measured...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346451/an-approach-for-predicting-the-compressive-strength-of-cement-based-materials-exposed-to-sulfate-attack
#11
Huaicheng Chen, Chunxiang Qian, Chengyao Liang, Wence Kang
In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) model which can be used to predict the compressive strength of mortars exposed to sulfate attack was established. An accelerated corrosion test was applied to collect compressive strength data. For predicting the compressive strength of mortars, a total of 638 data samples obtained from experiment was chosen as a dataset to establish a SVM model. The values of the coefficient of determination, the mean absolute error, the mean absolute percentage error and the root mean square error were used for evaluating the predictive accuracy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346446/osteopontin-opn-as-a-csf-and-blood-biomarker-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Elmira Agah, Arshia Zardoui, Amene Saghazadeh, Mona Ahmadi, Abbas Tafakhori, Nima Rezaei
Identifying a reliable biomarker may accelerate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to early management of the disease. Accumulating evidence suggest that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood concentration of osteopontin (OPN) may have diagnostic and prognostic value in MS. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that measured peripheral blood and CSF levels of OPN in MS patients and controls to evaluate the diagnostic potential of this biomarker better. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to find articles that measured OPN concentration in peripheral blood and CSF samples from MS patients up to October 19, 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346414/reliability-of-plasma-polar-metabolite-concentrations-in-a-large-scale-cohort-study-using-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#13
Sei Harada, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Queenie Chan, Ayako Kurihara, Kota Fukai, Miho Iida, Suzuka Kato, Daisuke Sugiyama, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Ayano Takeuchi, Miki Akiyama, Tomonori Okamura, Timothy M D Ebbels, Paul Elliott, Masaru Tomita, Asako Sato, Chizuru Suzuki, Masahiro Sugimoto, Tomoyoshi Soga, Toru Takebayashi
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies with metabolomics data are becoming more widespread, however, large-scale studies involving 10,000s of participants are still limited, especially in Asian populations. Therefore, we started the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study enrolling 11,002 community-dwelling adults in Japan, and using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The CE-MS method is highly amenable to absolute quantification of polar metabolites, however, its reliability for large-scale measurement is unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346403/prime-incision-a-minimally-invasive-approach-to-breast-cancer-surgical-treatment-a-2-cohort-retrospective-comparison-with-conventional-breast-conserving-surgery
#14
Silvio Eduardo Bromberg, Patricia Rodrigues Alves de Figueiredo Moraes, Felipe Ades
The prime incision technique is an oncoplastic surgery aimed to remove both the breast tumor and the sentinel lymph node through one incision, thus providing better aesthetic results than the conventional breast conservative two incision technique. We retrospectively evaluated 2 cohorts of 60 consecutive breast cancer patients operated by either conventional breast conservative surgery (N = 26) or one incision surgery (N = 34). There were no recurrence or death events observed in any group. No difference was seen regarding the incidence of surgical complications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346391/development-and-validation-of-a-population-based-risk-algorithm-for-obesity-the-obesity-population-risk-tool-oport
#15
Michael Lebenbaum, Osvaldo Espin-Garcia, Yi Li, Laura C Rosella
BACKGROUND: Given the dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity, greater focus on prevention is necessary. We sought to develop and validate a population risk tool for obesity to inform prevention efforts. METHODS: We developed the Obesity Population Risk Tool (OPoRT) using the longitudinal National Population Health Survey and sex-specific Generalized Estimating Equations to predict the 10-year risk of obesity among adults 18 and older. The model was validated using a bootstrap approach accounting for the survey design...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346386/histological-subtypes-of-mouse-mammary-tumors-reveal-conserved-relationships-to-human-cancers
#16
Daniel P Hollern, Matthew R Swiatnicki, Eran R Andrechek
Human breast cancer has been characterized by extensive transcriptional heterogeneity, with dominant patterns reflected in the intrinsic subtypes. Mouse models of breast cancer also have heterogeneous transcriptomes and we noted that specific histological subtypes were associated with particular subsets. We hypothesized that unique sets of genes define each tumor histological type across mouse models of breast cancer. Using mouse models that contained both gene expression data and expert pathologist classification of tumor histology on a sample by sample basis, we predicted and validated gene expression signatures for Papillary, EMT, Microacinar and other histological subtypes...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346378/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-virtual-clinic-on-patient-experience-personal-and-provider-costs-of-care-in-urinary-incontinence-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Georgina Jones, Victoria Brennan, Richard Jacques, Hilary Wood, Simon Dixon, Stephen Radley
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of using a 'virtual clinic' on patient experience and cost in the care of women with urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women, aged > 18 years referred to a urogynaecology unit were randomised to either (1) A Standard Clinic or (2) A Virtual Clinic. Both groups completed a validated, web-based interactive, patient-reported outome measure (ePAQ-Pelvic Floor), in advance of their appointment followed by either a telephone consultation (Virtual Clinic) or face-to-face consultation (Standard Care)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346371/identification-of-novel-leishmanicidal-molecules-by-virtual-and-biochemical-screenings-targeting-leishmania-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-4a
#18
Emna Harigua-Souiai, Yosser Zina Abdelkrim, Imen Bassoumi-Jamoussi, Ons Zakraoui, Guillaume Bouvier, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir, Josette Banroques, Nathan Desdouits, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Mourad Barhoumi, N Kyle Tanner, Michael Nilges, Arnaud Blondel, Ikram Guizani
Leishmaniases are neglected parasitic diseases in spite of the major burden they inflict on public health. The identification of novel drugs and targets constitutes a research priority. For that purpose we used Leishmania infantum initiation factor 4A (LieIF), an essential translation initiation factor that belongs to the DEAD-box proteins family, as a potential drug target. We modeled its structure and identified two potential binding sites. A virtual screening of a diverse chemical library was performed for both sites...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346316/chronic-dietary-intake-of-enniatin-b-in-broiler-chickens-has-low-impact-on-intestinal-morphometry-and-hepatic-histology-and-shows-limited-transfer-to-liver-tissue
#19
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Richard Ducatelle, Michael Rychlik, Gunther Antonissen
The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg) or a control diet (135 µg/kg) for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured...
January 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346299/meteo-and-hydrodynamic-measurements-to-detect-physical-processes-in-confined-shallow-seas
#20
Francesca De Serio, Michele Mossa
Coastal sites with typical lagoon features are extremely vulnerable, often suffering from scarce circulation. Especially in the case of shallow basins subjected to strong anthropization and urban discharges, it is fundamental to monitor their hydrodynamics and water quality. The proper detection of events by high performance sensors and appropriate analysis of sensor signals has proved to be a necessary tool for local authorities and stakeholders, leading to early warning and preventive measures against environmental degradation and related hazards...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
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