keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Hiv and pharmacokinetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634358/hiv-1-gp41-targeting-fusion-inhibitory-peptides-enhance-the-gp120-targeting-protein-mediated-inactivation-of-hiv-1-virions
#1
Qianqian Qi, Qian Wang, Weizao Chen, Lanying Du, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Protein- or peptide-based viral inactivators are being developed as novel antiviral drugs with improved efficacy, pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles because they actively inactivate cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions before attachment to host cells. By contrast, most clinically used antiviral drugs must penetrate host cells to inhibit viral replication. In this study, we pre-treated HIV-1 particles with a gp120-targeting bispecific multivalent protein, 2Dm2m or 4Dm2m, in the presence or absence of the gp41-targeting HIV-1 fusion inhibitory peptides enfuvirtide (T20), T2635, or sifuvirtide (SFT)...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627229/cobicistat-versus-ritonavir-similar-pharmacokinetic-enhancers-but-some-important-differences
#2
Alice Tseng, Christine A Hughes, Janet Wu, Jason Seet, Elizabeth J Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To describe properties of cobicistat and ritonavir; compare boosting data with atazanavir, darunavir, and elvitegravir; and summarize antiretroviral and comedication interaction studies, with a focus on similarities and differences between ritonavir and cobicistat. Considerations when switching from one booster to another are discussed. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE was performed (1985 to April 2017) using the following search terms: cobicistat, ritonavir, pharmacokinetic, drug interactions, booster, pharmacokinetic enhancer, HIV, antiretrovirals...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622951/population-approach-to-efavirenz-therapy
#3
Hélder Duarte, João Paulo Cruz, Natália Aniceto, Ana Clara Ribeiro, Ana Fernandes, Paulo Paixão, Francisco Antunes, José Morais
Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor commonly used as first line therapy in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, with a narrow therapeutic range and a high between-subject variability which can lead to central nervous system toxicity or therapeutic failure. To characterize the sources of variability and better predict EFV steady state plasma concentrations, a population pharmacokinetic model was developed form 96 HIV positive individuals, using a nonlinear mixed effect method with Monolix® software...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607022/pharmacokinetics-of-pyrazinamide-optimising-dosing-regimens-for-drug-sensitive-and-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Maxwell T Chirehwa, Helen McIlleron, Roxana Rustomjee, Thuli Mthiyane, Philip Onyebujoh, Peter Smith, Paolo Denti
Pyrazinamide is used in the treatment of tuberculosis(TB) because its sterilising effect against tubercle bacilli allows treatment shortening. It is part of standard treatment for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and it is being considered as a companion drug in novel regimens. The aim of this analysis was to characterize factors contributing to the variability in exposure and to evaluate drug exposures using alternative doses, thus providing evidence to support revised dosing recommendations for drug-susceptible and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB)...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605170/pharmacokinetics-based-adherence-measures-for-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-children
#5
Wanzhu Tu, Winstone M Nyandiko, Hai Liu, James E Slaven, Michael L Scanlon, Samuel O Ayaya, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: Traditional medication adherence measures do not account for the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the drugs, potentially misrepresenting true therapeutic exposure. METHODS: In a population of HIV-infected Kenyan children on antiretroviral therapy including nevirapine (NVP), we used a one-compartment model with previously established PK parameters and Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS®)-recorded dosing times to estimate the mean plasma concentration of NVP (Cp) in individual patients during 1 month of follow-up...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598790/croi-2017-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Joyce Jones, Barbara S Taylor, Hong-Van Tieu, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured exciting preclinical data on investigational antiretroviral agents with good in vitro efficacy and long half-lives. Investigational medications, including bictegravir, demonstrated excellent efficacy and tolerability, as did dual-agent therapy with dolutegravir paired with rilpivirine or with lamivudine. Dolutegravir monotherapy proved inadvisable due to virologic failure and resistance. The gap between high- and low-income settings along the HIV care continuum is narrowing, with Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia approaching the 90-90-90 targets established by the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), whereas communities in the Southern United States are falling behind...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595364/antiretroviral-unbound-concentration-during-pregnancy-piece-of-interest-in-the-puzzle
#7
D Metsu, P L Toutain, E Chatelut, P Delobel, P Gandia
Atazanavir and darunavir total concentrations (drug bound to plasma proteins plus unbound drug) progressively decrease during pregnancy. This pharmacokinetic variation leads physicians to recommend increasing doses. Conversely, the unbound concentration (Cu), i.e. the pharmacologically active form of the drug, remains unchanged. The explanation of this desynchronization lies in the fact that the clearance of the unbound form, corresponding to the intrinsic metabolic capacity of the hepatocytes, is the only factor driving Cu, and is constant during pregnancy...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595298/lowered-rilpivirine-exposure-during-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-hiv-1-positive-women
#8
Stein Schalkwijk, Angela Colbers, Deborah Konopnicki, Andrea Gingelmaier, John Lambert, Marchina van der Ende, José Moltó, David Burger
Background: The use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy is important for control of maternal HIV disease and the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. Physiological changes during pregnancy can reduce antiretroviral exposure. We studied the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine 25 mg once daily (QD) in HIV-1-positive women during late pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a non-randomized, open-label, multi-centre, phase-IV study. HIV-positive pregnant women receiving rilpivirine 25 mg QD were included...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591025/neurocognitive-development-in-hiv-positive-children-is-correlated-with-plasma-viral-loads-in-early-childhood
#9
Valentin Weber, Daniel Radeloff, Bianca Reimers, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Peter Bader, Dirk Schwabe, Christoph Königs
Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590335/technological-methods-to-measure-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-and-preexposure-prophylaxis
#10
Lindsey E Garrison, Jessica E Haberer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The WHO's Consolidated Guidelines (2016) call for research on improved methods to proactively monitor adherence and identify those individuals who have the greatest needs for adherence support. This review aims to elucidate the latest technologies available to measure adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis against HIV infection and present their utility in various settings and populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the last few years, advances have been made in the features of existing technology to measure adherence (real-time electronic adherence measurements), additional approaches have been developed (digital medicine systems) and improved (short message service surveys), and point of care testing for pharmacokinetic measures are under development...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581645/effects-of-a-nutritional-protein-rich-drink-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-and-tenofovir-compared-with-a-standard-meal-in-healthy-japanese-male-subjects
#11
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Yamada, Ippei Ikushima, Takanori Nemoto, Tomohiro Ishikawa, Noriko Ninomiya, Shin Irie
This study investigated the effects of ingested meal types on the pharmacokinetics of elvitegravir (EVG), cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), and tenofovir (TFV) following a single administration of the single-tablet regimen (STR) of EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF (150/150/200/10 mg) in Japanese HIV-negative healthy subjects (n = 12). In this open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, the bioequivalence of the EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF STR following ingestion of a nutritional protein-rich drink with a reference treatment of taking a standard breakfast was evaluated...
June 5, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576126/effective-treatment-of-sivcpz-induced-immunodeficiency-in-a-captive-western-chimpanzee
#12
Hannah J Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N Denny, Paul M Sharp, George M Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P Acosta, Michael S Saag, Katharine J Bar, Beatrice H Hahn
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Surprisingly, however, similar findings have not been reported for chimpanzees experimentally infected with SIVcpz in captivity, raising questions about the intrinsic pathogenicity of this lentivirus. FINDINGS: Here, we report progressive immunodeficiency and clinical disease in a captive western chimpanzee (P...
June 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570369/drug-interactions-and-the-role-of-pharmacokinetic-trials-in-guiding-choices-in-first-line-hiv-therapy-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Kay Seden, Marta Boffito, Saye Khoo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face specific challenges in the treatment of people living with HIV. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving antiretrovirals (ARVs) are prevalent in all settings and have considerable potential to cause clinical harm to patients via toxicity or reduced efficacy of treatment. Differing comorbidities, endemic infections and traditional medicines may complicate ARV therapy (ART) in LMICs, which usually takes a public health approach in these settings, with fewer alternative regimens available...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570367/antiretroviral-dose-optimization-the-future-of-efavirenz-400%C3%A2-mg-dosing
#14
Marta Boffito, Mohammed Lamorde, Melynda Watkins, Anton Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy costs in low-income and middle-income countries are major concerns, and lower doses of first-line treatment components, when possible, would save millions of dollars, which could be used to treat more people living with HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: The Encore-1 study, followed by a detailed pharmacokinetic analysis of efavirenz 400 versus 600 mg once daily, produced enough information for the most recent ARV treatment WHO guidelines to include efavirenz 400 mg among agents used for first-line treatment...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569994/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-for-predicting-the-effect-of-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-factors-on-darunavir-or-lopinavir-exposure-coadministered-with-ritonavir
#15
Christian Wagner, Ping Zhao, Vikram Arya, Charu Mullick, Kimberly Struble, Stanley Au
Management of comorbidities and medications is complex in HIV-1-infected patients. The overall objective of this project was to develop separate physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) substrate models for the protease inhibitors darunavir and lopinavir. These protease inhibitors are used in the treatment of HIV infection. Both darunavir and lopinavir are coadministered with another medication that inhibits cytochrome (CYP) 3A. The current project focused on PBPK modeling for darunavir and lopinavir coadministered with ritonavir...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559276/population-pharmacokinetic-model-linking-plasma-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmcs-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-its-metabolite-8-hydroxy-efavirenz-in-hiv-patients
#16
Abiy Habtewold, Eleni Aklillu, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Leif Bertilsson, Jürgen Burhenne, Joel S Owen
Objectives: To characterize the population PK of EFV and 8-hydroxy-efavirenz (8OHEFV) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and explore covariates affecting the PK parameters.Methods: Fifty-one patients had steady-state 0-24h plasma with corresponding PBMC concentrations of EFV and 8OHEFV, while 261 patients had 1 or 2 sparse concentrations at 16±1h post-dose at weeks 4 and/or 16. Pharmacogenetic markers CYP2B6*6, CYP3A5 (*3 &*6);, UGT2B7*2, ABCB1 (3435C<T, 3842A<G), OATP1B1 (*1B & *5), presence of rifampicin-based anti-TB regimen, baseline body weight and organ function values; and demographic factors were explored as covariates...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556627/a-mathematical-model-to-predict-hiv-virological-failure-and-elucidate-the-role-of-lymph-node-drug-penetration
#17
S Sanche, N Sheehan, T Mesplède, M A Wainberg, J Li, F Nekka
Preventing virological failure following HIV treatment remains a difficult task that is further complicated by the emergence of drug resistance. We have developed a mathematical model able to explain and predict HIV virological outcomes for various compounds and patients' drug intake patterns. Compared to current approaches, this model considers, altogether, drug penetration into lymph nodes, a refined adherence representation accounting for the propensity for long drug holidays, population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability, drug interaction, and crossresistance...
May 27, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556353/decreased-absorption-of-dolutegravir-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-but-not-emtricitabine-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-following-oral-and-jejunostomy-tube-administration
#18
Kristina M Brooks, Katy L Garrett, Safia S Kuriakose, Jomy M George, Gayle Balba, Bria Bailey, Megan Anderson, H Clifford Lane, Frank Maldarelli, Alice K Pau
The use of enteral feeding tubes to administer antiretroviral medication administration is necessary in certain patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, adequacy of drug exposures after these administration routes are largely unknown, making dosing recommendations and the attainment of viral suppression challenging in this patient population. This report describes a patient with advanced HIV infection and a complicated medical history, including long-term intractable nausea/vomiting necessitating antiretroviral medication administration via a Roux-en-Y jejunostomy (J)-tube...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550377/acceptability-of-and-adherence-to-an-antiretroviral-based-vaginal-microbicide-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#19
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Lisa M Noguchi, James Y Dai, Jason Pan, Joseph Biggio, Craig Hendrix, Karen Isaacs, D Heather Watts, Jill L Schwartz, Jeanna Piper, Richard Beigi
The MTN-008 trial was the first multi-dose study conducted to evaluate the safety of a microbicide gel (2:1 randomized to tenofovir 1% or hydroxycellulose (HEC) placebo gel) during pregnancy. The study aim was to evaluate safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the study products. Procedures included daily gel administration, with Day 0 and Day 6 in clinic, and Days 1-5 at home. Because pregnancy may pose unique challenges to consistent gel use and acceptability, evaluation of adherence and acceptability was a secondary objective of the trial...
May 26, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550375/exploring-inductive-linearization-for-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-systems-of-nonlinear-ordinary-differential-equations
#20
Chihiro Hasegawa, Stephen B Duffull
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems are often expressed with nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). While there are numerous methods to solve such ODEs these methods generally rely on time-stepping solutions (e.g. Runge-Kutta) which need to be matched to the characteristics of the problem at hand. The primary aim of this study was to explore the performance of an inductive approximation which iteratively converts nonlinear ODEs to linear time-varying systems which can then be solved algebraically or numerically...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
keyword
keyword
48527
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"